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bishops and presbyters of the neighbouring cities and villages about Antioch, and m of his being beloved and admired by others : though indeed they ascribe that respect for him to the presents he had made those persons. Since, then, Paul was of an active temper, and a man of popular gifts, as it seems, and his episcopate was chiefly under the mild governments of Odenatus, and his wife and successor Zenobia, it may be concluded, he had in that time made a considerable number of proselytes. And, very probably, he at first found some christians in his diocese of the same sentiments.

Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, affirms that ^ Lucian, who afterwards suffered martyrdom in 312, adhered to Paul, and separated froin the church; or was held excominunicated from the church during the time of three bishops of Antioch. One might be almost apt to suspect, from Alexander's words, that be thought Lucian had succeeded Paul in the episcopal care and oversight of those who were in Paul's sentiments at Antioch.

The council at Nice, in one of their canons, appoint, that the Paulianists should be rebaptized when they return to the catholic church. St. Augustinep has taken particular notice of that canon. And yet it appears from 9 Athanasius, that the Paulians baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The Paulians' are mentioned with others in an edict of Constantine against heretics. St. Chrysostoms often argues against the Pauliaus, and, I think, as then in being. Theodoret writes about 450, that there were then no remains of them. And Pope Innocent the first, about 414, as u Tillemont observes, speaks of them as if they subsisted no longer. However, St. Augustine, as we have seen, mentions them as if they were in being in his time, but the people of that sentiment were then oftener called Photinians than Paulians.

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η Αλλα και πλεσιες απεφηνες" εφ' ω προς των τοιαυτα ζηλεντων φιλειται και θαυμαζεται. ibid. D.

η –Παυλα τα Σαμοσατεως συνοδω και κρισει των απανταχο επισκοπων αποκηρυχθεντος της εκκλησιας ον διαδεξαμενος Λυκιανος αποσυναγωγος εμεινε τριων επισκοπων πολυετεις χρονες. Apud Theodoret. H. E. L. i. cap. iv. p. 15. B.

o Can. 19. Istos sane Paulianos baptizandos esse in ecclesiâ catholicâ Nicæno concilio constitutuin est. Aug. de Hær. ib.

4 Ούτω Μανιχαιοι, και Φρυγες, και οι τε Σαμοσατεως μαθηται, τα ονοματα LEYOVTES, Bdev ÝTTOV Elolv aipetikou. Ath.: Orat. 2. contr. Arian. p. 510. E. Euseb. de Vit. Constant. L. iii. cap. 64.

• Vid. Chrysost. in Ps. viii. T. iii. p. 120. B. C. et T. v. Serm. 20. p. 300. Serm. 24. p. 347. Ed. Front. Duc.

+ Vid. Theod. H. Fab. 1. 2. cap. xi. de Photino.

u See Paul de Samosates, Art. vi. Quia Paulianistæ in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritûs Sancti minime baptizabant. Innocent. i. Ep. 22. ap. Labb. Conc. T. ij. p. 1275. B.

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Neither Eusebius, nor the council of Antioch, nor Athanasius, that I remember, have any where charged Paul, directly or indirectly, with rejecting any books either of the old or the New Testament. Epiphanius expressly says, that w Paul endeavoured to support his doctrine by texts of scripture. Vincentius Lirinensis speaks of this as a common method of heretics; and y says particularly of the works of Paul, and some others, that there was scarce a page without citations out of the Old or New Testament. Paul then, and the Paulians, used the same scriptures with other christians.

This is a summary account of what the ancients write of Paul and his followers. It ought to be observed, that I have made no use of the epistle to Paul ascribed to Dionysius, nor of the questions and answers joined with that epistle. If my account therefore of Paul's opinions appears defective, when compared with that given by a Tillemont, or some other moderns, I had rather it should do so, than run the hazard of deceiving my readers by borrowing from suspected or manifestly spurious pieces, whose testimony is not to be relied upon.

There can be no question but Paul was an author. It is very likely he would publish some vindications of himself and his opinions. Vincentius actually makes mention of his writings, as we observed just now. But, as I take the above-mentioned questions to be spurious, I suppose none of his works to be now remaining.

As we have not now before us any of Paul's writings, and have his history from adversaries only, we cannot propose to judge distinctly of his talents, nor draw his character at length: however, from the several particulars before put down, and collected from divers authors, some things may be concluded ; and I apprehend that, laying aside for the present the consideration of his beterodoxy, we shall not mistake much if we conceive of him after this manner : he had a great mind, with a mixture of haughtiness, and too much affection for human applause. He was generally well respected in his diocese, and by the neighbouring Epiph. ib. p. 608. B.

* Hic fortasse aliquis interroget, an et hæretici divinæ scripturæ testimoniis utantur ? Utuntur plane, et vehementer quidem. Nam videas eos volare per singula quæque sanctæ legis volumina-Vincent. Comm. cap. 35. p. 356. Ed. Baluz. Paris. 1669.

y Lege Pauli Samosateni opuscula, Priscilliani, Eunomii, Joviniani, reliquarumque pestium : cernas infinitam exemplorum congeriem, prope nullam omitti paginam, quæ non Novi aut Veteris Testamenti sententiis fucata et colorata sit. Id. ibid.

? Ap. Labbei Concil. T. i. p. 849—893. a Vid. Paul de Samosates, Art. ii. Mem. Ecc. T. iv. P. ii. p. 615, &c.

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bishops ; in esteem with the great, and beloved by the com

; mon people. He preached frequently, and was a good speak

And from what is said by the fathers of the council, of his rejecting or laying aside some hymns, as modern, and composed by moderns, it may be argued, that he was a critic; which is a valuable accomplishment at all times, especially when uncommon.

I have now given a sufficient history of the controversies of those times, and of the part Dionysius had in them.

IX. I need not enlarge in the account of Dionysius's works, several learned men having already composed catalogues of them, so far as we are informed of their titles by ancient authors; as Cave in his Apostolici, or Lives of the Primitive Fathers, vol. i. and in his Historia Literaria; and Fabricius in hise Bibliotheca Græca; both dividing his works into treatises and epistles, and the latter disposing his epistles in the alphabetical order of the names of the persons or people to whom they are directed. Tillemont f likewise, as usual, is exact and particular upon this bead. Basnage digests our author's works in the order of time, which also

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b See before, p. 676.

Possibly those hymns were partly ancient, partly modern; having been altered and interpolated since their first original: and some of them might be entirely modern. Dionysius speaks of the many hymns [ons tollns yaluwdias] composed by Nepos, with which many of the brethren were mightily pleased. Euseb. l. vii. cap. 24. Dionysius does not expressly say that those hymns were sung in the public assemblies of christians; but it is very probable they were. And so Cave supposeth ; for thus he writes, Hist. Lit. P. i. p. 86. de Nepote: Scripsit adhuc Nepos in ecclesiæ usum psalmos atque hymnos quam plurimos, pios admodum et ab ipso Dionysio celebratos. And in his Apostolici, p. 194, in the Life of Dionysius, he says of Nepos; • That he was

a man eminent for his skill in the holy scriptures, and for the many psalms • and hymns he had composed, which the brethren sung in their public meet

ings.' Conf. Vales. An. ad. Eus. I. vii. c. 24. p. 153. C. Such hymns as these, composed by private persons, are the hymns which Paul rejected, or laid aside, that is, would not allow to be used public worship. And the 59th canon of the council of Laodicea forbids that any psalms or hymns composed by private persons should be sung in the church. So that what was reckoned in Paul to be a great fault, afterwards obtained general approbation.

d A learned writer among the moderns, whom I did not think of when I drew the above character, confirms almost every part of it; for he allows Paul to have possessed the third see in the church, and to have had the patronage of a great princess, an appearance of piety, reputation for learning, flowing eloquence, and the favour of the multitude. Ex infimæ sortis homine factus est Antiochenus episcopus, et tertium ecclesiæ thronum iisdem artibus conscendit, quibus hæretici solent, feminæ principis potentiâ, specie pietatis, doctrinæ famâ, dicendi facilitate, et multitudinis factiosæ gratiâ. “J. Garner. Diss. i. de Hær. et Li. Nestor. cap. iii. sect. iii. p.

307. e T. v. p. 263–267.

| Mem. Ecc. T. iv. p. ii. 8 Ann. P. E. 247. n. vii.

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is Du Piu's method. And Pagi' has judicious observations relating to the time of some of Dionysius's writings.

I have quoted several of his epistles, and mentioned some others, observing likewise sometimes the most probable date of them. It is necessary, however, that I add here a few things.

1. Particularly I would transcribe a passage of Eusebius, following what was formerly taken from him concerning Dionysius's writings against Sabellius. Says Eusebius; • Andk beside these he wrote many other epistles, still extant, 6 and some large treatises in an epistolary form : as the • books concerning nature, inscribed to his son Timothy, and • the book of Temptations, inscribed to the fore-mentioned

Euphranor. Moreover, in a letter to Basilides, bishop of * one of the churches of Pentapolis, he mentions a Com'mentary he had written upon the beginning of the book of * Ecclesiastes. And there are many other letters of Diony• sius to the same Basilides.'

From this passage it appears, that many of Dionysius's letters were of a great length; indeed they were properly treatises inscribed to friends, or others; and in some of them he displayed his copious learning without reserve, though without ostentation. "His two books concerning the Promises, mentioned above, the fragments of which are to be transcribed hereafter, were n letters, or written in an epistolary form.

2. In Eusebius's Evangelical Preparation o are large and noble fragments of the books concerning Nature, which show the author's excellent capacity, and his great learning, and intimate acquaintance with the Greek poets and philosophers, as well as with the scriptures of the Old and New Testament. If there were nothing else remaining, this fragment alone would be sufficient to show that Dionysius was a fine writer.

3. St. Jerom confirms what Eusebius writes of the Commentary upon Ecclesiastes ; for, enumerating this bishop's works, he says, “there P were many letters to Basilides, in one of which he tells him, he had begun to write a Conmentary upon the Ecclesiastes.' In another place Jerom h Nouv. Bib. T. i. p. 187, &c. i Vid. Pagi Crit. 257. n. iv.

k H. E. l. vii. c. 26. Και δε και πολυεπεις λογοι εν επιςολης χαρακτηρι γραφεντες ως οι περι φυσεως Τιμοθεω το παιδι προσπεφωνημενοι. ib. Β. 277. Α. Β.

Φησιν εαυτον εις την αρχην εξηγησιν πεποιησθαι τα Εκκλησιασ8. ib. Β. " Conf. Euseb. I. vii. cap. 26. in. et cap. 25. Vid. Vales. Annot. p. 154. B. • L. xiv. cap. 23—27. p. 772–784.

P Ad Basilidem quoque multæ epistolæ : in quarum unâ se asserit etiam in Ecclesiasten cæpisse scribere commentarios. De V. i. cap. 69.

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mentions Dionysius, with several others, who, he says, had 9 largely explained the first epistle to the Corinthians.

4. We still have one letter to Basilides, now generally called a canonical epistle. It is supposed to have been written about the year 262. Fleurys says; Of all the

writings of St. Dionysius of Alexandria, the only one that * remains entire and unquestionable is the canonical epistle • to Basilides the bishop, who had consulted him upon several • points of discipline.'' But perhaps we may add to this the epistle to Novatus, which, as recorded in Eusebius, seems to be entire. I shall make use of that epistle to Basilides by and by, when I come to observe our author's testimony to the scriptures.

In the mean time, as the conclusion of it is too signal a proof of prevailing bumility to be omitted, it shall be here transcribed. “You asked tbose questions, my dear son, • not through ignorance, but only to do honour to us, and to

cultivate our unanimity and friendship. And I, for my part, have declared my opinion, not as a teacher, but making use of that freedom with which it becomes us to speak • to each other. Do you judge according to the under• standing that is in you : and write me word what is best

in your opinion.' Dionysius writes thus, says " Fleury, out of humility : for indeed his authority was very great, on account of the dignity of his see, his age, and the glory of his having been twice a confessor, as well as on account of his virtues and learning.

5. Eusebius bas preserved w large and valuable fragments of a letter of Dionysius to or against one Gerinanus, a bishop of those times : who had calumniated Dionysius, as if he bad not taken due care of bis people, or not shown sufficient courage in time of persecution. 'This obliged Dionysius, in defence of bimself, to relate his own sufferings at several times. This letter, according to Basnage's * computation, was written in the year 259. I have made use of the fragments of it in the history I have given of Dionysius.

I would here put down a passage of Eusebius not yet transcribed. Beside y the fore-mentioned letters, in that • time [the persecution under Valerian, and Dionysius's

? Origenes, Dionysius, Pierius, Eusebius Cæsariensis, Didymus, Apollinaris, latissime hanc epistolam interpretati sunt. Ep. 31. [al. 52.] p. 243. fin. Bened. r Vid. Basn. a. 247. n. vii.

Fleury's Ecclesiastical Hist. B. vii. ch. 56. Vol. i. p. 470. in the English edition.

i Eus. 1. vi. cap. 45. u Ap. Labb. Conc. T. i. p. 836. D. E.

" Ib. Vol. i. p. 471. w Eus. H. E. 1. vi. cap. 40. I. vii. c. 1. * Dum exulem agit Dionysius, A. 259, ab Æmiliano pulsus, adversus Germanum scripsit epistolam, quæ gravia passus est, complectentem. Basn. ibid.

y Lib. vii. cap. 20.

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