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in this manner : “ For the prophetic word says: Miserable are the double-minded”- -which was a common form of quotation among the ancient christians, when they intended the scriptures of the Old Testament.
A FRAGMENT CALLED ST. CLEMENTS SECOND EPISTLE.
BESIDE the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, there is a fragment of a piece called his second epistle: which being doubtful, or rather plainly not Clement's, I do not quote as his. I shall however, as I promised, give an account of the method of quoting the scriptures of the New Testament in this piece, which bya some is thought not to be an epistle, but a discourse or sermon.
I. ; iv. • Let us then not only call him Lord, for that will not save us. For he saith : “ Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall be saved, but he that doth righteousness," : Matt. vii. 21. • Wherefore if we should do such wicked things, the Lord hath said : Though ye should be joined unto me, even in my very bosom, and not keep my commandments," I would cast you off," and say unto you:“ I know ye not whence ye are, ye workers of iniquity,”' Matt. vii. 23. Luke xiii. 27.
II. Ch. ii. • And another scripture saith : “ I came not to call the righteous, but sinners," Matt, ix. 13.
'. III. Ch. v. . For the Lord saith : “ Ye shall be as sheep
. in the midst of wolves,” (Matt. x. 16.] Peter answered and said: What if the wolves shall tear in pieces the sheep? Jesus said unto Peter, Let not the sheep fear the wolves after death. “ And ye also fear not those that kill you, and after that have no more that they can do unto you: but fear him, who, after you are dead, has power to cast both soul
“ Προφητικος λογος. Euseb. Comm. in Ps. p. 83. C. Δεικνυσιν ο προOntikos doyos. Theodoret. in Ps. lxxvii. v. 24. T. 1. p. 707. D. Aldackel TOIVUV ο προφητικος λογος. Ιd. ad Ps. Ixxiv. v. 16. p. 721. D. Εν τω ψαλμω ο προAntikog loyos. Ad. Ps. cv. p. 824. A. et. passim. Iepi vs to #popntikov Avevua onoi. Alex. Episcop. Alex. ap. Theod. H. E. 1. 1. c. 4. p. 12. C. o evayYeaucos Noyos. Theod. in Es. cap. x. T. 2. p. 50. D. epistolæ formam servat secunda hæc, quæ dicitur, epistola-Et vero recentiorem illam esse Clemente, et pro ejus didax? potius habendam, alibi ostendimus. Dodwell de Annis priorum Romæ Episcop. Diss. 2. c. vi. p. 202. Vid. et Diss. i. Iren. sect. 29, &c. Vid. et Grabe Spicil. P. i. p. 268.
a Sed nec
and body into hell-fire." ' See Luke xii. 4, 5, and also Matt. X. 28.
IV. Ch. ïïi. •For even he himself says: 6 Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I confess before my Father." ' See Matt. x. 32. V. Ch. viii. For so the Lord bath said: “ They are my
· brethren, who do the will of my Father." ' See Matt. xii. 50.
VI. Ch. viii. · For the Lord saith in the gospel : “ If ye have not kept that which was little, who will give you that which is great ? For I say unto you: He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in much.”' See Luke xvi. 10, 12.
VII. Ch. vi. For thus saith the Lord : “ No servant can serve two masters.” If therefore we shall desire to 66 God and Mammon,” it will be no profit to us. (Luke xvi. 13, and Matt. vi. 24.] “ For what shall it profit, if one gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?". See Matt. xvi. 26.
VIII. Ch. i. This fragment begins thus: Brethren, we ought so to think of Jesus Christ as of God; as of the “ judge of the quick and the dead.” Where
Where may be thought to be a reference to Acts x. 42. But as this character of Christ was a common article of every christian's belief, and may be found in other texts of the New Testament, that cannot, I think, be depended upon.
IX. Ch. vii. · And yet all are not crowned, but they only that labour much, and strive gloriously, comp. 2 Tim. ii. 5.
. 5. In the same chapter, or section, seem to be divers allusions to 1 Cor. ix, 24, 25. X. Ch. iii.—but have by him been brought to the
. knowledge of the Father of truth. Whereby shall we show that we do know him (or what is the knowledge which is toward him,] but by not denying him, by whom we have come to the knowledge of him ? Perhaps here is an allusion to 1 John iïi. 19, or v. 20.
XI. Lastly, Ch. xii. near the conclusion of this fragment, are some words mentioned, as spoken by our Lord, which are not in our gospels, and are supposed to be taken out of an apocryphal writing, called the gospel according to the Egyptians : which are to this purpose : • The Lord himself being asked by some body, when his kingdom should come,
said: “When two shall be one, and that which is without as that which is within, and the male with the • female neither male nor female."
XII. What we have to observe here is, that we have the
gospels several times quoted in this fragment more expressly than in Clement's epistle to the Corinthians with such terms as these : · He himself says:' • The Lord saith :' • Thus saith the Lord :' • Another scripture says:' and, • The Lord saith in the gospel :' and that in a fragment not one fifth part so large as the forementioned epistle to the Corinthians. This is an internal character, that may confirm the account given by Eusebius, and the judgment of those modern critics, who have supposed it not to have the same author with the Epistle to the Corinthians, and to be of a later date. For which reason I may be the shorter in my remarks upon it: though it is undoubtedly ancient, written before the time of Eusebius, in the third century at the latest.
And as this piece has not Clement for its author, we have the less reason to be concerned about the apocryphal quotation just mentioned. For whenever that gospel was composed, this quotation can never prove it to be so ancient as our gospels, nor as Clement himself.
Mr. Jones b has made divers just observations upon this fragment, and several of the passages here cited by me.
HERMAS. HIS HISTORY.
THE antiquity of the book, called the Shepherd or Pastor of Hermas, is manifest and unquestionable from the quotations of it in Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, and others.
I must be as brief as I can in the testimonies I allege. Therefore referring to a Cotelerius for the rest, I shall only put down those of Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History, and St. Jerom in his Catalogue of Illustrious Men; as representing very much the sense of the ancients before them, concerning the value of this book, as well as that of the christians of their own time.
Eusebiusb speaking of what are the genuine writings of Peter and Paul, adds: Forasinuch as the apostle, in the salutations at the end of his epistle to the Romans, makes • See New and Full Method, &c. Vol. i. in the Appendix, p. 522–531.
Patres Apost. vol. i. See also A. B. Wake's Preliminary Discourse, chap. viii. Cave Hist. Lit. Du Pin. Bibl. et Tillemont Mem. Eccles. T. ii. Part i. Fabric. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 7, &c. 6 H. E. I. 3. c. 3. p. 72. C. D.
• mention among others of Hermas, who, it is said, wrote • the book called the Shepherd; it is to be observed, that • it is doubted of by some. Wherefore it ought not to be * placed among the books of unquestioned authority. By • others it is judged to be a most necessary book, especially · for those who are to be instructed in the first elements of “ religion. And we know, that it is publicly read in the churches, and that some very ancient writers make use of it.'
In another place of the same work, having spoken of the books of the New Testament, which ought to be received, he says: 'Among the spurious are to be placed the Acts of • Paul, the book called the Shepherd, and the Revelation of • Peter.' By which we are not, I think, to understand, that
' the book of Hermas, or the Shepherd, is not genuine, but that it ought not to be reckoned canonical scripture.
St. Jerom in the book d of Illustrious Men: • Hermas, of * whom the apostle makes mention in his epistle to the Ro* mans, saying : “ Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, • Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them," is affirmed to be the author of the book which is called Pastor. And it is publicly read in some churches of • Greece. It is indeed a useful book, and many of the • ancient writers have made use of testimonies out of it. . But
among the Latins it is almost unknown.' So Jerom says. But it was well known toe Tertullian, and to the christian churches in general of his time, as is evident from the manner in which he speaks of it.
It is then probable, that this book was written by Hermas, whom Paul salutes. And it ought not to be doubted, that it is an ancient christian ecclesiastical writing, though not properly canonical.
The exact time of writing it is uncertain. It appears fromf the book itself, that it was written at Rome, or near it, in the time of Clement, probably then bishop. For Hermas is directed, at the end of the second Vision, to • write two books, and send one to Clement, and one to • Grapte. For Clement shall send it to the foreign cities.' As therefore I place the bishoprick of Clement, with most of the ancients, about the 91st year of our Lord and onwards; I suppose this book to bave been written toward the latter end of the first century of the christian æra. Tillemonts supposes it was written about the year 92, a • Εν τοις νοθοις κατατεταχθω, κ. λ. Εus. Η. Ε. 1. 3. c. 25. p. 97. Β. Сар. х. e De Pudicitiâ, cap. 10.
i See V. 1. begin. et Vis. 2. sect. i. et sect. 4.
8 Mem. Ec. T. 2. Par. 1. in Hermas, p. 201. Bruxelles.
little before Domitian's persecution. Which leads me to observe, that it is more than once intimated in the book itself, that a time of trial was then near. • But thou wilt
say: Behold, there is a great trial coming. Vis. ii, sect. 3. Again, . Here you have the figure of the great tribulation, • that is about to come. Vis. iv, sect. 3. See also Vis. ii. sect. 2, quoted hereafter, Numb. III. This trial could not be the persecution under Nero, because that was the first great persecution; and before the writing of this book, christians had suffered • wild beasts, scourgings, imprisonó * ments, and crosses.' Vis. iii. sect. 2, which is a good description of the persecution under Nero. See also Šimil, ix, sect. 28. This trial therefore must relate to the persecution under Domitian, about the year 94, or to some sufferings under Trajan. Moreover, it seems, that all the apostles were now dead. Because,' says he, “ these apostles and • teachers, who preached the name of the Son of God, dying • after they had received this power, preached to them who
were dead before.' Sim. ix. sect. 16. However, as Clement was still living, who died, according to Eusebius, in the third of Trajan, A. D. 100, we cannot, I think, place this piece later than the conclusion of the first century, about which time it seems to have been written.
It is said, there was one Hermes, brother of Pius, bishop of Rome, about the year 141. But there is noh good reason to suppose him the author of this book, which is constantly
, ascribed by the most ancient writers to Hermas, and that the book we have, is the same they had, is evident from the agreement of their quotations with the book itself.
The Shepherd of Hermas was written in Greek. But we have now only an ancient Latin version, beside some fragments of the Greek preserved in the ancient Greek authors who have quoted him. It consists of three books. In the first are four Visions, in the second twelve Commands, in the third ten Similitudes.
In Hermas are no express citations of any books of the New Testament. We must be content with only some words of scripture, or allusions to them. Nor was it suitable to the nature of his writing to quote books. There are no books of the Old Testament quoted here.
5 However some learned men have been of this opinion. Vid. Dallæum de Libris supp. Dionys. et Ignat. 1. 2. c. 4. p. 250. et Basnage, Annal. Polit. Ec. A. D. 157. n. 2, &c. Blondel des Sibylles, l. l. ch. v. p. 19. 1. 2. ch. vi. p. 160. Beaus. Hist. des Manich. T. 2. p. 230. I do not particularly confute this opinion. I have said enough above, that it is contrary to the testimony of the most ancient writers. Du Pin, and others, may be consulted by those who are curious.