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Poe's stories are originality, melancholy, and artistic form.

By giving three divisions you have laid out the subject for treatment. The three divisions you give may not beat all the divisions the instructor wishes, but your logically planned answer will be accepted with praise.

3. Now say something about every one of your three divisions, taking up one point at a time, and proving it.

4. Prove your points by giving specific examples.

Refer to at least one story that illustrates "originality,"' one that illustrates "melancholy," and one that illustrates "artistic form."

5. In concluding, use your opening sentence as a summary: "Thus we see that Poe's stories are original,, melancholy, and artistic in form."

If you answer in this way you do not need to have a great array of facts at your disposal. You need to systematize the knowledge you have.

If you are not a student you will find the method useful in answering questions asked you on various occasions in daily life.

The method is always successful. It carries an impression of weight and power.

PROBLEM.

Answer some question of the day in the manner suggested.

LESSON 142

How to Debate

KEY WORDS: IN ALL DEBATE DEFINE YOUR TERMS, LAY DOWN YOUR ISSUES, AND PROVE EVERY STEP.

You are called upon to debate more often than you think. Every time you enter into an argument, however slight it may be, you are taking part in a kind of debate.

For such purposes, and also for formal debates before large audiences, follow these suggestions:

1. State your proposition briefly and clearly.

"Child labor should be abolished."

If you fail to state your proposition you may debate on a phase of the subject rather than on the main subject. Your hearers, likewise, may think you are debating on some other topic than the one you have in mind.

2. At once define the terms you use.

"By 'child labor' I mean the paid employment of children under twelve years of age in stores, factories, and other recognized places of work."

"By 'abolished' I mean prohibited by law."

Many arguments arise because people have in mind different definitions of terms. Thus they argue to no purpose.

The mere definition of terms is often sufficient to end an argument. In a public debate the definition of terms places the contestants on a similar basis, and brings about that "clash" without which there can be no debate.

3. If you wish, you may now speak of the history of the question, of the reason for present interest in the subject, and of any facts that you frankly admit.

None of this is strictly necessary, but it all adds to clearness of understanding and to interest in the subject.

If you can give it briefly, present the information.

"The child labor question is as old as the working history of the race, but it has come into prominence in the last fifty years, because of our great industrial development."

"The war has made it a subject of present interest, because men have been called away to active service. Several definite legislative propositions have been made to legalize child labor during the war."

"We frankly admit the great need of labor, and we admit that children could take the men's places."

4. Lay down at least three issues, or three main lines of proof.

"In spite of all this, I am going to show you that (a) Child labor injures the conditions of labor. (b) Child labor injures the child.

(c) Child labor injures the country.

These are the definite points that you are to prove. The fact that you have stated them clears your own mind and the minds of your hearers.

5. Take up your issues one by one and prove your point of view in every case by giving detailed instances, illustrations, facts, quotations from authority, or any other proofs.

You are thus proceeding in an orderly and logical method that is cumulative in effect.

6. Quote freely from authority.

, .

There are many recognized sources of authority, such as great books, and especially books of statistics.

Give page references as often as possible.

7. In your debate issue two or three challenges to your opponents, basing your challenges on points that you believe beyond dispute. "I challenge my opponents to deny the facts presented in this book, which I lay on the table."

8. Conclude your debate by summarizing your main points and emphasizing their importance.

If you make a rebuttal follow these rules:

1. Introduce no new argument.

2. Confine yourself to overthrowing points your opponents have given, or challenges they have issued.

3. Make no empty denials. Prove, by reference to authority, or by other means, that your opponent is in error.

In all debates you should speak:

1. Loudly enough to be keard easily.

2. Deliberately enough to be impressive.

3. Briefly enough to be emphatic.

4. Courteously, using such words as "My colleague,' "My honorable opponent," "The gentlemen of the negative" and like expressions.

Think out a debate for the affirmative or the negative of the following question: "Education is the foundation of democracy."

PROBLEM.

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