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hree, there would exist a government of we recommend our readers to the letter hree hundred tyrants whilft the rest of itself. If their tastes be unperverted by he subjects would be slaves."

the spirit of party they must peruse it For a further gratification of curiosity with pleasure. A Reply to Mr. Burke's Speech of the First of December, 1783, on Mr. Fox's Easte India Bill. By Major John Scott. Debrett.

HIS is an answer to Mr. Burke's ficial work, and is completely executed. as it is now published by himself. Major lake has facilitated the inland navigation, Scott's letter to Mr. Burke was only an has increased the trade of Calcutta, and answer to that speech, as it appeared in has reduced the price of fuel above twenty the news-papers. The subject, therefore, per cent. Thele, Sir, are some of the of the reply and the letter is the same, many improvements which have taken with this only difference, that it is treated place in Mr. Hattings's administration. at greater length, and in a much more Lands have been cleared, new magafacfull and satisfactory manner. Mr. Burke (ures have been established, and old ones ascribes many of ihe abufes in India to improved to a great degree since he sucthe rapid succession of boys fent out to ceeded to the government, and I beg to govern it. In answer to this Major Scott ask you, Sir, if any man living could says:

have taken more pains to encourage trade "" In my last letter to you I have fully re- than Mr. Hastings has done ? To him we futed your assertion, as to the rapid suc- owe it, that the communication by the cession of boys who govern India. In the way of Suez with Europe was opened, civil and military service of the company and to the short-fighted policy of some of in Bengal, there are some who have ser. your friends, that it is now Dopped up. ved above thirty years, some from twenty. To him we owe a communication being five to thirty, more from twenty io established with Thibet, highly advantage ?wenty-five: The eldest major in Bengalous to Bengal." has been twenty years; the eldest captain No place upon the globe has been fo axteen years in the service; and in the greatly improved in the laft ten years civil line, the gentleman who will suc- Calcutta, and the country about it; the ceed to the first vacancy, in the board of trade of Bengal in general has increased, zrade went out a writer in 1763, just one and is increasing; parts of the country and twenty years ago. At Madras and which it was formerly unsafe to pass Bombay the rise is hill flower; and this through, are now in high cultivation, very is fufficient to prove your assertion not to different indeed from what they were when bave the smallest foundation in truth. I your friend General Smith was in Bengal, wish to deal in facts, to pledge my cha- who from the very short time he remained racter and my honour for the truth of my there, and the very large fortune he affertion, leaving the credit of fine writ- brought away, may answer the animated ing to the flowery Mr. Burke."

description you have given, of rapid sucAs to the improvements made in Ben- ceflion, enormous fortunes, birds of prey gal, Mr. Scoli gives us the following and palsage, &c. &c. &c." agreeable information.

With regard to the cruelties and extore Equally unjuit and untrue is your Lions comunitted by our countrymen in al'ertion, that our conqueit, after twenty India, and the fudden and immense for. years, is as crude as it was the first day. unes thereby raised, and particularly with We have crelied schools, we have built respect to the dreadful famine in 1770, bridges, we have made high roads, and Major Scott lays, we have cut new navigaciovs. Here, Sir, * For Heaven's sake, Sir, point out the I oppose faas to allertions. The foun- wretch, " who has torn the cloth from darien in Calcutta, lo far from being a the loom, or wrelied the scanty portion of palery one, has raised the English name rice and falt from the peasant of Bengal, throughout Indoltan, and was an under- or wrung from him the opium in which Ohing worthy the man to whom we owe he forgot his oppreslions and his opprera translation of the code of Gentoo laws, for." I thank my God I know no En. and the publication of a Bengal grammar. glillıınan who has been guilty of such The high road from Calcutta to Chunar, atrocious acts. It was my unbappy lot to 450 miles, ib.ough the hills which bound be in Bengal in 1770, when a third of its Bengal to the wellward, was a mof bene, inhabitants were fivept away by a dreadful



famine ; but colle&ively, and individu- have been suddenly acquired in Bengal ; ally, by voluntary subscriptions from all I affert that it is not true, that the fact has rauks of Europeans, we did our utmost been notoriously otherwise since Mr. Halto avert the miserable effects which at- tings succeeded to the government. If tended that fatal calamity : thousands were you will go farther back, indeed, I reafed every day in the garrifon of Mong- dily grant you that some very glaring inhier, where I was then doing duty, by Atances are to be found, of men who acthe officers and soldiers. The same at quired large fortunes in a short time, and Patna, Moorshedabad, and Calcutta. It po one more glaring than the case of your was to the imposibility of procuring rice, friend, General Smith, who arrived in and not to an insensibility to the di&resses Bengal in May 1765, quitted it in Decemof our fellow-creatures, that we must at- ber 1769; and lince his return to Engtribute the loss of so many lives *. The land, has been eminently conspicuous as Abbe Raynal can hardly dispute the palm a man of the very first world. A few, of invention with you, but in the pathe- and a very few more of us, have been tie you have no equal.

ambitious to get into parliament upon any "You have said, Sir, that " our In- terms, or to become members of the gamdian government is, in its beft ftate, a bling clubs in St. James's-street; but in grievance.” If you mean to apply this general, Şir, thus gentlemen who have to its influence over, or oppression of the served their country in India, are men of natives of India, I totally differ with you. as ftri& honour, and as exemplary characIf you mean to apply it to this country, ters in every respect, as any sei of mea the affertion is ablurd. Since the acqui. whatever. Let me repeat it again, that sition of Bengal, the customs, &c. paid the people of England who have been fo by the Company to the State, have in. gulled, deceived, and cheated by pretended creased from seven to thirteen hundred patriots, and political adventurers, will thousand pounds a year. Our exports to not suppose us to be the infernal monsters India bave increased in the same propor- you represent us, without full enquiry; tion; and instead of sending from three and no man wishes more earnestly ihan I to hve hundred thousand pounds in buldo for such an enquiry. Hitherto Mr. lion annually from this country to Asia, Hastings has not been treated with comwe have actually brought above three mil. mon justice, cominon decency, or comlions sterling into the kingdom in the last mon honesty, by his disappointed oppotwenty years. I agree most heartily with nents." you and Mr. Fox, that the sudden acqui. Talking farther of the immenfe for: Stion of wealth in India is highly impro- cupes acquired in the East-Indies, he fays, per; but the evil does not exist at pre- “ In a former part of my letter, I have lent. Mr. Hastings has been governor or proved how totally void of foundation governor general of Bengal for twelve your assertion is, that India is governed years; will you, right honourable Sir, be by a rapid succession of boys." In your so good to point out six persons who have 94th page, you suppose one of these boys returned to the country in that period, to return to their country loaded with with fortunes suddenly acquired ? I know “ odium and with riches," "half a milbut of two, the one, Mr. Farrer, a gen. lion perhaps.” As I wish, if possible, to tleman of the law; the other, Major confine you to fa&ts, I desire you will point Webber, the aid-de-camp of Sir John out a single man to me, who has ever re. Clavering, who was appointed to the com- turned from India with half a million, mand of a regiment of horse in the vizier's except Lord Clive + ? I have heard that fervice, and commandant of the garrison your friend, General Smith, brought what of Allahabad, where he had a fair and an I call an immense fortune home with him, honourable opportunity of acquiring a two hundred and fifty thousand pounds ; handsome independence in two years. A perhaps he never poffessed half the mogentleman who deals so much in exagge. ney. Two or three gentlemen who held ration as you do, can only be refuted by very high and advantageous offices in Benan appeal to facts. You say, fortunes gal, on the first acquiltion of the Dewan.

. By the bye we always understood, that this famine was partly artificial as well as natural, and was owing, at least in some degree, to the villainous arts of forestallers and regrators. Rev.

+ Did ocither Sir Thomas Rumbold, por Mr. Benfield bring home a fortune of half a million? They certainly did so, or they are grossly Dattered by their friends, or belied by their enemies. REV.




nee, are supposed to have acquired very tier, and Mr. Hastings. It is remarkable handsome fortunes; but they have been that the two former gentlemen were poorer fo long in England, and the system is so when they quitted, than when they fuc. totally changed finee they werel abroad, ceeded to the government. Neither of that we cannot mention them, or their them ever poflcfscd one hundred thousand fortunes, as applicable to the present pounds, nor any thing like it; and they times, with any more propriety, than the are both highly elleçmed for every amia. noble earl at the head of your proposed ble and praise-worthy, quality: the latter commislion displayed, when he read a let is generally known by the title of the ter from the interior parts of Bengal, man of Kent, nor do I believe he has an dated 1769, in order to prove how op- enemy in the world. Mr. Hastings, I pressively the revenues were collected in assure you, Sir, will be a fortunate man, 1783. Since the departure of Lord Clive if, after filling the government of Bengal from Bengal in 1767, there have been above twelve years, he can realize one three governors, Mr. Verelst, Mr. Car- hundred thousand pounds." A Refutation of the Memoirs of the Bastille, on the general Principles of Law, Pro

bability, and Truth; in a Series of Letters to Mr. Linguet, late Advocate in the Parliament of Paris. By Thomas Evans, Solicitor in Chancery, and one of the Attornics of the Court of King's Bench, in England. Murray.

R. Linguet is a man that has made fore the accession of the present governor and having been imprisoned in the basiille of your utmost malice, you say,, (though for some crimes, real or pretended, against it be difficult to guess how you come evea the government of his country, he thought by this information) that the prisoners reproper, it seems, after the recovery of ceived visits, law each other familiarly, his liberty, to publish an account of the horo walked together, and eat and conversed tors of that state-dungeon, in which we with the officers of the erat-major; and Thay naturally suppose he was rather in. you mention as the utmost aggravation of clined to heighten, than to soften the pic. misery, that a prisoner had once but four iure. We question much, however, whe- ounces of meat at each meal. What is iher Mr. Evans, who has here undertaken this but the panegyrick of a prison ! to refute or answer him, and who appears Point out another in the world where to be a man of considerable ingenuity, prisoners (even debtors) are thus treated, and by no means an inelegant writer, døes The prison of the king's-bench in Engnot foften matters as much as Mr. Lin. land, is perhaps in the best repute for its guet exaggerates them. For either the conveniencies, and the usage of those who world has long laboured under a mistake, are confined in it; and yet they are not many

a man has been sent to the bal- provided with any lodging, nor are allowed tile, who never found his way out of it what will procure one ounce of meat a again, and was never heard of more by day for either of their meals; and in the his friends or relations, and consequently gaols where prisoners are confined for may be supposed either to have died a crimes, they are only supplied with one violent death, or to have perished through pound of bread a day, and water. That the length and severity of his confine the regulations of the basiille may occament.

fionally be abused by capricious gover. There is one circumstance, indeed, at- nors, officers, and turnkeys, is as proba. tending the institution of the bastile, which ble, as that they may be misrepresented by Thews the humanity of the French go- vain, petulant, and random writers." vernment. Mr. Evans mentions, and As Mr. Linguet's memoirs seem to be triumphs in it thus.

of a very loose and desultory nature, the “ Supposing you are determined merely reply to them must necessarily partake of to discover the variety of your talents, the same character; and hence it is, that we may account for your numberless in the present performance is rather an inconsistencies and contradi&tions. For you vective against Mr. Linguet for the seve: soon allow, that by the institution of the rity, the insolence and injustice with which bastille; and not in what you quaintly he attacks the Comte de Vergennes, and call its regimen; in every thing concern- others of the French ministry, than a ree ing persons accused of crimes against the futation of any particular charges whick king or the frate, the treatment of the Mr. Linguet has brought against the conunfortunate prisoners, is liberal; for, be- ficution of the bastille.





There is one curious topic, which Mr. me, upon reading the different lihels, Evans has touched upon, and which we which have from time to time been pubshall here take the liberty of laying be- lished in this country, upon the persons fore our readers in the author's own words. and characters of different princes in Eu. It is, whether a foreigner, rcliding in rope, that neither of the ambassadors, England, may not, by the laws of this whose fovereign was thus traduced, has country, be punished for a libel, published not stepped forth and demanded redress hefè, against his own king and govern. for, it is a paradox that I cannot be res

conciled to, that the person of an ambasa “ You applaud and praise yourself, on fador should be deemed so sacred by the this occasion, as usual : (that is, on your law of nations, and protected by the stabeing committed to the ballille) but you tute law of England, in a very peculiar may be assured, that very little credit is manner; and yet that the prince whom given in England by men of sense and the ambassador reprefents, Ihall be traexperience, to perforis, who avail them- duced and vilified, as suits the malevofelves of the protection of this country, lence of any worthless scribbler, who can to revile their own, and to defame and do it with impunity. vilify the greatest and worthiest charae- " From the nature of the English conters in it. For my own part, I think ftitution, it is out of the power of the this prote&tion should not be extended to king, or his ministers, to restrain this foreigners, like you, without conditions. abominable abuse of the liberty of the Libels are very frequently published in press, so reproachful to our national urLondon, by the refule of France, by per. banity, politeness, and good sense. The fons whose crimes at home have deserved tribunals consequently, are the only places much heavier foverities than those of the to be resorted to, for å remedy. When. bafille, against the majesties of your king ever therefore, a prince, or a sovereign, and queen; merely as wretches blaspheme is traduced or defamed by malicious and all goodness and all virtue.

desperate libels, his ambassador, assuming "This sort of conduct, from the loc a conduct which will become him as a cal fituation of the persons libelled, has duty, if he does not consider it as a lau. hitherto been decmed by many very re

dable circumstance of his pride, should {pe&able characters at the bar, and else- immediately apply to the court of king'swhere, not to be within the spirit of the bench, or to the aristocratick part of our English law, and confequently, not fub- constitution, for redress; and I have no ject to its jurisprudence: whilft on the doubt (with great deference to the opiother hand, several well informed gentle. nions of several ingenious gentlemen, who men of equal respectability (one of whom have differed with me upon the subject ;) is now as brighta luminary as any at the of either the one as a court of law, or the bar;) have suggested to me a different other as a court of honour, as well as law, opinion; the matter, however, from the being competent to grant it." magnitude of its consequences, hould This pamphlet consists only of one let. Diot be left in doubt, when the opinions ter; and as Mr. Evans talks, in his title. of the several courts supposed to have page, of a series of letters, we may najurisdiction in the premises, can fo casily turally suppose that he means, some time be known upon the subject.

or other, to refume the subject, " In short, it has frequently astonished A Letter to a Country Gentleman. Stockdale. 1784.

“ ; no ftruck with the arguments on fecret right to their places, and that they em. influence, which are contained in this let- ployed the influence of the crown against ter, that he determined to give it to the the crown. He is of opinion that the publick.” The writer of it allows that a new ministers ought to go on; that all certain noble lord gave advice to his ma

honeft men should unite to break the coajefty, but at the same time asserts that he lition; and that when this is done, things had a privilege to do so; and that this will fall into their proper train. advice had saved his country. He says, This is a very seasonable and judicious

and his colleagues were publication.
James Adais, Esq. the king's prime serjeant, and recorder of London.




that Mr. F

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A D S O N G.


Hard beats the rain, and bleak blows the wind, Cold is my

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Henry has banished content from my breast,

Pityless leaves me to wander alone;
Ah ! cruel shepherd, how can'lt thou moleft,
The peace of a maiden whose heart was thy own.

Once on a time when Love was unknown,

Where was the damsel so happy as I?
But Henry deceived, and contentment is flown,
Sighs fill my bosom, and anguish my eye.

I had twisted a garland and sent to my Love,

Fair were the flowers, and dropping with dew;
Mark well the issue, ye maids of the grove,
The flowers still were fresh, when the swain prov'd untrue.

Wreath'd round my brow appears the fad willow,

One sprig of Cypress I wear at my breast;
Some friendly turf I will seek for my pillow,
There lay my forrows for ever to relt.


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