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• thirty-two heresies, from Dositheus to Noetus and the • Noetians. Hippolytus says, that the same heresies had • been confuted by Irenæus, and that he intended his small • tract as an abridgment of what Irenæus had said. His • style,' says Photius, ' is clear, grave, and concise, without aiming however at the Attic purity and elegance. Never

theless be advances some things which are not right; . particularly he says, that the epistle to the Hebrews is not

the apostle Paul's.' Photius adds, that Hippolytus is said to have written many other pieces. This very much confirms the supposition, that Irenæus did not receive the epistle to the Hebrews as St. Paul's. d

In the other place, Photius gives an account of his Commentary upon Daniel, and the Discourse of Christ and Anticbrist; and calls Hippolytuse bishop and martyr. With regard to the style of the former of these, Photius says

• it is clear, and such as is suitable to a commentary, though it is far from the Attic purity.' The character which this great critic gives of our author, though he dislikes and censures some things in bim, is enough to make us regret the loss of so many, indeed almost all bis works.

The whole of what Photius says of this commentary upon Daniel is so masterly, and so fine a model of criticism, that I cannot forbear inserting it here; though for the main it has been transcribed already by Du Pin and Mr. Tillemont. * It is not,' Photius says, a continued explication • of the prophet; nevertheless he omits nothing material. • Many things are here expressed after the manner of the

ancients, not with the exactness of later ages. But there • is no reason to blame him on that account: for it would • be unjust to find fault with those who have laid the foundations of any science, that they have not brought it to perfection; we ought rather to think ourselves obliged to • them for their good endeavours, and leaving us such helps • for farther improvement. But that he determines the appearance of Antichrist (at which time he also fixes the end of this visible world) to the year 500 from Christ, . and the completion of 6000 years from the creation of the ' world; this is rather a mark of a warm fancy than of • discretion, since Christ himself would not satisfy the • disciples about such matters, though they desired him.. • This determination f therefore is to be imputed to human • ignorance, not to illumination from above.

d See before, ch. xvii. p. 177, 178.

Ανεγνωσθη Ιππολυτα επισκοπα και μαρτυρος ερμηνεια εις τον Δανιηλ, K. X. Cod. 102. p. 525.

1 Και η αποφασις

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It may not be improper to take some notice in this place of the extracts which Photius made out of Stephen Gobar's work, in which Hippolytus is mentioned several times. • Stephen then,' as Photius assures 8 us, observes what opinion Hippolytus and Epiphanius had of Nicolas, one

of the seven deacons, and that they strongly condemned • him; whilst Ignatius, Clement, Eusebius, and Theodoret, * though they condemned the heresy of the Nicolaitans, say • that Nicolas was not such an one.' Stephen informs us farther, h • that Hippolytus and Irenæus say, the epistle of • Paul to the Hebrews is not his. Finally, he i observes · what opinion the blessed Hippolytus had of the heresy of • the Montanists.'

We have now had a large testimony to the works of Hippolytus, and have seen him styled more than once bishop and martyr: but hitherto no discovery is made of the place either of his bishopric or martyrdom. However, there are writers of the fifth and following centuries, who mention the place of his bishopric; whether upon good ground or not, is not altogether certain. Gelasius, bishop of Rome in the latter end of the fifth century, calls Hippolytus k metropolitan of the Arabians, if that passage be his, and not interpolated. Anastasius, presbyter of Rome in the seventh century, calls himm bishop of Portus Romanus. In the Paschal Chronicle, composed about the same time, Hippolytus is styled martyr, and bishop of Portus near Rome; by others he is called bishop of Rome, and P a Roman writer, and the like; whose passages may

be ανθρωπινης αγνοιας, αλλ' ουκ επιπνοιας της ανωθεν διελεγχει. Phot. Cod. 202. col. 525.

8 Ετι δε ποιας υποληψεις εσχεν Ιππολυτος και Επιφανιος περι Νικολαο, το ενος των ζ διακονων, και ότι ισχυρως αυτον karayıvwokovoiv. x. d. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 232. col. 901. n. 7, 8.

“Οτι Ιππολυτος και Ειρηναιος την προς Εβραιος επιςολης Παυλό, εκ EKELV8 Elvai paoiv. Ibid. col. 904. n. 10.

Τινας υποληψεις ειχεν ο αγιωτατος Ιππολυτος περι της των Μοντανικων aipegaws. Ibid. col. 904. n. 13.

Hippolyti, episcopi et martyris Arabum metropolis, in memoriâ hæresium. Gelas. in Testimon. de duabus naturis in Christo. Bib. Patr. T. viii. p. 704. Lugd.

See Tillemont's remarks upon this testimony, Mem. Ecc. T. iii. P. ii. p. 339. Bruxelles. Note ii. sur S. Hippolyte.

- testimonia ex dictis sancti Hippolyti, episcopi Portûs Romani, ac martyris Christi Dei nostri. Anastasius, presbyter, et apocrisiarius Romæ, in epistolâ ad Theodos. presbyterum Gangrensem, laudat. a Fabric. Op. S. Hippolyti, p. 225.

η Ιππολυτoς τoινoν και της ευσεβειας μαρτυρ, επισκοπος το καλουμενα Πορτο πλησιον της Ρωμης. Chr. Pasch. p. 6.

Κλημης και Ιππολυτος επισκοπος Ρωμης. Leont. Byz.
P Και Ιππολυτος ο Ρωμαιος συγγραφευς. Niceph. C. Pol.

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in the testimonies collected by Fabricius, in his edition of 9 Hippolytus.

Modern authors are divided in their opinions. Some have thought that he was bishop of Porto, near the mouth of the Tiber. Le Moyner thinks he was bishop of Portus Romanus, otherwise called Adan, or Aden, in Arabia Felix. Caves and + Basnage, and many others, go readily into this sentiment. According to these learned men, Hippolytus was an Arabian, and bishop of Portus Romanus in that country ; but afterwards (at what time, and upon what occasion, is unknown) he came to Rome, and resided there some time; where he became famous for his zeal and labours in preaching the gospel, and defending the christian religion; where likewise, or near it, he might have the honour of suffering martyrdom.

Tillemont is more cautious in this respect; and thinks that since Eusebius, Jerom, and Theodoret were either plainly ignorant of the place were Hippolytus was bishop, or make no mention of it, it is not likely that later authors should teach us any thing certain, and that can be relied upon, in this matter.

Tillemont discourses largely upon this question, in his second note upon Hippolytus. His own conjecture is, that Hippolytus might be bishop of some small city, the name of which was little known in the world; and that he has been supposed to have been bishop of Porto in Italy for no other reason, but that some person of the same name was martyred there, who perhaps came from the east, and in a long course of time was confounded with the great Hippolytus, bishop and martyr.

Prudentius has celebrated a martyr of this name, who suffered either at Portus or Ostia, near the mouth of the Tiber, whom Theodoric Ruinart" thinks to be our Hippolytus. But there are' arguments against that opinion, which to me appear unanswerable.

Dr. Heumann published some time ago a curious

Vid. Steph. Le Moyne in Prolegomenis ad Varia Sacra ; et Hippolyt. Fabric. p. 12.

9 S. Hippolyti Op. p. 7–11. Hamb. 1716.

s Verum inter omnes hac de re sententias verisimillima videtur nupera Cl. Le Moyne conjectura, Hippolytum fuisse episcopum Portûs Romani in Arabia, εμπορια της Αραβίας a Ptolomeo vocati, ac postea Adana sive Adenæ nomen, quod et hodie retinet, adepti ; Romanis mercatoribus perquam noti , et ab iis tunc temporis admodum frequentati

. Cave, H. L. P. i. p. 66. Vid. et. P. ii. p. 42, 43.

t Basn. Ann. Pol, Ec. 222. n. vii. u Vid. Acta Martyrum Sincera, p. 168. v. Vid. Basn. Ann. 222. n. viii. w Dissertatio, in quâ docetur, ubi, et qualis episcopus fuerit Hippolytus Vid. Primitiæ Gottingenses, p. 239—253. Hanover. 1738. 4to.

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dissertation, wherein he argues, that Hippolytus was not an ecclesiastical, but a civil bishop; probably warden or inspector of Portus Romanus or Ostia, an office of no small trust and honour. And he thinks that Hippolytus, though not a senator, was a Roman of quality, and an illustrious convert to the christian religion. He allows him to have written most of the works generally ascribed to him; but he does not think that Hippolytus died a martyr.

How long Hippolytus lived, is unknown. As he is said to have been a martyr, some are disposed * to place his death in the persecution under Maximin, about the year 235; or else in the Decian persecution, about the year 250.

Though we are not able to determine with certainty the place of his bishopric, nor the place or time of his supposed martyrdom, and have scarce any history of his life, we have seen sufficient proof of his fame and great eminence for learning, and for the number of his works upon a variety of subjects. His having Origen for his hearer, is reckoned an argument that he was of the eastern part of the world : bis being a disciple of Irenæus, might make us suspect that he was rather born and educated in the west. He certainly wrote in Greek. His works must have been well known in the east: this is evident from Eusebius's being acquainted with so many of them. He seems likewise to say that y they were lodged in the library at Jerusalemn,,erected by Alexander, bishop of that city. But I do not perceive that this will enable us to determine the age of Hippolytus. If indeed his works were placed there by Alexander himself, who died in the year 251, it might be argued by some that Hippolytus had died some time before: but their being there in Eusebius's time, is no proof that they were placed there by Alexander; for some might be so generous as to make additions to the library begun by that good bishop of Jerusalem. Nor is it impossible that some of these works might be lodged there by Alexander, in the life-time of Hippolytus.

As this writer's works were evidently well known in the east, so a noble monument erected to his honour near Rome, seems to be a proof of his fame in Europe. Of this I must now give a short account. In the year 1551 was dug up in the neighbourhood of that city, a marble monument, with the image of a venerable person sitting in a chair: here likewise are engraved in Greek letters cycles of 16 years. Though there is no name remaining upon this monument, it

* See Tillemont, Mem. Ec. T. iii. P. ii. p. 12. y H. E. 1. vi. cap. 20,

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is generally allowed to belong to our Hippolytus. Tillemont? says, nobody doubts but this canon is his.

Upon this monument there is likewise a table of titles of divers works. Some of them are the same with those mentioned by Eusebius and Jerom; others are titles of works which they have taken no notice of. Beside others, all which are not equally legible, here are these : • Of the • Pythoness; Of the Gospel of John, and the a Revelation ;

Against b the Greeks, and against Plato, and also Of thé · Universe; An Exhortation to Severina,' which may be the epistle to a certain queen, mentioned by Theodoret ; * Hymns upon all the Scriptures.'

The late learned John Albert Fabricius has given us a very valuable edition of the remaining works and fragments of Hippolytus. But as there are several things ascribed to him without ground, and the pieces which are thought by some to be his are supposed to have been strangely interpolated, I shall now observe, as I promised at the beginning of this chapter, the judgments of divers learned men upon them.

Dodwell says: “ The name of that blessed martyr has • been so abused by impostors, that it is not easy to distinguish what is bis: nor can I see how that monument, wherein so many of his matters are recounted, could be erected in

the age wherein be suffered.' That is very right; it could not be erected immediately after his sufferings : but I suppose it cannot be questioned that this monument is of great antiquity. However, if there were any reason to think that this monument was not erected till some centuries (though a few only) after the death of Hippolytus, this would much weaken the authority of the catalogue of his works engraved upon it; and it might also help us to account for the differences between that catalogue and those in Eusebius and Jerom. Possibly the composer of the catalogue upon the monument confounded two persons of the same name, and ascribed several of the works of both to one.

Mill, who must be allowed a good judge in this matter, having a designed to publish this author's work, and e bava · As before, p. 10. Υπερ τε κατα Ιωαννην ευαγγελια και αποκαλυψεως.

Προς Ελληνας και προς Πλατωνα, και περι το Παντος. • See Mr. Dodwell, in his Discourse concerning the Use of Incense in Divine Offices, p. 107.

d Hanc [Aldaorallav 'In Tolvrov] ex codice MSS. eruit, et cum reliquis Hippolyti operibus propediem editurus est Joannes Mill,

mà quo certiora de Hippolyto ejusque scriptis expectamus. Cav. Hist. Lit. P. i. p. 69. ē Vid. Fabric. Hippolyt. in Præf. init.

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