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that Jerom does not mention this among the other works of Africanus ; and for that reason, and because the fore-cited words of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, mentioning the Cesti among the works of Africanus, are wanting in Rufinus's version, Valesiust thinks they are an interpolation, and that they ought to be blotted out. However u Joh. Ger. Vossius, and J. Rodolph Wetstein, are of

v opinion, that this piece is rightly ascribed to Africanus ; to whom I would refer those who are desirous to know more of this matter : for I do not think fit to swell this article with a particular account of their arguments upon a point which is of no great importance.

There is plainly no regard due to Trithemius, who w reckons among the works of Africanus such as these : Of the Trinity, Of Circumcision, and others, which are books ascribed by: Jerom, and by y Trithemius himself, in another place, to Novatus. It may deserve a little more considera, tion, whether he wrote any commentaries upon the New Testament. It has been observed by 2 Cave, and a Fabricius, that Ebedjesu, who flourished at the end of the thirteenth, and died in the beginning of the following century, in the year 1318, affirms there were then extanto Commentaries of Africanus, bishop of Emmaus, upon the New Testament, and his Chronicle, One Julius likewise is alleged a in the Greek Chains, and sometimes called bishop. Dr. Asseman says, that Moses Bar-Cepha, who flourished in the latter end of the ninth century, quotes the Commentary of one e Julius upon St. John's gospel, which has been observed likewise byf Fabricius. And Dionysius BarSalibi, bishop of Amida in Mesopotamia, at the end of the twelfth century, in his Commentaries upon the gospels, quotes Africanus bishop 6 of Emmaus. But, after all, I apprehend here is no sufficient ground to believe that our Julius Africanus wrote upon the New Testament. It is much better to rest satisfied with the accounts left us by 1 Vales. ibid. p. 127.

u De Hist. Gr. 1. ii. cap. 2. "Wetst. not. in Ep. Afr. ad Orig. Col. 151-154. Basil. 1674. Trithem. de Script. Ecc. cap. 38.

* De Vir. Ill. cap. 70. y Trith, ibid. cap. 44.

7 Vid. Cav. H. L. P. i. p. 74. a Fab. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 270.

b Vid. Asseman, Bibl. Orient. T. i. p. 539.

c Beatus Africanus, episcopus Emmaüs, habet Commentaria in Novum Testamentum, et Chronicon. Ebedjesu, Catalog. Libr. Syror. ap. Assem. Bib. Or. T. iii. p. 14.

« Et Julius quidam subinde in Catenis allegatur, et in Catena Corderiani in Johannem vocatur Julius episcopus. Fabr. ibid. e Assem. ibid. T. ii. p. 129.

f Fabric. ibid. 8 Auctores hi ab ipso citantur.-Africanus, episcopus Emmaüs, Comment. in Evangel. fol. 33, 37. Asseman, ibid. T. ii. cap. 32. p. 158. A.

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Eusebius, and Jerom, and Photius, who take no notice of such a work.

Africanus is reckoned by Jerom, in his letter to Magnus, among other eminent ancient h christian writers. His Chronology is the work which Jerom particularly mentions; which is an argument that this was our author's principal performance; and Socrates has joined him with Clement and Origen, calling them i men skilful in every part of • knowledge. Tillemont k says, it appears that Africanus

' understood Hebrew. He concludes this from an observation in Africanus's letter concerning the history of Susanna. Possibly this would be more apparent, if his Chronology were still extant.

That work is all lost, except some fragments. But it is supposed that Eusebius inserted a large part of it into his own Chronicle; though it is not easy to say what belongs to Africanus. And other bistorians have made good use of it. There is a large fragment of bis letter to Aristides in Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, and his letter to Origen is still extant entire.

I shall now put down what I have observed to our purpose in the remains of this great man.

I. Eusebius, in his Evangelical Preparation," has a long passage out of the third book of the Chronology of Africanus; but I have no occasion to transcribe any thing out of it at present.

II. In Eusebius's Evangelical Demonstration " is another passage taken out of the fifth book of the same work. This passage is quoted likewise by St. Jerom, in his Commentaries upon the book of Daniel; where Africanus, speaking of the 70 weeks, after which Christ was to appear, uses this expression : That ' visions ° and prophecies were until John, as the words are in Eusebius's Greek: the law P and the prophets were until John,' is in Jerom's Latin; which are our Lord's words, Luke xvi. 16. Compare Matt. xi. 13. Here it appears that Africanus placed

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h Extant et Julii Africani libri, qui temporum scripsit historias. Hier.

Κλημεντα, και Αφρικανον, και Ωριγενην, ανδρας Taons copias emrisnuovas. Socrat.•Hist. 1. ii. cap. 35. p. 130. B.

k Till. Jule Africain, p. 31. 1 Εν μεν εν Ελληνικαις φωναις τα τοιαυτα ομοφωνειν συμβαινει.-εν δε τη 'Espaid. Tuo tavrı dLESNIKEV. Afric. Ep. ad Orig. sect. 1. m Pr. Ev. lib. x. p. 487-493.

n D. Ev. I. viii. p. 389—391. Ο Ορασεις τε και προφητειαι μεχρις Ιωαννε. Αp. Eus. Dem. Εν. ib. p. 389. C.

P Et impleta est visio, et prophetia, quia lex et prophetæ usque ad baptistam Joannem. Hieron. Com. in Dan. cap. ix. Col. 1110. Benedict.

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the death of Christ in the 9 16th year of the reign of Tiberius, as the passage is in Eusebius; in ther 15th year of the same reign, as it is in Jerom. III. In George Syncellus is a fragment of Africanus, said

. to be taken out of the fifth book of his Chronology; where, speaking of our Lord's passion and resurrection, he says, • That all his works of healing, both of the bodies and souls of men, and the mysteries of his birth and resurrection from the dead, were sufficiently made known to his apostles and disciples before us. There was a dreadful darkness over the whole world; and the rocks were rent by an earthquake; and many buildings were overturned in Judea, and other parts of the earth. Then he makes remarks

' upon what Thallus had written concerning an eclipse or darkness about the same time. There can be no question but Africanus here refers to our gospels, particularly to Matt. xxvii. 51, 52; Luke xxiii. 44, 45. I wish we had what preceded these words; and that we had what follows them more exactly than we seem to have at present.

IV. I proceed to the letter to Aristides, concerning the • disagreement supposed to be between the gospels in the 'genealogy of Christ.' It is thus introduced by Eusebius : • Butt forasmuch as Matthew and Luke have differently • delivered to us, in their gospels, the genealogy of Christ, • so that great numbers of the faithful, through ignorance • of the truth, have been mightily concerned to contrive • solutions of that difficulty, let us take the account which • Africanus gives in his epistle to Aristides, concerning the . harmony of the genealogies in the gospel, where " rejecting * the opinions of others, as forced, and even false, he de • livers the account he had received in these words: “ For

whereas the descents of families in Israel are reckoned either according to nature, or according to law; according

Κακειθεν επι το Τιβεριε Καισαρος εκκαιδεκατον ετος, εις ετη εξηκοντα. Ap. Eus. ibid. p. 390. B.

Atque exinde usque ad annum quintum decimum (éckadeKatov] Tiberii Cæsaris, quando passus est Christus, numerantur anni sexaginta. Ap. Hieron. ib.

Αφρικανα περι των κατα το σωτηριον παθος και την ζωοποιον ανασασιν, εκ τ8 πεμπτο λογα. Το δε καθ' έκασον των πραξεων αυτ8 και θεραπειων σωματων και ψυχων, και των της γενεσεως αποκρυφων, ανασασεως τε της εκ των νεκρων, αυταρκεςατως προ ημων μαθηταις τε και αποσoλoις αυτο δεδηλω

Καθ' όλο το κοσμα σκοτος επεγενετο φοβερωτατον σεισμω δε αι πετραι διερρηγνυντο, και τα πολλα Ιεδαιας και της λοιπης γης κατερριφη. Αp. Geo. Syncell. Chronog. p. 322. Paris. 1652. et Evgeß. Xpovoloyos tpwtos, p. 77. cd. Scalig. Amst. 1658.

+ Eus. H. E. 1. i. cap. 7. in. Η Τας μεν δη των λοιπων δοξας ώς αν βιαιες και διεψευσμενας αποδειξας ήν δ' αυτος παρειληφεν ισοριαν, τατους αυτοις εκτιθεμενος τοις ρημασι. Ιbid. p. 20. D.

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• to the order of nature, when it is by the succession of a • natural seed; according to law, when another begetteth a

son to succeed in the name of a brother deceased without • issue:-And whereas, accordingly, of them who are reckon• ed in this genealogy [of Christ) some succeeded in a proper 6 and natural order, as sons to their fathers; but some, be

gotten by one, received the name of another ; therefore • mention is made of both : of those who were truly fathers, • and of those thạt were legal only, and as fathers. Thus

neither of the gospels is false: one containing the line of nature, the other of law. For the families both of Solomon and Nathan were mixed together, partly by second marriages, partly by raising up seed to those who died without issue: so that the same persons had divers fathers, · whereof some were reputed fathers, others really so. Thus · both the accounts are true, and exactly meet and agree in · Joseph. That what had been said may be made plain, I • will observe the order of the descents. Reckoning the * descent from David by Solomon, [according to Matthew,] • Matthan is found to be the third from the end, who begat * Jacob, the father of Joseph. Reckoning from Nathan, the son of David, according to Luke, in like manner the third from the end is Melchi, whose son was Eli, the father of Joseph. Joseph therefore being the person we are con• cerned about, it must be shown how each of these can be • called his father; both Jacob, who descended from Solo

mon, and Eli, who comes from Nathan, And in the first • place it must be shown, how these two, Jacob and Eli, were brothers; and then how their fathers, Matthan and Melchi, can be grandfathers of Joseph. This will be . cleared up thus : Matthan and Melchi, having married suc

: cessively one and the same woman, begat children, which were brothers by the same mother. The first therefore, Matthan, descended from Solomon, begat Jacob of Estha; • for that was the woman's name. After the death of Mat• than, Melchi, who descended from Nathan, taking the • widow to be his wife, had by her Eli. Thus we have found • Jacob and Eli, though of different families, brothers by ' the -same mother; one of whom, Jacob, his brother Eli having died without issue, took his wife, and begat of her the third Joseph, according to nature and reason his own son: wherefore also it is written, “ And Jacob begat Joseph :” but according to law he was the son of Eli; for Jacob being his brother, raised up seed unto him. For which reason' neither is that genealogy destitute of

Διοπερ 86 ακυροθησεται και η κατ' αυτον γενεαλογια, ην Ματθαιος μεν ο

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authority, which the evangelist Matthew rehearses thus : 6“ And Jacob begat Joseph.” On the other hand Luke: • being, as was supposed, (for be adds this withal,) the son 5 of Joseph, “ which was the son of Eli, which was the son • of Melchi.” He could not more w plainly and properly

express that kind of descent which is according to law. * And so exact is he, that reciting the genealogy of this

sort, he entirely omits the word begetting,' to the very • last, though he carries up the line step by step to Adam, 666 who was the Son of God." ;

We are farther assured by Africanus, that this account was given by some who were kinsmen of our Lord according to the flesh. However, he says, “ y though it were un

supported by any such testimony, yet this account of the * matter ought to be reckoned the best and the truest. • But, be it so or not, the gospel is certainly true.'

Once more z Eusebius says, · And at the end of the same • epistle he [Africanus] adds: “ Matthan, who descended • from Solomon, begat Jacob. Matthan being dead, Melchi, • who descended from Nathan, begat of the same woman

Eli; Eli therefore, and Jacob, were brothers by the same mother. Eli died without issue, Jacob raised up seed to him, having begotten Joseph, according to nature indeed * to himself, but according to law to Eli. So Joseph was • the son of both.” Thus far Africanus.'

It ought to be observed, that whereas we read in our copies of St. Luke, iii. ver. 24, “ Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi:” Africanus omits the two former descents, and reads only the last. I hope this whole passage is now intelligible.

And that we have here the true reading of Africanus, is confirmed by a passage of Bar-Salibi, transcribed by Dr. Asseman. ευαγγελισης εξαριθμομενος, Ιακωβ δε φησιν εγεννησε τον Ιωσηφ. Ιbid. p. 22. B.

Την γαρ κατα νομον γενεσιν επισημότερον ην εξειπειν. Και το εγεννησεν επι τοιας δε παιδοποιϊας αχρι τελος εσιωπησε, την αναφοραν ποιησαμενος έως το Αδαμ και το θεε κατ' αναλυσιν. Ιbid. p. 22. Β.

* Το γBν Σωτηρος οι κατα σαρκα συγγενεις, ειτ' εν φανητιωντες, ειθ' όπλως εκδιδασκοντες, παντως αληθευοντες, παρεδωσαν και ταυτα. p. 22. C. “Ων. ετυγχανον οι προειρημενοι δεσποσυνοι καλεμενοι. p. 23. Β.

9 Και ημιν αυτη μελετω, ει και μη εμμαρτυρος εσι, τη μη κρειττονα η αληθες εραν εχειν ειπειν. Το μεντοι ευαγγελιον παντως αληθευει. p. 23. C. z P. 23. D.

Quos Lucas refert Christi progenitores, eos ex Africano, Eusebio, Nazianzeno, Sarugensi, Græcisque et Syriacis codicibus, sic enumerat, [Dionys. Bar-Salibi,] fol. 37. • Africanus et Eusebius • tertium numerant Melchi, sicut etiam Mathan tertio loco collocant ante Joseph, hoc modo : “ Joseph filius Heli, filii Melchi.” In codicibus vero

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