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the wedding garment, he says to him, “ How camest thou in bither, not having on the wedding garment ?” To the like purpose in another place, (see Rom. xii. 14, Gal. iii. 27,] · They e who are baptized into Christ, put on Christ, that is,' righteousness and wisdom. St. Austin discourses largely upon this subject in two sermons.

He says that the wedding garment must be something not common to good and bad ; that it is not baptism, nor the eucharist, nor faith, nor prophecy, nor miracles; but h charity out of a pure heart, and (out] of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned,” 1 Tim. i. 5. It will not displease any, if I add in the margin a reference to a passage of St. Cyril of Alexandria, i to the like effect.

7. In a Homily which we have now in Latin only, Origen, commenting upon Numb. xxii. 24, having cited Jobn vi. 54, 55, goes on : * And indeed be who said these things

• he was wounded for men, for he himself was wounded for our transgressions, as Isajah says, lüi, 5. Butk we are said to drink the blood of Christ not only sacramentally, but also when we receive his words, in which is life, as he himself likewise says, John vi. 63, “ The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life."! He therefore was

” wounded, whose blood we drink; that is, we embrace the words of his doctrine. But nevertheless they also were wounded, who have preached to us his word. For when we read their words, that is, the words of his apostles, and obtain life by them, we “ drink the blood of the wounded," or “ of the slain," Numb. xxiii. 24.

8. He argues that the precept, John xiii. 14, 15, “ to wash one another's feet,” ought m not to be understood


e In Psalm xxxiii. p. 651. D. Tom. ii. Bened.

August. Serm. 90. et 95. ed. Bened. Tom. v. 8 Quid est vestis nuptialis ? Sine dubio aliquid est quod mali et boni commune non habent. Serm. 95. sect. 7.

* Finis autem præcepti est, apostolus dicit, caritas de corde puro, et conscientiâ bonâ, et fide non ficta. Hæc est vestis nuptialis. Serm. 90. sect. 6. Conf. eund. contr. Faustum, l. xix. c. 12. T. viii.

i Cyrill. Hom. xxiv. p. 288. C. D. E. Tom. v. P. ii.

* Bibere autem dicimur sanguinem Christi, non solum sacramentorum ritu, sed et cum sermones ejus recipimus, in quibus vita consistit, sicut et ipse dicit.

-Est ergo ipse vulneratus, cujus nos sanguinem bibimus, id est, doctrinæ ejus verba suscipimus. Sed et illi nihilominus vulnerati sunt, qui nobis verbum ejus prædicârunt. Ipsorum enim, id est, apostolorum ejus, verba cum legimus, et vitam ex iis consequimur, vulneratorum sanguinem bibimus. In Numeros, Hom. xvi. p. 334. F. A. T. ii. Bened.

Upon this passage of Origen may be seen Dr. Waterland's Review of the Doctrine of the Eucharist, ch. 6. p. 164, 165.

η Και ο ευαγγελισης γε εν τατους μοι δοκει διεγειρων ημων τον νεν επι

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literally. He says likewise that it was formerly in use ; but in his time it was practised by very few, and those mean and ignorant people.

9. Origen ° seems to understand the decree of the council at Jerusalemn, Acts xv. as binding Gentile christians even in his own time. Hep mentions . things sacrificed to idols, things strangled, and blood.'

10. In a passage before cited, 9 Origen intimated, that when Paul in his epistles speaks of his gospel,' he means • Luke's gospel. But he seems to depart from that sense in another place: · But,' says' he, that the whole New Testament is gospel, may be argued from words of Paul, when he writes, « according to my gospel,Rom. ii. 16, and xvi. 25; for we have no writing of Paul which is wont to be called a gospel, but whatever he preached and said was gospel. And the things he preached and said, these he also wrote ; therefore the things written by bim are gospel. And if what Paul said or wrote is gospel, consequently what Peter said or wrote is gospel.'.

11. 1 Cor. xv. 7, “ After that he was seen of James, then of all the apostles.” I shall transcribe a passage, showing how Origen understood this text. He says that Christ's divinity, after his resurrection, shone brighter than could be seen by all; which however Cephas Peter

; • s might see, as being the first-fruit of the apostles, and after bim the twelve, Matthias being added to them in the room of Judas : after that he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once: after that he was seen of James, then of



τον νοητον των κατα τον τόπον, μη τετηρηκεναι μεν σωματικην περι τ8 νιψασθαι την ακολοθιαν. κ. λ. Com. in Joh. p. 374. E. Huet.

Οπερ εθος η και γινεται, η εις υπερβολην σπανιωτατα, και παρα τους πανυ απλεσερους και αγροικοτερους γινεται. Ιbid. p. 391. Α. Vid. Huet, Not. p. 125. Vid. et Orig. in Esaïam. Hom. vi. p. 564. Tom. i. Basil.

° Cum tam validis præceptis cibus sanguinis interdicatur a Deo, ut etiam nos, qui ex gentibus vocati sumus, necessario jubeamur abstinere, sicut iis quæ idolis immolantur, ita et a sanguine. In Num. Hom. xvi. p. 334. D. Tom. ii. Bened.

Ρ Το μεν γαρ ειδωλοθυτον θυεται δαιμονιους" τα δε πνικτα, τα αίματος μη εκκριθεντος,-απαγορευει ο λογος, κ. λ. Cont. Cels. 1. viii. p. 763. C.

See num. iv. p. 494. Εσαι δε προσαχθηναι απο των υπο Παυλα λεγομενων περι το πασαν την καινην ειναι τα ευαγγελια, όταν πε γραφη κατα το ευαγγελιον με εν γραμμασι γαρ Παυλο εχομεν ευαγγελιoν συνηθως καλεμενον. Αλλα παν ο εκηρυσσε και ελεγε, το ευαγγελιον ην α και εκηρυσσε και ελεγε, ταυτα και έγραφε και α εγραφε αρα ευαγγελιον ην. Ει δε τα Παυλο ευαγγελιον ην, ακολεθoν λεγειν, ότι και τα Πετρα ευαγγελιον ην. Comm. in Joh. p. 6. C. D.

5 Ηντινα Κηφας ο Πετρος, ώσπερει απαρχη των αποσολων, δεδυνηται ιδειν" -επειτα ωφθη Ιακωβο, έπειτα τοις έτερους παρα της δωδεκα αποσολες [forte απoσoλoις. Vid. not. Ed. Benedict.] πασι, ταχα τοις εβδομηκοντα, εσχατον δε παντων Παυλφ. κ. λ. Con. Cels. 1. ii. p. 100. Cant. p. 436. Β. C. Bened.


all the other beside the twelve apostles, [or rather,“ by all the other apostles beside the twelve,"] meaning perhaps the seventy; " and, ver. 8, last of all of Paul, as of one born out of due time." Compare ver. 5.

12. Phil. ii. vi. Origen understands those words of St. Paul, which we have rendered “ thought it not robbery to be equal with God," of Christ's humiliation. For thus he writes : · Butt we may be bold to say, that the goodness of Christ appeared greater and more divine, and truly aco cording to the image of the Father, when be “ humbled bimself, being made obedient unto death, even the death of the cross, than if he had affected (or chosen] to be like God,” and had refused to become a servant for the salvation of the world.'

This passage is taken from the Greek Commentaries upon St. John, and does most plainly show Origen's intention. But it is also evident from a passage in the books against Celsus, where this same text is quoted, that he understood these words of Christ's humiliation. This sense appears likewise in the Latin version of one of Origen’s tracts or homilies' upon St. Matthew. It is well known how Archbishop Tillotson understood this text. Dr. Wall's note* is thus: “ Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:” who, though he was of the divine nature, yet did not, in his conversation on earth, claim or insist upon it to be treated, dealt with, or spoken to as God.'

13. Among the ancients y Jerom, and Estius? among the moderns, understand St. Paul to include himself in what is said in those words, Tit. iij. 3: and Dr. Benson has lately argued' very strongly, that the apostle there particularly represents his own case. I think it will appear that Origen also applies the same text to St. Paul, admitting only the

1 Τολμητεον γαρ ειπειν, πλειονα, και θειοτεραν, και αληθως κατ' εικονα το Πατρος την αγαθοτητα φαινεσθαι το Χρισ8, ότε εαυτον εταπεινωσε, γενομενος υπηκοος μεχρι θανατε, θανατε δε σαυρε, η ει αρπαγμoν ήγησατο ειναι ισα θεω, και μη βεληθεις επι τη τε κοσμε σωτηρια γενεσθαι δελος. Comm. in Joh.

34. E.

u Čon. Cels. l. vi. p. 285. fin. Cant. p. 641. C. D. Tom. i. Bened.

Et dicet Patrem talia miranda dignare Filio suo, qui se ipsum humiliavit, et propter dilectionem non rapinam arbitratus est esse se æqualem Deo, &c. In Matt. Tract. xxx. p. 148. Tom. ii. Basil.

w Sermon xliv, vol. i. folio.

* Wall's Brief Critical Notes upon the N. T. p. 277. y Hieron. Com. in Ep. ad Tit.

2 Estius in loc. * See Dr. Benson's Paraphrase and Notes upon St. Paul's Epistle to Titus, in imitation of Mr. Locke's manner, p. 43–45.

Ούτω δε και εσχατος ην πας [lege Παυλος] και ανοητος, και απειθης, δελευων επιθυμιαις και ηδοναις ποικιλαις, αλλα γεγονε πρωτος, ότε



emendation of one word, which appears to me probable. However I would not be too positive, till I see whether this conjecture be confirmed by De La Rue's edition, or by some manuscripts which he has the sight of. Nor do I adopt that interpretation. But as it is well known that Jerom often inserted in his Commentaries explications of divers more ancient writers than himself, without naming them, it is very possible he might borrow this from Origen.

XXIX. Before I conclude this chapter, I would put down two or three general observations upon the scriptures of the New Testament, which we find in this learned writer of the third century.

1. In the books against Celsus he says, “That christians are induced to believe the writers of the gospels, by observing the evidences of piety and probity that appear in their writings; in which there is no deceit, or artifice, or cunning, or design.'

2. Origen was of opinion, that there are some things obscure and difficult in the scriptures, not only in the old, but likewise in the New Testament. I have already allegedd a passage to this purpose from a Latin Homily. We find the same observation in a Greek fragment of his bookse of Principles, where he says, “ There are many difficulties in the scriptures, not only in the prophetical writings, which all allow to have many obscure and enigmatical expressions, but likewise in the gospels, and in the Revelation of John, and the epistles of the apostles. This passage also serves to show in part what were the scriptures which Origen, and other christians, esteemed divine, and of authority.

3. In his books against Celsus, Origen more than oncef speaks of the simple and popular, or even low style, of the


ή χρηστοτης, και η φιλανθρωπια επεφανη το Σωτηρος ημων θεε.---Com. in Matt. p. 397. C. Huet.

Πιςευομεν δε και ταις προαιρεσεσι των γραψαντων τα ευαγγελια, κατασοχαζομενοι της ευλαβειας αυτων και συνειδοτος εμφαινομενων τους γραμμασιν, εθεν νοθον και κυβευτικον, και TETIQ Quevov kal havepyov cxovrwv. Con. Cels. 1. iii. p. 473. A. Tom. i. Bened.

d See num. xx. 7. p. 525. • Και τι δει λεγειν περι των προφητικων, ας παντες ισμεν αινιγματων και σκοτεινων πεπληρωσθαι λογων και καν επι τα ευαγγελια δε φθασωμεν, κακείνων η ακριβης νες, άτε νες Χριςο δειται χαριτος της δοθεισης των ειρηκοτι ημεις δε νον Χρισ8 εχομεν-[i Cor. ii. 12, 13.] και τα αποκεκαλυμμενα δε το Ιωαννη τις.8κ αν αναγνές καταπλαγειη την επικρυψιν των απορρητων μυσηριων

–και αι δε των αποσολων επισολαι τινι των βασανιζειν επισταμενων λογος δοξαιεν αν

είναι σαφεις και ευχερως νοεμεναι; κ. λ. Ρhiloc. cap. 1. p. 8. Cant. De Prin. I. iv. p. 167. Bened. Conf. Orig. p. 38. B. C. p. 39. B. C. Tom. i. Huet.

f Con. Cels. I. iv. p. 210. Cant. p. 556, 557. Bened. et lib. vi. init.


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writers of the New Testament: which, however, he affirms to be most for the general benefit of mankind : particularly & he says, “That the Jewish prophets, and the disciples

, of Jesus, renounced all artful composition of words, and what the scripture calls “ man's wisdom,” and “ fleshly wisdom," 1 Cor. ij. 4; 2 Cor. i. 12. In the Philocalia is a fragment of Origen's fourth tome upon St. Jobn's gospel, which is introduced, and begins as follows: Then after what he had said of the solecism of the gospel, [or the evangelist,] he goes on : ' But the apostles being sensible of their imperfection in this respect, and that they had not been educated in human learning, own themselves “ rude in speech, though not in knowledge.” For these words are not to be understood of Paul only, but likewise of the rest of the apostles: “ But though we be rude in speech,” &c.; and, “ But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellence of the power may be of God, and not of us," 2 Cor. xi, 6; iv. 7. By this means, he says, the truth of the gospel has been rendered more conspicuous: men have not been allured into it by the elegance of speech, but overcome by the mere force of truth alone.

Xxx. It appears to me worth the while to consider, whether Origen thought St. Matthew's gospel was originally written in Hebrew, We have seen three places where Origen speaks of this matter. In the passage i cited from Eusebius, he says that Matthew delivered his gospel to the Jewish believers in the Hebrew language. In thek second passage he observes, there was a tradition that Matthew wrote first, and delivered his gospel to the Hebrews, that is, the believers of the circumcision. In the third he says, that Matthew · wrote for the Hebrews, who expected him that was to descend from Abraham and David.' Having thus reminded the reader of these places, I would observe some other passages of Origen.

In his Treatise of Prayer, explaining the fourth petition of the Lord's prayer, he observes, that m the Greek word

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8 Οι δε εν Ιεδαιοις προφηται, και οι τε Ιησε μαθηται οι μακραν χαιρειν ειποντες τη ποικιλη των λεξεων συνθεσει, κ. τ. λ. Cont. Cels. 1. vii. p. 372. Cant. p. 737. Bened.

Ειτα, ειπων τον τ8 ευαγγελια σολοικισμον, επαγει: “Ατε δε εκ ασυναισθητοι αποσολοι τυγχανοντες των εν οις προσκοπτεσι, και περι α ησχοληνται, φασιν, κ. λ. Ρhiloc. cap. iv. p. 25. Cant. Tom. ii. p. 86. Huet.

i Num. iv. k Num. vii. 4.

1 Num. xvii. Πρωτον δε τοτ' ισεον, ότι η λεξις ή, επιεσιον, παρ' αδενι των Ελληνων, 8τε των σοφων ωνομασαι, ατε εν τη ιδιωτων συνηθεια τετριπται, αλλ' εοικε πεπλασθαι υπο των ευαγγελισων. Συνηνεχθησαν γεν ο Ματθαιος και ο Λεκας περι αυτης μηδαμως διαφερεσης [al. διαφερεσης] αυτην εξενηνοχοτες. Το


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