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II. Gregory is mentioned by many ancient writers. I shall here add some of their passages; they may be considered as testimonies. The writers I shall cite are, Origen, Eusebius, Jerom again, Basil, Theodoret, and Socrates; omitting some others, as not so material witnesses, and for avoiding too great prolixity.

Origen, in his letter to Gregory, probably written not many months after his return home, tells him, . His capacity was such, that he might be either a Roman lawyer of the first rank, or a celebrated Greek philosopher. But he adviseth him to make the christian religion his chief study.

Eusebius, speaking of Origen's scholars, says, “The d • most noted of them were Theodore, called also Gregory, • the most renowned bishop of our time, and his brother

Athenodorus; whom when Origen observed to be too fond . of Greek and Roman learning, instilling into them a love • of philosophy, he drew them off from their former studies • to divine things. Having stayed with him five whole ' years, they made such progress in the knowledge of the • divine oracles, that whilst they were yet very young they • were both appointed bishops in Pontus.' In another place, relating things under Gallienus, about the year 260, he says, “ Ate that time Gregory and his brother Atheno

dorus governed the churches in Pontus.' And among the bishops assembled from several parts in the first council at Antioch in 264, • The most considerable,' he says, • Firmilian, bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, the two • brothers Gregory and Athenodorus, pastors of the churches . in Pontus, Helenus of Tarsus, and some others.'

Jerom, in his letter to Magnus, so often cited already, among other eminent christian authors, mentions & Theodore, afterwards named Gregory, and calls him a man of apostolical signs and wonders.

What Basil, bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, has written of our Gregory, may deserve some special notice.

In bis Treatise of the Holy Spirit, after baving mentioned divers ancient ecclesiastical writers of chief note; such as

Δυναται η ευφυια σε Ρωμαιον σε νομικον ποιειν τελειον, και Ελληνικον τινα φιλοσοφον των νομιζομενων ελλoγιμων αιρεσεων. Orig. Ep. ad Greg. T. i. p. 30. D. Bened.

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4 Ων επισημες μαλισα εγνωμεν θεοδωρον, ος ην αυτος ούτος ο καθ' ημας επισκοπων διαβοητος Γρηγοριος, k. d. H. E. 1. vi. cap. 30.

e L. vii. cap. 14. | Ibid. cap. 28.

8 Exstant et Julii Africani libri, qui temporum scripsit historias; et Theodori, qui postea Gregorius appellatus est, viri apostolicorum signorum atque virtutum. Hieron. ep. 83. [al. 84.] p.

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Irenæus, Dionysius of Rome, and him of Alexandria, Origen, Africanus, and others; he adds; • Buth where • shall I place the great Gregory, and his words? Ought • he not to be ranked with the apostles and prophets; a man who walked in the same spirit with them, who always followed the footsteps of the saints, and in the whole of • his conduct was a complete model of the evangelical life? • 2 Cor. xii. 18. For my part, I must say, we should be • injurious to the truth, if we do not reckon that soul in the

number of those who were dearest to God, who shined in • the church as a large burning lamp, who by the mighty

operation of the Spirit had a power terrible to dæmons, • who received such grace of the word “ for the obedience

of faith among all nations,” (Rom. i. 5,) that though at • first he found only seventeen christians, he brought over • to the acknowledgment of God all the people both of the

city and the neighbouring country. He also turned the • course of rivers, commanding them in the all-powerful

name of Christ; and dried up a lake, which was the subject of contention between covetous brothers. His ' predictions of things future are such, as not to be inferior

to those of other prophets. But it would be too long to • reckon up all the miracles of this person, who, for the • abundance of the gifts wrought in him by the Holy Spirit, • " in all power,” [or, mighty deeds] “ signs and wonders, (2 Cor. xii. 12,) was called a second Moses by the enemies of the truth. Such was the grace of all his words and . actions, that he appeared to be adorned with a peculiar light and splendour, and indication of the heavenly power by wbich he was conducted. He is still the admiration of all the people of that country, and the memory of bin is ever fresh and lively in the churches, not at all • abated by length of time; fori which reason they have • not taken up any custom, word, or mystical rite, beside

what they received from him. Insomuch, that that church appears defective in many respects, because they have nothing but what is ancient; for they who have succeeded • him in the government of the churches would admit of * none of those things that have been since invented, but • have kept entirely to the first institutions, as derived from • him.'

* Basil, De Sp. S. cap. 29. T. iii. p. 62, 63. Bened.

'Ουκεν ο πραξιν τινα, και λογον, και τυπον τινα μυσικον, παρ' όν εκεινους κατελιπε, τη εκκλησια προσεθηκαν. Ταυτη του και πολλα των παρ' αυτους τελεμενων ελλειπως εχειν δοκει, δια το της καταστασεως αρχαιοτροπον ουδεν γαρ ηνεσχοντο οι κατα διαδοχην τας εκκλησιας οικονομησαντες, των μετ' εκεινον εφευρεθεντων παραδεξασθαι εις προσθηκην. Ιbid. p. 63. Α. Β.

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This is the great character which Basil gives of Gregory, and this is what he says here of his people. Nevertheless, this church of Neocæsarea, the people of Gregory, were very troublesome to the same Basil, or he gave himself a . great deal of trouble and uneasiness about them; for in divers of his letters he complains that they were all Sabellians; and he laments the strange aversion they had for him; which appears to have been general in the bishop, . clergy, people, and even the near relations of Basil in that church.

In a letter to the Neocæsareans, written about the year 375, entreating their good will and reconcilement to him, he says, . That one thing which should unite them in affection is, that he and they had the same instructors in the mysteries of religion, and the same spiritual fathers : I mean, says • he, the great and admirable Gregory, and those who have succeeded him in the episcopal chair with you, as stars arising one after another, all walking in the same steps, • leaving to all who are disposed to attend manifest traces

of an heavenly conversation. Afterwards, in the same letter, . And what stronger proof can there be of [the

orthodoxy of] our faith, than that we were educated by : our grandmother, that blessed woman sprung, from among you? I mean the celebrated Macrina, by wbom we were taught the words of the inost blessed Gregory, as she had received them and preserved them in ber memory, when

she taught us in our childhood the principles of religion ! and virtue.'

In another letter written to the clergy of Neocæsarea, after complaining of their m universal agreement with their bishop in an opposition against him, he writes, • Don not • follow those who introduce among you impious doctrines; nor do you sit still whilst in your sight the • people of God is subverted by corrupt principles. Sabellius, an African, and Marcellus of Galatia, are the only persons that have taught and written those things, which some leading men among you now produce as inventions • of their own; talking, indeed, with much assurance, but

* Ep. 204. [al. 75.] p. 303. C. D. ibid. - Πισεως δε της ημετερας, τις αν γενοιτο εναργεσερα αποδειξις, η οτι τραφεντες ημεις υπο τιτθη μακαρια γυναικι, παρ' υμων ώρμημενη; Μακριναν λεγω την περιβοητον, παρ' ης εδιδαχθημεν τα το μακαριωτατε Γρηγορια popara,

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προς αυτην ακολοθια μνημης διασωθεντα αυτη τε εφυλασσε, και μας ετι νηπιος οντας επλαττε και εμορφα τοις της ευσεβειας δογμασιν. p. 306. B.

η “Η μεν συμφωνια το καθ' ημων μισες, και το μεχρις ενος παντας ακολgθησαι τα προεξωτι το καθ' ημας πολεμο. κ. λ. Εp. 207. [al. 63.] p. 309. D.

n Ibid. E.

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bringing no plausible arguments for what they say. • These men reproach us without any regard to truth, but • will not come to discourse with us.—Yea, they are arrived 4 at such impudence aso to calumniate our doctrine as pernicious.'' He goes on : ' And P what is the ground of

• this implacable hatred of me? They say that I have introduced psalms and a method of singing different from your custom; and other such like things they say, which they might be ashamed to mention. We are likewise • accused that we have among us men who “ exercise theme selves unto godliness," who have renounced the world and all earthly cares, which the Lord compares to “ briars and * thorns, wbich suffer not the word to bring forth fruit to

perfection;" men who “ bear about the dying of Jesus in their body,” and “ take up the cross, and follow God," 1 Tim. iv. 7; Matt. xüi. 22; Luke viii. 14; 2 Cor. iv. 10; Matt. xvi. 24. Basil adds, he hears there are already such men in Egypt, and perhaps likewise in Palestine and in Mesopotamia, and more than in his diocese. • Moreover,' says he, if some women, choosing an evangelical life, prefer virginity to marriage, bringing into subjection the desires

of the flesh, practising that mourning on which a blessing * is pronounced; (Matt. v. 4.) blessed are they for this

their purpose, in whatever part of the world they are. • For 9 I would have you to know that we glory in this, • that we have societies of men and women whose“

versation is in heaven,” (Philip. iii. 20.) who “ have crucified the flesh with its affections and susts, (Gal. v. 24.) who are not solicitous about meat and dress, but are ** without distraction,” (1 Cor. vii. 35.) and constantly 6 « attend on the Lord, and « continue in supplications night *and day," (1 Tim. v. 5.) whose mouth speaketh not the ' works of men, but they sing hymns to our God without ceasing, “ working with their own hands, that they may give to him that needeth," Eph. iv. 28. Then he returns to the charge brought against him for the new psalmody, by which especially, as" he says, they terrified

Διαβαλλοντες ήμων τας διδασκαλιας, ως βλαβερας. Ιbid. p. 310. Β. P Καν την αιτιαν ερωτηθωσι τε ακηρυκτο τοτε και ασπονδε πολεμε, ψαλμος λεγεσι και τροπον μελωδιας, της παρ' υμιν κεκρατηκυιας συνηθειας παρηλλαγμενον, και τοιαυτα τινα, εφ' οίς εχρην αυτες εγκαλυπτεσθαι. Εγκαλεμεθα δε, ότι και ανθρωπος εχομεν της ευσεβειας ασκητας, αποταξαμενες τω κόσμο, και πασαις ταις βιωτικαις μεριμναις, κ. λ. Ιbid. p. 310. C. • 4 Γινώσκειν δε υμας βελομαι, ότι ημεις ευχομεθα και ανδρων και γυναικων συστηματα εχειν. κ. λ. p. 310. Ε. 3i1. Α.

Προς δε το εν ψαλμωδιαις εγκλημα, ω μαλισα τες απλεσερες φοβασιν οι διαβαλλοντες ήμας. p. 311. Α.

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the more simple people, and exasperated them against him. Here Basil describes that new way of singing which gave offence, and then goes on again: 'But these things, they • say, were not in the time of the great Gregory. To which • I answer, Nor yet the litanies [penitential prayers] you • make use of: not that I blame you for that, for I could • wish that you all lived in tears and in continued penance. "-But after all,' says Basil, ‘ you retain nothing of Gregory; for he did not pray with his bead covered. He

did not swear.—He did not call his brother fool. He did • not come to the altar before he had been reconciled to bis • brother. Tbus Basil goes on, giving these men bard words, when perhaps the same, or like things, might be said too truly of Basil's own friends and admirers, or any other people; especially if a man is out of humour with them because they do not submit to his will and pleasure. • But,' says he, we forgive every thing; only let the great things of religion be preserved : let there not be

any innovations made in the faith : do not overthrow the • subsistences, [hypostases,] do not deny the name of Christ : • do not misinterpret the words of Gregory

Froin these several passages I think it appears, that Gregory's church at Neocæsarea were now an old-fashioned people, christians of the primitive sort. There were some new bymns, or psalms, begun to be made use of by others which they did not approve of. They likewise disliked the new psalmody, which was a more artificial way of singing than was beretofore in use in the churches of Christ. Monasteries of men and women were another innovation which gave them offence: and when it is considered that Basil was fond of all these things, particularly of monasteries, and was the first person who introduced them into the countries of Cappadocia and Pontus, some will be able to account for the angry and contemptuous treatment which Basil gives the Neoceesareans. The opposition which those good people made to his new schemes was, it seems, a high provocation. But some may think that those christians had good reason to oppose some of his measures, and take offence at them; and not a few persons of good judgment may still be displeased, when they observe how he debaseth

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* Αλλ' εκ ην, φησι, ταυτα επι το μεγαλε Γρηγοριε. p. 311. D. Γρηγοριος ο κατεκαλυπτετο επι των προσευχων. ibid. Ε.

Μονον ερρωσθω τα προηγεμενα, και τας περι την πισιν καινοτομιας κατασιγασατε" τας υποτασεις μη αθετειτε το ονομα το Χρισ8 μη απαρνεισθε τας το Γρηγορια φωνας μη παρεξηγεισθε. ibid. p. 312. C.

"Vid. Vit. St. Basil. cap. vi. num. i. p. 53. B. C. D. Bened.

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