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performance, I shall take the following notice of such as
, have appeared to me in reading it.
I. · The birds subsist without any estate; and the beasts are fed by the day. Perhaps here is a reference to Matt. vi. 26, and Luke xii. 24, if not also to the petition in the Lord's prayer for daily bread.'
II. How w can he be thought poor, who is rich toward God.' Compare Luke xii. 21. III. Cæcilius says,
• The Romans erect altars to unknown Gods. Though these are the words of the heathen disputant, it may be thought probable that Minucius, the composer of the Dialogue, refers to Acts xvii. 23; “ I found an altar with this inscription, To the unknown God.”
IV. Octavius y speaks of the intimate presence of God with us, or of our • living as it were with him,' in terms so resembling those of Acts xvii. 27, 28, that some may think he refers to them.
V. · Seeds ? do not spring till after they have putrified.' This resembles 1 Cor. xv. 36, 66 That which thou sowest is not quickened except it die.”
vi. • Therefore," says a Octavius, . as gold is tried by the fire, so are we [christians] by afflictions. See 1 Cor. iii. 13, and 1 Pet. i. 7. But this is too common a comparison to prove a reference to any particular writing.
VII. • Fortitudeb is improved by misfortunes;' or, literally, is strengthened by infirmities.' See 2 Cor. xii. 10.
VIII. • Shallo I bring offerings and sacrifices to God, of things which he has set forth for my use, and so fling him back again his gift? This will be ungrateful. Which has
' a resemblance with what is said, 1 Tim. iv. 3,
-to abstain from meats, which God has created to be received with thanksgiving-for every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanks giving." IX. Nod man can be so poor as he was born. See 1
Aves sine patrimonio vivunt, et in diem pecua pascuntur. Cap. 36. p. 176. w Et tamen quis potest pauper esse- -qui Deo dives est ?' Ibid. * Dum aras exstruunt etiam ignotis numinibus, et manibus. Cap. 6. p. 41.
y Unde enim Deus longe est, cum omnia coelestia, terrenaque, et quæ extra istam orbis provinciam sunt, Deo cognita, plena sint? Ubique non tantum nobis proximus, sed infusus est. Non tantum sub illo agimus, sed cum illo, ut prope dixerim, vivimus. Cap. 32. p. 162, 163. 2 Semina non nisi corrupta revirescunt. Cap. 34. p. 171.
Itaque ut aurum ignibus, sic nos discriminibus arguimur. Cap. 36. p. 177. b Fortitudo enim infirmitatibus roboratur. Ibid.
c Hostias et victimas Domino offeram, quas in usum mei protulit, ut rejiciam ei suum munus? Ingratum est. Cap. 32. p. 160. * Nemo tam pauper esse potest, quam natus est. "Cap. 36. p. 176.
Tim. vi. 7. But the same thing has been said by heathen authors.
X. - What soldiere is not more bold and courageous in the eye of his general ?, Nor is any man rewarded till he has been tried. The soldier of God is not deserted in pain, nor does he perish when he dies. The reader, if he thinks fit, may consider whether here is an allusion to St. Paul's comparisons, 2 Tim. ii. 3—6, 8.
. I do not judge it worth the while to allege any more passages
of this sort from Minucius.
APOLLONIUS flourished, according to Cave,a about the year of our Lord 192. But Eusebius b informs us, that Apollonius himself says, that, when he wrote, it was forty years since Montanus had begun to recommend his false prophecy: and St. Jeromo has observed the same thing. Whence Tillemont d concludes, that Apollonius wrote about the year 211, at the conclusion of the reign of Severus, or in the first year of Caracalla. Valesiuse likewise is of inuch the same opinion.
Eusebius, who has preserved several fragments of the fore-mentioned treatise, calls Apollonius an ecclesiastical writer, beginning his account of it in this manner.
• Apol• lonius ' likewise, an ecclesiastical writer, composed a con• futation of the Cataphrygian beresy, as it is called, which
e Quis non miles sub imperatoris oculis audacius periculum provocet ? Nemo enim præmium percipit ante experimentum : et imperator tamen quod non habet, non dat; non potest propagare vitam, potest honestare militiam, At enim Dei miles nec in dolore deseritur, nec morte finitur. Cap. 37.
a Hist. Lit. P. i. p. 53. in Apollonio. b Eus. H. E. 1. v. cap. 18. p. 186. B.
c Dicit in eodem libro quadragesimum esse annum usque ad tempus quo ipse scribebat librum, ex quo hæresis Cataphrygarum habuerit exordium. De Vir. Ill. cap. 40. d Mem. Ecc. T. ii. P. iii. Les Montanistes, art. v. p. 44. et art. xi. p.
68. e Vid. Not. ad Eus. L. v. c. 18. p. 100.
Της δε κατα Φρυγας καλεμενης αιρεσεως και Απολλωνιος εκκλησιασικος συγγραφευς, ακμαζεσης εισετι τοτε κατα την Φρυγιαν ελεγχον ενσησαμενος, ιδιον κατ' αυτων πεποιηται συγγραμμα. L. V. c. 18. p. 884. Β.
• at that time prevailed in Phrygia, writing a book of purpose upon that occasion.'
St. Jerom calls Apollonius as most eloquent 'man ;' and says, “ he wrote a long and excellent work against • Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla; and that h the seventh • book of Tertullian's treatise of Ecstasy was particularly • designed as a confutation of this piece of Apollonius which observation St. Jerom i bas mentioned more than once. He says, likewise, that Apollonius flourished in the reigns of the emperors Commodus and Severus.
Eusebius speaks of Apollonius under no other character than that of an ecclesiastical writer; nor has St. Jerom mentioned any office be had in the church: for which reason, ask Tillemont says, it is not easy to rely upon Predestinatus, a later writer, and otherwise full of inistakes, who calls him bishop of Ephesus. He is plainly different from Apollonius of whom we spoke formerly, whom St. Jeromm calls a Romau senator, who also suffered under Commodus; whereas this person flourished partly in the reign of Severus, and probably reached to that of Caracalla.
I proceed, without inaking any more observations, to transcribe what relates to our purpose in the fragments of this work of Apollonius, written against the Montanists, which are preserved in Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History.
I. After some other passages of this author, Eusebius adds: “ Then" he goes on saying, Is it not apparent, that • all the scripture forbids a prophet to take gifts and
money? By scripture, meaning undoubtedly the books of the Old and the New Testament; in which last, as well as in the former, are divers things to which he may be supposed to refer, particularly to Acts viii. 18–20. However, we shall presently see a text or two of the New Testament to this purpose.
II. Afterwards, speaking of Themison, a noted Montanist, he says: "When he ought to have been humbled,
8 Apollonius, vir disertissimus, scripsit adversus Montanum, Priscam, et Maximillam insigne et longum volumen. De Vir. Ill. cap. 40.
h Tertullianus sex voluminibus adversus ecclesiam editis, quæ scripsit περι Εκτασεως, septimum proprie adversus Apollonium elaboravit, in quo omnia quæ arguit conatur defendere. Floruit autem sub Commodo Severoque principibus. Ibid.
De Vir. Ill. cap. 24. Melito ; et cap. 30. Tertullianus. k Tillemont, as before, p. 68.
1 P. 323, 324. m De Vir. Ill. cap. 42.
η Ειτ' επιφερει λεγων Δοκει σοι πασα γραφη κωλυειν προφητην λαμβανειν δωρα και χρηματα; Αp Eus. ib. p. 184. D.
Δεον επι τοτω ταπεινοφρονειν, ως μαρτυς καυχωμενος, ετολμησε μιμεμενος
. [for the bad conduct which Apollonius there charges him • with in time of persecution,] he exalted himself as if he • had been a martyr; and had the assurance, as if he had • been an apostle, to write a catholic epistle for the instruc• tion of men more faithful than bimself. Yea, and in the • abundance of his zeal for his vain sentiments, he proceeds so far as to speak disrespectfully of Christ, and the apostles, and the holy church.'
III. Again, reproving these inen: • When P the Lord • hath said, “ Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor two • coats,” (Matt. x. 9, 10.] these, on the contrary, have hei
nously offended in the possession of things forbidden.' And, soon after: • For we ought to examine the fruits of ' a prophet; " for a tree is known by its fruit.”' See Matt. vii. 1520, and ch. xii. 33.
IV. · Moreover, says' Eusebius, he relates, as from 'tradition, that our Saviour commanded his apostles not to depart from Jerusalem for the space of twelve years. He • also makes use of testiinonies out of the Revelation of John; . and he relates, that by the divine power, the same John • raised up to life a dead man at Ephesus.'
V. Here is then a reference or two to the gospel of St. Matthew. We are assured by Eusebius, that Apollonius quoted the book of the Revelation. It is very probable, from the connection of things in this account, and from Eusebius's saying nothing to the contrary, that Apollonius ascribed the Revelation to John the apostle. It appears farther, that the apostles of Christ, and their writings, were in the highest esteem; and that the books called scripture, in a strict and peculiar sense, by christians, were well known among them, and were considered as the rule of their faith and practice.
τον απoσoλoν, καθολικην τινα συνταξαμενος επιςολην κατηχειν μεν τες αμεινον αυτ8 πεπιςευκοτας συναγωνιζεσθαι δε τοις της κενοφωνιας λογους βλασφημησαι δε εις τον Κυριον, και της αποσολος, και την άγιαν εκκλησιαν. Ibid. p. 185. A.
Ρ Ειρηκοτος γαρ τα Κυριε, μη κτησησθε χρυσον μητε αργυρον μητε δυο χιτωνας, ούτοι παν τουναντιον πεπλημμεληκασι περι τας τετων των απηγορευμενων κτησεις. p. 185. Β.
9 Δει γαρ τας καρπες δοκιμαζεσθαι τα προφητε" απο γαρ το καρπε το δενδρον γινωσκεται. Ιbid. C.
Γ Ετι δε ως εκ παραδοσεως τον Σωτηρα φησι προςεταχεναι τοις αυτ8 αποστολοις, επι δωδεκα ετεσι μη χωρισθήναι της Ιερεσαλήμ. Κεχρηται δε και μαρτυριας απο Ιωανν8 Αποκαλυψεως και νεκρον δε δυναμει θεια προς αυτ8 Ιωαννε εν τη Εφεση εγηγερθαι ισορει. p. 186. C.
CAIUS, AND OTHERS.
1. Caius. II. An Anonymous Author against the Heresy
of Artemon. III. A Treatise of the Nature of the Universe.
I. CAIUS Aourished, according to a Cave, about the year 210. We are informed by Photius, " That it was commonly
said, that Caius was a presbyter of the church of Rome • in the time of Victor and Zephyrine, and that he was • ordained bishop of the nations ; by which some learned men understand, that he was ordained to preach the gospel in infidel countries, without having any particular people or diocese assigned him. Fabricius, by a small alteration of the word in Photius, would read 'Athens,' instead of ' nations;' and supposes, that having been first a presbyter in the church of Rome, he was afterwards made bishop of Athens.
Photius says, likewise, that he had seen a note of some person, whom he does not name, in a book Of the Nature of the Universe, ascribed by some to Josephus: “Thate it
was written by Caius, a presbyter, who dwelt at Rome, • who is also said to be the author of the Labyrinth.'
We are well assured from Eusebiusf and & St. Jerom, that Caius lived in the time of Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome, about whose time h learned men are not entirely agreed; and of Antoninus Caracalla, who reigned from 211 to 217.
a Hist. Lit. in Caio.
Τατον τον Γαϊον πρεσβυτερον φασι γεγενησθαι της κατα Ρωμην εκκλησιας επι Ουϊκτορος και Ζεφυρινο των αρχιερεων. χειροτονοθηναι δε αυτον και EOVWV ETTLOKOTOV. Phot. Cod. 48. col. 36, 37. Rhotom. 1653.
Cave, ut supra. Tillemont, Mem. Ecc. T. iii. P. i. p. 295. Caius. d Presbyter Romanus, atque inde episcopus Atheniensis ; nam apud Photium pro edvwv &TTLOKOTOV legendum videtur Aonvwv. Fabric. Bibl. Gr. l. v. cap. i. T. v. p. 267.
Εύρον δε εν παραγραφεις ότι ουκ εςιν ο λογος Ιωσηπε, αλλα Γαιο, τινος πρεσβυτερε εν Ρωμη διατριβοντος, ον φασι συνταξαι και τον Λαβυρινθον. Phot. ibid.
f. Eus. H. E. 1. ii. cap. 25. p. 67. D. et l. vi. cap. 20. 8 De Vir. Ill. cap. 59.
h Mr. Dodwell thought that Zephyrinus, successor of Victor, sat in the see of Rome from the year 195 to 214. Vid. Diss. singular. de Rom. Pontiff. Prim. Successione, c. xv. sect. 2. 7. &c. Tillemont says, Zephyrinus governed the church of Rome