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the year of Christ 212, because he was then chosen bishop of Jerusalem, as b we learn from Eusebius's Chronicle.

I choose to give, as often as may be done conveniently, the history of my authors in the very words of other ancient writers, who were their contemporaries, or lived near their time. Eusebius's account of Alexander lying scattered in several chapters of his Ecclesiastical History, it might be tedious to put down at length all his passages relating to this person. I shall therefore begin with transcribing St. Jerom's account in his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers; which when I have done, I shall add some things out of Eusebius and others, confirming what St. Jerom says, or supplying his defects.

* Alexander,' says Jerom, ' bishop of Cappadocia, going to Jerusalem to visit the sacred places, when Narcissus, . then of a great age, governed the church of that city, it 6 was revealed both to Narcissus, and to many of his clergy, • that the next day in the morning would come into that • church a bishop, who should be a helper of the sacerdotal • chair. This coming to pass as it had been foretold, in an • assembly of all the bishops of Palestine, Narcissus him• self consenting, and even promoting it above any one else, ' Alexander took upon him the government of the church

of Jerusalem. This person, at the conclusion of a letter • to the Antinoites, [the people of Antinopolis in Egypt,"] speaks of the peace of the church in this manner : cissus salutes you, who before me filled the episcopal seat of this place, and now governs it together with me by his prayers, being an hundred and sixteen years old, and with me earnestly exhorts you to think the same things." He wrote another letter to the Antiochians, by Clement, presbyter of Alexandria, of whom we spoke before. He also wrote to Origen and for Origen against Demetrius, plead. ing that, in respect to the testimony given him by Deme

trius himself, he had ordained him presbyter. There are • likewise extant others of his to divers persons. In the • seventh persecution, under Decius, at which time Babylas * suffered at Antioch, he was apprehended and carried to • Cæsarea, and being put in prison was crowned with ! martyrdom for his confession of the name of Christ.'

Eusebius, in d his Ecclesiastical History, confirms what

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p. 172.

b Alexander, tricesimus quintus Terosolymarum episcopus, ordinatur adhuc vivente Narcisso, et cum eo pariter ecclesiam regit. Eus. Ch c De Vir. Ill. cap. 62.

EK της των Καππαδοκων γης, ενθα το πρωτον της επισκοπης ηξιωτο, την πορειαν επι τα Ιεροσόλυμα ευχης και των τοπων ισοριας ένεκεν πεποιημενον. Εus. Η. Ε. 1. vi. cap. 11. p. 222. Α.

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Jerom says of Alexander's having been first bishop in Cappadocia, and his coming to Jerusalem • for the sake of

prayer, and to visit the [sacred] places,' or out of devotion: and that there were several revelations from God to encourage the choosing bim bishop in that city, and, as it seems, one to Alexander himself; and e likewise

a voice heard distinctly by some eminent for piety [or - understanding]. The brethren therefore of that church, • would by no means consent to bis return home, but de"tained him with them.' Beside these revelations and visions, Eusebius mentions another reason of this choice ; which was, the fortitude with which Alexander had suffered in the late persecution under Severus. For in Jerom's Latin version of Eusebius's Chronicle, at the twelfth

emperor, of our Lord 204, it is said : Alex• ander is f in esteem for the confession of the name of the • Lord.' And in his Ecclesiastical History, having mentioned the death of Severus, and the accession of his son Antoninus, called Caracalla, in the year of Christ 211, he adds : • At& that time Alexander, one of those who had signalized themselves by their fortitude in the persecution, and by the favour of Divine Providence survived • the combats they had sustained in their confessions, • being famous for his confessions of the christian faith in “ the time of the persecution, was promoted to the fore' mentioned bishopric of Jerusalem ; Narcissus, his prede• cessor, being yet alive.'

Alexander was a great admirer of Origen. There was, as Eusebius says in his h Ecclesiastical History, a great • disturbance at Alexandria : so that Origen, not thinking it • safe to stay there, nor yet in any other part of Egypt, went • into Palestine, and took up his residence at Cæsarea, [about

, • the year of our Lord 216,] where he was desired by the • bishops of that country to discourse and expound the

scriptures publicly in the church, though he was not yet • ordained presbyter. This may be made evident from • what Alexander bishop of Jerusalem, and Theoctistus

bishop of Cæsarea, write by way of apology in their letter • to Demetrius. Afterwards, about the year 228, as Eusebius expresses it, “thei two most approved and eminent

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Φιλοφρονεςατα οι τηδε υπολαβοντες αδελφοι εκετ' οίκαδε αυτώ παλινοσειν επιτρεπεσι, καθ' ετεραν αποκαλυψιν και αυτοις νυκτωρ οφθεισαν, μιαν τε φωνην σαφεστατην τοις μαλισα αυτων σπεδαιοις χρησασαν. Ιbid.

Alexander ob confessionem dominici nominis insignis habetur. Euseb. Chr. p. 172.

8 H. E. 1. vi. c. 8. p. 210. A. h Ibid. c. 19. p. 222. A.

i Ibid. c. 8. p. 209. C.

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bishops of Palestine, I mean those of Cæsarea and Jeru• salem, judging Origen worthy of the highest dignity and

office, ordained bim presbyter by imposition of their • hands.' And so writes k Jerom after Eusebius. Photius 1 says, ' Origen was ordained by Theoctetus (or Theoctistus] • bishop of Cæsarea, with the approbation of Alexander . bishop of Jerusalem.'

Eusebius, having given an account of Alexander's promotion to the bishopric of Jerusalem, and of the letter to the Antinotes, as before in Jerom, proceeds: • Serapion • being dead at Antioch, [in the year 211,] Asclepiades ' succeeded him in the bishopric of that place, who also was famous for bis confessions in the late persecution. Of this ordination Alexander makes mention, in a letter to the Antiochians, in this manner: “ Alexander," the servant • and prisoner of Jesus Christ, sendeth greeting in the Lord

to the blessed church of the Antiochians. The Lord . made my bonds light and easy in my imprisonment, • when I heard that Asclepiades, so fit and worthy on account of the eminence of his faith, was by Divine

Providence intrusted with the care of your holy church • of the Antiochians." This letter he sent by Clement, as

appears from the conclusion of it, which is thus: “ This epistle, my lords and brethren, I have sent you by Clement, a blessed presbyter, a virtuous and approved man, whom you know already, and will know better: who, • whilst he was here, confirmed and increased the church of o the Lord.” ) The conclusion of this letter St. Jerom likewise has inserted in his book of Illustrious Men, in the chapter of Clement of Alexandria.

Asclepiades was ordained bishop of Antioch in the year 211, in the beginning of the reign of Caracalla: at which time, as appears by this letter, Alexander was in prison. If therefore he was put in prison so soon as the 12th of Severus, of our Lord 204, as is intimated in Eusebius's Chronicle, he must have continued there seven or eight years, or else have been imprisoned more than once in the reign of Severus. This is an observation of Tillemont. The church of the Lord, which Clement had confirmed . and increased,' is the church in Cappadocia, of which Alexander was then bishop.

Eusebius has left us a fragment of Alexander's letter to

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k De Vir. Ill. cap. 54.

Εχων συνευδοκοντα και τον 'Iepooolvuwv Alešavopov. Cod. 118. col. 297. ver. 38, &c. m Euseb. ibid. p. 212. D. 213. A.

n Ibid. • Tillem. Mem. Ecc. T. iii. P. ii. p. 314. St. Alexandre. VOL. II.

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Origen, • Moreover,' says P he, Alexander, in a letter to Origen, makes mention both of Clement and Pantænus as his friends, in this manner: “ For this, as you know, was the will of God, that the friendship which was begun • between us, from our ancestors, should not only remain • inviolable, but also become more firm and fervent: for we • know those blessed fathers, which have gone before us, • with whom we shall shortly be; I mean the truly blessed · Pantænus my lord, and the holy Clement, who was my • lord, [or master,] and profitable to me: and if there be any others like them, by whom I came to the knowledge of you, my most excellent lord and brother.” St. Jerom says,

• there were extant other letters of Alex• ander written to divers persons. But Eusebius has taken no particular notice of any, beside those which I have now given an account of.

In another place of his Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius, speaking of the persecution under Decius, and the martyrdom of Fabian, bishop of Rome, and of others at that time, says: “ And 9 in Palestine Alexander, bishop of the • church at Jerusalem, is again brought before the go• vernor's tribunal at Cæsarea for Christ's sake; and bav

ing made a second glorious confession, is put into prison, * being now venerable for his old age and grey hairs.

Having died in prison, after a noble and illustrious con• fession before the governor's tribunal, he was succeeded ' in the bishopric of Jerusalem by Mazabenes.'

Epiphanius likewise' says, that Alexander suffered martyrdom at Cæsarea.

Dionysius of Alexandria, in a letter to Cornelius bishop of Rome, as we are informed by Eusebius, writes thus of the bishop of Jerusalem : 'As for blessed Alexander, he was cast into prison, and there made a blessed end.'

Thus we are fully assured of Alexander's martyrdom, and the manner of it: that he did not die by torments, or by the hand of the executioner ; but that he expired in prison, where he had been confined for the name of Christ. The letter of Dionysius affords help likewise for settling the time of his death. That letter was written, as Tillemontt says, in the reign of Gallus, in the year 252. It is reasonable therefore, as he farther argues, to place the death of Alexander in the year 251, at the end of the reign P Eus. ibid. I. vi. cap. 14. p. 216. C.

q Ibid. I. vi. cap. 39. p. 234. B. C.

r De Mens. et Pond. num. 18. 8 Ο μεν γαρ μακαριος Αλεξανδρος εν φρερα γενομενος μακαριως ανεπαυσατο. Eus. ibid. cap. 46. p. 248. A.

+ Tillemont, as before, p. 321. u Basn. 251. n. xiii.

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of Decius, and not at the beginning of it, in 249 or 250; for it is not likely that Dionysius should send Cornelius a piece of news that was two or three years old. Basnage u likewise, and Ruinart, think that Alexander died in 251, and at the latter end of that year: so that this bishop governed the church of Jerusalem for the space of 39 years.

We are farther informed, both by Eusebius and * St. Jerom, that Clement of Alexandria dedicated to this Alexander a book entitled The Ecclesiastical Canon,' or, Against those that judaized.'

There is yet one thing more to be taken notice of, which is omitted by Jerom: that Alexander erected a library at Jerusalem. Eusebius y speaks of it in this manner in his Ecclesiastical History: At that time flourished many

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• • learned and ecclesiastical men, whose epistles, which they • wrote to each other, are easy to be found; for they are ! preserved to our time in the library at Ælia, [Jerusalem,] • erected by Alexander bishop of the church in that city, • from which also we have collected materials for our pre

sent work :' which shows also, that this library had not been destroyed in any of the persecutions between Alex. ander's and Eusebius's time.

The meek and gentle spirit of Alexander is commended by Origen, at the beginning of a homily delivered at Jerusalem. • You? are not, therefore, to expect in us,' says he, what you have in your bishop Alexander : for we acknowledge that he excels us all in the gift of gentleness. • Nor do I only commend him for this quality; you have • all full experience of it, and admire him on that account.

I have mentioned these things at the beginning, because I know you are ever wont to hear the mild discourses of your most gentle father; whereas the fruit of our plantation has somewhat of roughness in its taste. • Nevertheless, by the help of your prayers, it may become • medicinal and salutary.'

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De Sancto Alexandro, sect. 12. Apud Acta Mart. Sincera et Selecta, p. 137. w Eus. ibid. cap. 13. p. 214. C.

* De Vir. Ill. cap. 38. 3 Ibid. cap. 20.

? Nolite ergo in nobis illud requirere, quod in papā Alexandro habetis ; fatemur enim quod omnes nos superat in gratiâ lenitatis. Cujus gratiæ non solus ego prædicator existo, sed vos omnes experti cognoscitis et probatis—Hæc idcirco diximus in prefatione, quia scio vos consuevisse lenissimi patris dulces semper audire sermones. Nostræ vero plantationis arbuscula habet aliquid austeritatis in gustu; quod tamen, orantibus vobis, fiet medicamentum salutare, &c. In libr. Reg. Hom. i. in. T. ii. 482. A. Bened.

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