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praying is sorrowful, and 6 sleeps upon a pillow, and h deprecates the cup of his passion, and i “ being in agony sweats, and is strengthened by an angel," and is betrayed

k by Judas, and insulted by Caiaphas, and set at nought“ by Herod, and scourged by Pilate, ando derided by the soldiers, and p is fastened to the cross by the Jews, and

crying with a loud voice, 9 commends his spirit to the Father;" and r “

andr “ bowing his head, giveth up the ghost;" and his “ side is pierced with a spear,” and “ being wrapped in fine linen,” he is laid in a sepulchre; and u on the third day is raised by the Father. His divinity also is clearly perceived, when he is worshipped by angels, and w visited by the shepherds, and expected by Simeon, and y receives testimony from Anna, andis inquired for by the wise men, anda is shown by a star, and 5 when he turns water into wine at a wedding, and rebukes the sea, violently agitated by the winds, and d walks upon the sea, and e gives sight to a man blind from his birth, and i raises Lazarus who had been dead four days, and performs various works of power, and forgives se sins, and hh gives power to his disciples.'

Much the same things are found again in the last chapter of the book against Noetus: and, if I mistake not, this passage mightily answers the character which Photius gave of this writer's style, that ii it is concise, or free from superfluities. Here are references to all the four gospels; and many things are mentioned which are recorded in each of them.

V. In other passages of Hippolytus, cited by Theodoret, is notice taken of the birth of Jesus, at kk Bethlehem, of a 8 Mark iv. 38.

h Matt. xxvi. Mark xiv. Luke xxji. i Luke xxii. 43, 44.

k Matt. xxvi. and other gospels. i Matt. xxvi. 65.

m Luke xxiii. 11. a Matt. xxvii. 26. John xix. 1.

• Matt. xxvii. 27. Mark xv. 16. Luke xxii. 36. John xix. 2. P Matt. xxvii. 35.

Luke xiii. 46. r John xix. 30. * Matth. xxvii. 59, 60. Mark xv. 46. Luke xxiii. 53. John xix. 40. u Acts x. 40.

Luke ii. 13, 14. w Ver. 15, 16, 17.

* Luke ii. 25. y Ver. 36, 37, 38.

2 Matt. ii. 12. ver. 2, 9.

b John ii. 1-11. c Matt. viii. 26. Mark iv. Luke viii. d Matt. xiv. 25, 26. Mark vi. 48, 49. John vi. 19. e John ix. 1-7.

f John xi. and xii. 17. 88 Matt. ix. 2, 6. Mark ii. 10. Luke vii. 48, 49.

hh Matt. x. i. Mark iii. 15; vi. 7. Luke ix. 1; 8. 19; xxiv. 49. John xx. 22, 23.

;
Και απεριτος.

Phot. Cod. 121. col. 301. kk ο δε Κυριος αναμαρτητος ην, εκ των ασηπτων ξυλων το κατα ανθρωπον,

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virgin and the Holy Spirit;' where he must refer to the first chapter of St. Matthew's or St. Luke's gospel.

VI. He may be supposed to refer to Acts x. 40, in those words before cited : *On the third day is raised by the Father.' He may be reckoned likewise to have an eye to the first chapter of the Acts, and to chapter xxvi. 23, when in a passage preserved in Theodoret he speaks of Christ's ascending at Pentecost, and of his being the first that ascended into the heavens. I suppose it cannot be doubted but Hippolytus received the Acts of the Apostles. Beside what is alleged here, this may be also argued from what was before cited from Photius: That Stephen m Gobar observes, what opinion Hippolytus had of Nicolas, one of the seven deacons.

VII. It may be also reckoned undoubted, that he received thirteen epistles of St. Paul, and most other books of the New Testament; but the epistle to the Hebrews he did not allow to be St. Paul's, as was observed formerly. But we should have been glad to have seen his arguments and reasonings upon that matter, if he made use of any.

VIII. His opinion of the disputed catholic epistles, that of James, the second of Peter, the second and third of John, and the epistle of Jude, does not appear very manifest from his remaining works or fragments; where scarce any of these are quoted, except that there iso a reference to 2 Pet. i. 21, in the book of Christ and Antichrist.

IX. The book of the Revelation was received by Hippolytus as the apostle John's. About this there can be no question made. Jerom, in the catalogue of his works, mentions one entitled, • Of the Revelation. One of the titles upon the monument before mentioned is, • Of the Gospel according to John, and the Revelation.' Mill thinks P that this was a defence of both these books of scripture; which is perfectly agreeable to the description which 9 Ebedjesu gives of one of the works of Hippolytus, τετ' εςιν εκ της παρθενα και το Αγιο Πνευματος.- -Αγε δη μοι, ω Σαμουηλ, εις Βηθλεεμ ελκομενην την δαμαλιν ένα επιδειξης τον εκ Δαβιδ βασιλεα τικτομενον.- - Ειπε μοι, ω μακαρια Μαρια, τι ην το υπο σε εν τη κοιλια συνειλημμενον, και τι ην το υπο σε εν παρθενικη μητρα βασαζομενον; Αp. Theodoret. Dial. i. p. 36. B. C. D.

Εν δε τη πεντηκοση ένα προσημηνη την των ερανων βασιλειαν, αυτος πρωτος εις Βρανες αναβας, και τον ανθρωπον δωρον τω θεώ προσενεγκας. Αp. Theodoret. Dial. ii. p. 88. C.

m See before, p. 426. n See before, p. 425.

• Hippolyt. Op. p. 5. P Cum hoc, inquam, vidisset martyr, necessarium duxerit, S. Joannis operum vindicias agere. Mill, Proleg. n. 654.

4 Sanctus Hippolytus, martyr et episcopus, composuit librum de dispensatione:--et apologiam pro Apocalypsi et evangelio Joannis apostoli et evan

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and undoubtedly meaning this. We saw formerly' a reference to the Revelation in the fragment of the treatise of

Of the Universe ;' it is largely quoted in the . Demonstration • concerning Christ and Antichrist.' Here it is said, ' Thats John saw the revelation of tremendous mysteries in the Isle of Patmos, which he also made known to others.' He is here called blessed John, apostle and disciple of the Lord;' and again, prophett and apostle;' prophet, no doubt, with regard to this book. Andrew of Cæsarea, about the year 500, in his Commentary upon the Revelation, several times mentions our author's interpretations of things recorded in that book. Andrew's passages are collected by" Fabricius, and may be seen in his edition of Hippolytus.

X. The respect for the sacred scriptures appears in the • Demonstration concerning Christ and Antichrist.' At the beginning of that work the author tells Theophilus, to whom he writes, . That" in order to give him instruction in the things about which he enquires, he will draw out of the sacred fountain, and set before him, from the sacred scriptures themselves, what may afford him satisfaction. He then quotes immediately both Paul's epistles to Timothy, and afterwards many books of the New Testament. And near the conclusion of the same work, he says, • Two different w advents of our Lord and Saviour have been shown out of the scriptures; the first inglorious in the flesh, the other glorious. He mentions this division of all the books of sacred scripture,x • the law, prophets, gospels, , and apostles.

XI. Dr. Mill has observed y some readings in this book different from our present copies. I shall take notice of

I but one, 2 Tim. ii. 2. The things which thou hast heard

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gelistæ. Ebedjes. Catalog. Lib. Syr. cap. 7. ap. Assem. Bib. Or. T. iü.

Chap. xxxii. at the end. 5 Ούτος γαρ εν Πατμω τη νηση ων, δρα αποκαλυψιν μυςηριων φρικτων, ατινα διηγεμενος αφθονως και ετερες διδασκει. Λεγε μοι, μακαριε Ιωαννη, απο ολε και μαθητα το Κυριά, τι ειδες και ηκεσας περι Βαβυλωνος. De Chr. et Ant. sect. 36. p. 18.

Λεγει γαρ ο προφήτης και αποσολος. Ibid. sect. 50. p. 25.

u P. 34, 35. Βεληθεντος σε κατ' ακριβειαν εκμαθειν τα προτεθεντα σοι υπ' εμε κεφαλαια, αγαπητε με αδελφε θεοφιλε, ευλογον ήγησάμην αφθονως αρυσαμενος ως εξ αγιας πηγης, εξ αγιων γραφων παρασησαι σοι κατ' οφθαλμον τα ζητεμενα. De Chr. et Ant. sect. 1.

"Ωσπερ γαρ δυο παρεσιαι το Κυρια και Σωτηρος ημων δια γραφων εδειχθησαν. Ιbid. sect. 44.

Εσφαλησαν ουν κατα παντα, εν μηδενι συμφωνοι τη αληθεια ευρισκομενοι, μητε κατα τον νομον-μητε κατα τους προφητας-μητε κατα την των ευαγγελιων φωνην-μητε τους αποσoλoις πειθομενοι. Ιbid. sect. 58.

y Prol. n. 655, 656.
* Και α ηκουσας παρ' εμε δια πολλων παρακλησεων. Ιbid. sect. 1.

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of me in many discourses,' instead of, among many witnesses.' Mill thinks this to be an explication only, and not a true reading. I have no occasion to sum up this testimony; it is easy

l; to see in these numbers what it is.

CHAP. XXXVI.

AMMONIUS.

I. Ammonius; his History, and Testimony to the Books

of the New Testament. JI. Qu. Whether Tatian's and Ammonius's Harmonies are now extant ? III. Extracts out of a Latin Harmony ascribed to Tatian. IV. Extracts out of a Latin Harmony ascribed to Ammonius.

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PORPHYRY, in his work which he wrote against the christians, as cited by Eusebius, says of Ammonius, the celebrated philosopher of Alexandria, master of Plotinus and other eminent men, · Tbata having been educated a • christian by christian parents, as soon as he came to years • of understanding, and had a taste of philosophy, he

presently betook himself to a life agreeable to the laws.' To which Eusebius says, " That it is a notorious falsehood,

b • to say he exchanged christianity for Gentilism; for Am

monius maintained sincere and uncorrupted the doctrine • of the divine philosophy to the end of his life, as his works • which he left behind him still testify, and for which he is • in great repute; as the treatise entitled, of the Consent

of Moses and Jesus, and divers others, which may be found with the curious.' After Eusebius, St. Jerom, in his book of Illustrious Men,

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Αμμωνιος μεν γαρ χρισιανος εν χρισιανους ανατραφεις τους γονευσιν, ότε του φρονειν και της φιλοσοφιας ηψατο, ευθυς προς την κατα νομους πολιτειαν METEBadero. Apud Éus. H. E. 1. vi. cap. 19. p. 220. B.

Ψευσαμενη δε σαφως-τον δ' Αμμωνιoν εκ βιου του κατα την θεοσεβειαν, επι τον εθνικoν τροπον εκπεσεις- -τω τε Αμμωνια τα της ενθεα φιλοσοφιας ακεραια και αδιαπτωτα, και μεχρις εσχατης τε βιε διεμενε τελευτης ως πε και οι τ' ανδρος εισετι νυν μαρτυρεσι πονοι, δι' ών κατελιπε συγγραμματων παρα τους πλεισοις ευδοκιμεντος ώσπερ και ο επιγεγραμμενος περι της . Μωύσεως και Ιησε συμφωνιας, και όσοι αλλοι παρα τους φιλοκαλους ειρηνται. Ibid. p. 220. D. 221. A.

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writes to this purpose : At that time [the person last

spoken of is Origen] Ammonius, an eloquent and very • learned man, was famous at Alexandria; who, among many excellent monuments of his wit, composed also an elegant work of the Consent of Moses and Jesus, and c • invented the Evangelical Canons, which Eusebius of • Cæsarea afterwards followed. This person is falsely reproached by Porphyry, that of a christian he became a heathen; when it is certain, he continued a christian to the

, • end of his life.'

And to this day it has been the general opinion of learned men, that 'Ammonius Saccas, the celebrated Alexandrian philosopher, and the author of these two christian works, as well as of other pieces upon the same principles, are one and the same person. Tillemont d says, he does not see that any one doubts of it: but that manner of expression seems to show, that he himself had some suspicion to the contrary. And e Fabricius has openly called into question this supposition, and I think demonstrated, beyond dispute, that they are two different persons. I shall only observe, that Porphyry was nearer Ammonius Saccas than Eusebius; that he could not but be well informed by his master Plotinus, who spentf eleven years with Ammonius : and besides, we are assured by Longinus, another disciple of Ammonius Saccas, that he never wrote any thing. This may be sufficient to satisfy us that the writings, of which Eusebius and St. Jerom speak, are not to be ascribed to Ammonius Saccas. I have no occasion, therefore, to add any thing farther relating to the history of that heathen philosopher, as one would think every one must allow him to be, who reads Porphyry's life of Plotinus.

Who Ainmonius was who composed these christian books, and continued a christian all his days, cannot be now certainly known. Eusebius has mentioned one of the same name, a presbyter 5 of Alexandria, who suffered martyrdom in the Dioclesian persecution: and one might be apt to

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et Evangelicos Canones excogitavit, quos postea secutus est Eusebius Cæsariensis. Hunc falso accusat Porphyrius, quod ex christianis Ethnicus fuerit, cum constet eum usque ad extremam vitam christianum perseverâsse. De Vir. Ill.

сар. 55. « Nous ne voyons point que personne doute qu' Ammone, auteur de la Concorde, ne soit le même que le philosophe. Mem. T. iii. P. ii. Ammone. note 2. p. 390. e Fabric. Bib. Gr. T. iv. p. 160, 161, 172. et seq.

Porphyr. de Vit. Plotin. cap. 3. Conferatur Conspectus Chronologicus Vitæ Plotini, apud Fabric. Bib. Gr. lib. iv. cap. 26. init.

8 Eus. I. viii. cap. 13. p. 308. C.

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