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deep gulph [or chaos] fixed, so that no righteous man, if he were in compassion desirous so to do, could get thither;

; nor is there any unrighteous man that can pass, though he should attempt it. The author says, ' that all men, just k and unjust, shall be brought before God the Word : for to him bas the Father given all judgment. Here is at least a reference to John v. 22. He has also the words' of 1 Cor. ii. 6, and probably takes them thence, though they are also in Isa. Ixiv. 4. He seems to allude to several things in the Revelation, in a passage too long to be inserted here; where he says, " That in the kingdom of heaven, to which the righteous shall be brought, there is no night nor day measured by time,-nor sun,—nor moon,'—and what follows: Compare Rev. xxi. 23; xxii. 5. This does not suit Caius, who is supposed to have rejected the Revelation.

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CHAP. XXXIII.

ASTERIUS URBANUS.

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EUSEBIUS has made large extracts out of a treatise in three books against the Montanists, composed a by one of those many eminent

persons whom Divine Providence raised up at that time to defend the truth. But our historian has here expressed himself so obscurely, that it has been much b doubted who is the author of this work; whether Asterius Urbanus, or Apollinaris of Hierapolis, or Apollonius, or Rhodon, or some other

person

whose name is unknown. However, Cave thinks it probable, from some words of Eusebius, among the citations of this work, that the author is Asterius Urbanus. Valesius d too is of this

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σαντα προσδεξασθαι, μητε αδικον τολμησαντα διελθειν. Ιbid. γαρ, δικαιοι και αδικοι, ενωπιον το θεο λογο αχθησονται. Τετω γαρ ο Πατήρ την κρισιν πασαν δεδωκε. p. 222.

| Ibid. η Ουδε νυξ εδε ήμερα χρονο μετρεμενη, εχ ήλιος

-8 olnun.-Ibid. Αλλες τε συν αυτώ [Απολλιναριω] πλειος των τηνικαδε λογιων ανδρων, ή της αληθειας υπερμαχος ανιση δυναμις. Η. Ε. 1. ν. cap. 16. in.

b Vid. Cav. H. L. in Asterio Urbano, p. 51. Vales. ad Eus. l. v. cap. 16. Tillemont, Mem. Ecc. T. ii. P. iii. Les Montanistes, not. 7.

© Και μη λεγετω εν τω αυτω λογω τω κατα Ασεριον Ουρβανον το δια Μαξιμιλλης πνευμα, κ. λ. Εus. ib. p. 182. Α.

Ev τω αυτω λογω κατα Ασεριον Ουρβανον.] Ηaec verba scholion esse mihi videntur, quod vetus quidam scholiastes, seu Eusebius ipse, ad marginem

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opinion; though it seems to be somewhat doubtful whether those words are not interpolated.

Asterius Urbanus is placed by Cave at the year 188. Tillemont, who

agrees

with him as to the author of the treatise, concludes that it was written about the year of Christ 232, the eleventh of the emperor Alexander; because Maximilla is here said to have been dead between thirteen and fourteen years, whom the same learned man computes 6 to have died in 218 or 219. It is doubtful whether this author was a bishop or a presbyter; and absolutely unknown of what place. I ought to observe, that h Dodwell, who once took this writer to be Asterius Urbanus, afterwards altered his mind, not thinking the argument of Cave before mentioned sufficient to determine the point; and supposing that Eusebius's words are capable of another sense, Fabriciusi

agrees with Dodwell, and thinks this treatise was written some time after 212.

Nevertheless I am not unwilling to agree with those who suppose Asterius Urbanus to be the author of this treatise ; and Tillemont's argument for the time of it appears to me probable. According to that computation, our extracts out of this work should be deferred somewhat longer. But because the subject matter of it has an affinity with that of some foregoing chapters, as concerning the Montanists; and because we would not be too confident in our opinion about the author or time of this performance, we choose to speak of it in this place.

It appears from the preface k to this work, preserved in Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, that the author upon some occasion was at Ancyræ in Galatia : and finding the church there disturbed with the new prophecy, as it was called, of Montanus, he disputed publicly upon that subject for several days; so as to comfort and establish the church, and confute the enemies of the truth. The presbyters of that place entreated him to draw up in writing the substance of what he had said upon that occasion ; which he declined to do for some time, but at length comlibri sui annotaverat ad ea verba quæ paulo ante præcesserunt, avdıç de ev TU avro prol doyas. Porro ex his verbis elicitur, Asterium Urbanum auctorem esse horum trium librorum adversus Cataphrygas, non autem Apollinarem, ut credidit Rufinus et Christophorsonus. Vales. in notis, p. 98.

e See Tillemont, as before, Montanistes, art. 12. p. 70.

* Πλειω γαρ η τρισκαιδεκα ετη εις ταυτην την ημεραν, εξ ου τετελευτηκεν η yuvn. Ap. Euseb. ib. c. 16. p. 182. C. Vid. et cap. 17. p. 184. A.

8 Tillemont, Les Montanistes, art. v. p. 45. h Dodw. Diss. Iren. iv. sect. 38.

| Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 190. Ap. Eus. ibid. cap. 16. p. 179. C. D. .

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plied, at the request of Abercius Marcellus, to whom the work is inscribed.

I. The author then, in his preface, says to Abercius Marcellus: I have hitherto deferred to perform your request, fearing lest I should seem to some to add to the doctrine of the new covenant of the gospel, or to give new ordinances beside those there prescribed. To which it is as impossible that any thing should be added, as it is that any thing should be taken away from it, by one who has determined to govern himself according to the same gospel.'

Possibly it may be questioned by some, whether the author here expressly speaks of the writings of the New Testament, or only of the christian doctrine; for which reason I have aimed at a literal translation of this passage: though I am of opinion, that he intends the scriptures of the New Testament; the rather, because he was afraid of seeming, by writing,' to add any thing to the doctrine of the gospel. If the author be understood to speak of the scriptures of the New Testament, which appears most probable, this passage affords evidence of the high respect which this catholic christian had for them.

For the farther satisfaction of some of my readers, I shall put down a part of this passage, as it has been translated by m Tillemont in his Ecclesiastical Memoirs. I have hitherto deferred to comply with your request,- - because • I was apprehensive that some might accuse me of a de* sign to add something to the divine scriptures, and to the • rules which are prescribed to us by the word of the New • Testament and of the gospel. Valesius translates thus : • Lest I should seem to some, by writing, to add any thing * to the evangelical doctrine of the New Testament, and to • make farther determinations of

my

own.' II. Afterwards, in his accounts of the rise of the pretended prophecies of Montanus, he says, that at Ardaba, a village in Mysia near Phrygia, when Montanus uttered his prophecies, some discouraged him, being mindful of the premonition and caution of the Lord to beware of false prophets when they appeared. But others,' he says, ' forgetting the premonition given by the Lord, encouraged that

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1 Δεδιως δε και εξευλαβομενος, μη πη δοξω τισιν επισυγγραφειν η επιδιατασσεσθαι τω της το ευαγγελια καινης διαθηκης λογω η μητε προσθειναι μητ' αφελειν δυνατον, το κατα το ευαγγελιoν αυτο πολιτευεσθαι προηρημενη. Eus. ibid. p. 179. C.

m As before, art. xii. p. 70. Επετιμων, και λαλειν εκωλυον" μεμνημενοι της το Κυριε διασολης τε και απειλης, προς το φυλαττεσθαι την των ψευδοπροφητων εγρηγοροτως παράσιαν, k. d. Eus. cap. 16. p. 180. B. C.

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infatuating, deceitful, and seducing spirit.' It is likely the author refers to Matt. xxiv. 11, “ And many false prophets

. “ shall arise, and shall deceive many." See also chap. vii. 15.

III. Eusebius informs us, that in the second • book of his treatise the author writes to this purpose

. Whereas then they call us also murderers of the prophets, because we did not receive their prating prophets, (for these, they say, are those which the Lord promised to send to the people, let them tell us, in the name of God, who of their people, since the time that Montanus and his women began to prate, have been persecuted by the Jews, or put to death by the wicked Gentiles ? Not one: nor have any of them been apprehended and crucified for the name of Jesus; nor have

any of their women been whipped in the Jewish synagogues, nor stoned ; no, no where, not one.' Here is a plain reference to Matt. xxiii. 34.

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• But P is said that Montanus and Maximilla had quite another kind of death. For it is reported that, at the same instigation of that mad spirit, they hanged themselves; though not both together, or at the same time. -And so they ended their days in the same manner that the traitor Judas did. Here is undoubt. edly a confirmation of the fact of Judas's making away with himself: and probably a reference to the history of it in Matt. xxvii. 5, Acts i. 18. However, afterwards this good man says modestly and charitably, that though this is reported of Montanus and the fore-mentioned woman,' yet it is not certain, nor does he know it to be true. • Perhaps they died in that manner, perhaps in some other.' Nevertheless this shows, that even in those days there were some orthodox christians who gave out stories without ground against such as were reputed heretics. The author likewise mentions one Theodotus, another zealous Montanist, as he says, of whom there was a report, that giving himself up entirely to that spirit of error, he was by it taken up into the air, and perished miserably. But this writer does not own the truth of this, any more than of the other stories.

V. Afterwards Eusebius says, that this author reckons up all the prophets of the New covenant or Testament, showing that they did not prophecy in ecstasy: • They

• Ibid. p. 181. B. C.

Ρ Αλλω δε θανατο τελευτησαι λεγονται Μοντανος τε και Μαξιμιλλα. Τατος γαρ υπο πνευματος βλαψιφρονος εκατερες υποκινησαντος λογος αναρτησαι εαυτος.. -και ούτω τελευτησαι και τον βιον κατατρεψαι Ιεδα προδοτε δικην. p. 181. C.

4 Τετον δε τον τροπον, 8 τε τινα των κατα την παλαιαν, 8τε των κατα την

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will not be able to show,' says he, neither under the old nor the new covenant, [or dispensation,] any inspired prophet speaking after this manner; neither Agabus, nor Judas, nor Silas, nor the daughters of Philip.' Here are references to Acts xi. 27, 28, and xxi. 11, where Agabus is called a prophet; and his prophecies are related; and to ch. xv. 32, where Judas and Silas are called prophets; and to ch. xxi. 9, 10, where Philip is said to have four daughters which did prophecy.' The author does not confine bimself here to prophets mentioned in the scriptures of the New Testament; he instances likewise in Quadratus, and Ammias of Philadelphia : and says he could mention others, whose example gave no encouragement to the way of prophesying used by the Montanists.

VI. Once more he argues against Montanists, that they had no succession of prophets among them; and that, though Maximilla had been dead above thirteen years, no other had appeared : • But yet,' says he,' . the apostle ex

• pected [or, gives us ground to expect] that the gift of prophecy should continue in every church till the last advent' of the Lord.'. I cannot say what particular text he here refers to: by the apostle I suppose him to mean Paul; and possibly he refers to 1 Cor. xii. 8, “ Charity never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail.” Perhaps some concluded hence, that though prophecies should fail in the end, yet they were to continue in the church so long as the world lasts.

So far of this treatise against the Montanists, whether written by Asterius Urbanus, or by some other.

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CHAP. XXXIV.

ST. ALEXANDER, BISHOP OF JERUSALEM.

ALEXANDER, whom we have already mentioned more

a than once, at first bishop of some place in Cappadocia, afterwards of Jerusalem, is placed by Cave as flourishing in καινης [διαθηκης] πνευματοφορηθεντα προφητην δειξαι δυνησονται ουτε Αγαβον, ουτε Ιεδαν, ουτε Σιλαν, ουτε τας Φιλιππε θυγατερας. Ιb. c. 17. p. 183. C.

γαρ ειναι το προφητικον χαρισμα εν παση τη εκκλησια μεχρι της τελειας παρασιας και αποσολος αξιοι. p. 183. D.

P. 223, 326.

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