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It was to their almost perpetual wars with cible; Gaul alifted them with troops of their neighbours, to the institution of the known valuur; and in Greece they found laws by Lycurtis, and to the eltablishment men acquainted with all the stratagems of the Olympic games, that we are to at- of war. Thus, without exhausting their tribute their progress in this murder- own subjects, they could raise a powerful cas art. The count passes in review the army, félected from the first troops in the diferent people of this country, gives a whole world. Count de Saint-Cyr has rapid account of their respective excel- given us the following description of their lencies, and gradually unfolds, the princi- celebrated capital. 6. Cette ville étoit ples of their tactics; particularly those close d'une triple muraille, haute de trente which were practised by the Spartans, coudées, sans les parapets et les tours qui Macedonians, and Athenians. This mi- la flanquoient tout à l'entour à égale dislitary history is traced in a few words, tance, éloignées l'une de l'autre de quawhich we cire, in order to give our read- tre-vingts toiles. Chaque tour avoit quaers a belter idea of the count's manner of tre étages, les murailles n'en avoient que lineating,

deux. Elles étoient voûtées, & dans le " La jalousie du commandement alluz. bas il y avoit des enables pour mettre ma la guerre du Pcloponnese, qui arma trois cens éléphans, avec les choses nécesa Ious les Grecs les uns contre les antres, et faires pour leur fubftance, et des écuries cuint i'histoire est moins intérellanie par au-dellus pour quatre mille chevaux, et la grandeur des événemens, que par la les greniers pour leur nourriture. Il s'y quantité de fairs inftruétifs qu'clle nous trouvoit aulli de quoi y loger vingt mille preferite. On voit dans les deux partis fantallins, et quatre mille cavaliers. des chefs habiles épuiler tour-à-tour à la “ Les Carthaginois avoient les mêmes iete de leurs petites armées les resources armes et la même maniere de combattre de l'art profond, et nous étonner par la que les autres peuples de la Grece, beaubardiesse de leurs marquvres. Alors la coup de chars & d'éléphaus; mais le mauistique des Grecs devint plus savante de vais système qu'ils avoient de ne composer par en jour. Onla vit s'avancer vers fa leurs armées que d'étrangers, leur fut perfection par les lumieres d'Epaminon- préjudiciable, & contribua beaucoup à la des, y arriver sous Philippe, s'y maintenir deftruction de cette fameuse et puissante ! 15 Alexiudre, décheoir infeasiblement republique." por la négligence et l'avarice de les fuc- The military history of the Romans is rateurs

, ait que par les divifions inief- written with enthusiasm, and a warmth of tripes des Grecs, qui, dégénérant de leurs colouring that aniniates and seduces the 12 e.res, et plus occupés à le mure les juryment of the reader. After having

ex autres, que du foin de lur librité, developed the causes which contributed to

sherent enfin n'avoir htté la chute de the grandeur of this people, causes which fuire, dernier roi de Macédoine, que generally fprung from their love of poBut fubis plutôt le jong des Romains.” verty, their education, and enthusiasın for

els the Asiatic princes trusted the illae liberty, be paints with energy the fatal of battles rather io the number of their causes that led to their declenlion. And 01.0965, their cavalry, and their elephares, although these objects have been handled th to the art of war, is is no wo der b; a prodigious variety of writers, yeg thu they were so often routed by a hande under the riallerly touches of this author, ful of disciplined troops, condarked by an they appear in a novel and interesting obie general. For this reason we ih 'l point of view. pals on to that rival nation of the Ko. “En tout genre de combat c'est de Dills, the Carthagerians. The military lari et de l'expérience, bien plus que du power of this people, says the count, con- grand nombre, et d'une valeur mal-conlilled in allies, and those who were tribu- duite qu'il faut attendre la viétoire, ausli tury, from whom they raised their militia, voyons-nous qu'il n'y a qu'une adrelle sue and drew immense fums of mener. Their périeure dans le manniennent des armes, foldiers were partly citizens, and partly une exacte discipline, une longue pratique mercenaries purchased in the neighbouring de la guerre, et firtout l'attention de Nates, without being obliged to prendre chez les peuples voisins tout ce

Numidia furnibed them qui ponvoit contribuer à la perfection, with their light cavalry, famous for their qui aient rendu les Romains inaitres de enterprize, impetuofixy, and during could l'univers. Sans cela leur petii nombre tage; their islands produced the inol lill- elli -il pu tenir contre la multitude des fui flingers in the universe; Spain fent inlois, leur taille médiocre contre la blem an infantry that was deemed invine bauteur gigantesque des Germaids? On ECROP. Mág.

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fait que les Efpagnols les surpaffuient par évolutions de l'ennemi qu'on avoit en le nombre et par la force du corps ; les tête. Je crois cependant qu'on pourroit Africains, par la ruse et par les richelies; reprocher à Annibal, de n'avoir afica les Grecs, par les sciences er les arts. Mais tiré parti de la superiorité que la force de ils savoient mieux que tous ces peuples fon armée lui donnoit. Par exemple, ne choisir de bons soldats, leur enfeigner la pouvoit-il pas, pendant que la premiere guerre par principes, les fortifier par des ligne étoit aux prises avec les Hastaires, exercises, journalier, prevoir tout ce qui faire filer par derriere ceile des Carthagé. pouvoit arriver dans les diverses foriis nois, qui s'étendant à droite, et à gauche des combats, des marches, dos campe- pour dépasser le front de l'armee Romaine, mens, punir sévérement les lâches, &c.” l'acroient prise en flanc ? Pourquoi, loil.

The young officer, in particular, will qu'il vit ses deux premieres lignes mises read with avidity and inllruction the moit en fuite, ne pratiqua-t-il pas des intervalmemorable battles that were ever fought; les dans la troilierne, pour laisser palier les especially as there are plates to accom- fuyards et leur donner la facilité de se repany cach battle, with the author's re- former ? Rien n'acroit été plus aisé à faire; marks on the genius, errors, and over. il ne s'agisloit que de rompre cette troisieme fights of the greatest generals. We shall ligne par divisions, à droite ou à gauche. close this interesting and curious article Ces intervalles cuslent été aussitôt refere with an extract, as a specimen of the au- més par un mouvement contraire. Si thor's happy manner of narrating, and the ces étrangers se fuilent reformés, ils eussent fcientific knowledge he has dilplayed in pu faire tête à la cavalerie qui revinc describing the battle of Zama, in which charger à dos l'armée d'Annibal, et ils Hannibal and Scipio displayed the talents auroient empêché la défaite. Scission le of two confummate mallers of ibis fuience. conduifie dans cette affaire en général

“ La conduire des généraux dans cette consommé. Il ne ne, ligee rien de ce grande Journée, fue marquée au coin du qui pouvoit lui procurer la victoire. An. génie, de la prudence, ct du talent. Rin nibal avoit un très beau plan, fit de belles n'est donné au bazard, à l'habitude. Cha- mancuvies, mais il ponvoit encore mieux que disposition, chaque mana’uvre fut faire." calculée d'après les circonitances et les Essays on Suicide, and the Immortality of the Soul, ascribed to the late David Hume,

Esq. never before publiflcd. With Remarks, intended as an Antidote to the Porfon contained in the Performance, by the Editor. To which are added, two Letters on Suicide, from Rouffeau's Eloilc. London. 1783. Price gs. 60. sewed.

tious. The spirit of the greater part

of kuowledged, was the predominant his philosophical, and, indeed, of a great passion of Mr. Hime. And had he al- pari of his hifiorical writing, is an attempt ways exercited his talents on innocent to raise mankind above the terrors of fu. fubje&is, he would have acquired celebrity, perftition, by ingenious and acute rcalcu. noi only by the fubtleness of his philolo- ing. In his lati illness, accordinglv, he

ufefulness of his morny. remarked to his intimate friends, with no To illuftrate and confirm opinions al. {mall triumph, that he law ihe clouds of seady received, couilles an author only to religious fears ranifiing before the fun, fecondary praise ; and is the humble task fhine of his writings. Serenity of mind of plodding commentators. But to root is the most precious fruit of philosophy, out the most inveterate prejudices of the This fruit Mr. Hume icaped liimfell, and mind, and in their room to fubstitute doc- he was desirous of imparting it to oihers. trines which extire surprize by their no- The grand practical inference to be drawa veles, and afloniihment by their boldness, from Mr. Hune's philosophy in geneprocures one a title to no vulgar praise, ral;-he seems defirous to hequeath to and seenis an object not unworthy ambi- pollerity, by way of legacy: it is couched tion. If such innovations can be made in, and indeed is the subject of these two conducive to the interests of society, if clíays, on Suicide, and the Immortality of the efforts of daring and inventive genius the Soul. can be qunlified by a tendency to promote That these essays are in reality the pro• the good of mankind, then praile is com- duction of the auihor, to whom they are plete, and genius mcets its lighet re- attributed, is a matter that might very ward.

easily be proved. Whoever is conversant It is a reward-a glory fomething of with the writings of Mr. Hume, will here this kind, of which Mr. Hume is ambi- discover plain marks of bis ityle and man

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ner, and of his peculiar turn of think- fufficient proof of the immortality of the

foul, that of the author before us, wood To the ellay on suicide, Mr. Hume sets be perfeâly conclusive. There is no sube out with magnifying the merits of philo- ject too profound for his researches; and sophy, as an antidote against fuperftition, there is hardly any mind so firm as to fol. and anxiety of mind. He proves with low him in his reasonings, without being much acuteness of argument, that suicide greatly biassed.-Mr. Hume reasons against is juftifiable, according to the opinions of the immortality of the human soul, from all the great fathers of antiquity, as also the iniquity and cruelty of eternal punishof what he thinks the most respectable ments. But those who look for the imand judicious part of the moderns. " Sui- mortality of the soul, are not obliged to ade, he says, must be a transgression either maintain the eternity of future punishof our duty to God, or to our neighbour, ment. In a word-we agree entirely or to ourselves.” All these different heads with Mr. Hume in what he expresses irobe confiders attentively, and finds little nically, that “ Nothing could set in a ful. difficulty in proving that they are nothing ler light the infinite obligations we have but words.-But, on these arguments of to Divine Revelation, than the consideraMr. Hunne, we observe, that a mau's dis- tion that no other medium could ascertain pofing of his life as he thinks proper, cer- the great and important truth of the im. lanly is criminal, because in every mortality of the soul.” This is the real, cale it is criminal to encroach upon the unpolluted fountain, and there is no fala laws of matter and motion, and to dis. vation to be found in any

other. wrb their operation. But we cannot so The notes annexed to these elays, are readily alleni to that reasoning, whereby intended to expose Mr. Hume's sophisbe endeavours to evince that every one try. The editor thinks he 'renders the has the free dilposal of his own life. There public an essential service, by adminiftring is a certain book, with which we hope all at once the poison, and the antidote. The Mr. Huine's readers are acquainted, which greates benefit the reader has to expect leaches a very different doctrine ; accord- from the two, is, an exemption from ing to this book, there is a propriery, a evil: now he might have had that, witha grace, a dignity, in facing danger with out having been presented with either ; boldness , and in submitting patiently to

and there would have been a farther adthe disposal of heaven. The grand ob- vantage-the editor would have saved je{tion we inake to Mr. Hume on this himself a good deal of trouble.-Of the subject, is that he sets moral obligation en- notes, we affirin that they are defultory, tirely ande, and does not consider man as declamatory, compiled from former pulis an accountable creature: and realons con- licacions, and altogether debitute of that tersing his conduct, only on the princi- metaphysical acumen, which was necessary ples of materialism.

we do not lay to expose, but even to ena The cílay on the immortality of the ter into, and fully comprehend the profoul abounds with the most ingenious and found argumentation of Mr. Hume. These fubtle reasoning: and we scruple not to essays of Mr. Hume are fhort, and might agree with our author, that it is difficult have sold for a shilling: but the booksela

prove the immortality of the foul by ler has thought proper to swell it with the mere light of reason. The arguments notes, and two of Rousseau's well-known for it are commonly derived either from letters, which do nothing but add to the metaphysical, phylical, or moral topics. price of the pamphlet. If we were to admit reasoning as a Chemical Reflections relating to the Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Cure of some Diseases; in particular, the Sea Scurvy, the Stone and Gravel, the Gout, the Rheuinatism, Fevers, &c. containing Observations upon Air; upon conftituent Prieciples; and the decomposition of animal and vegetable Subliances ; with a Vam riety of occafional Remarks, Philosophical and Medical ; to which is added, the Merhod of making Wine from the Juice of the Sugar Cane. By James Rymes,

Surgeon, at Ryegate. 1emo. WE

E have, on a former occasion, will shake his cane over the bead of a poor

given our opinion of Mr. Rymer private, for presuming to think, and to as an author.

“ Being but a gentleman deliver opinions relative to his profession." foldier, in the ranks of the medical army, This paitage, which occurs in the body I dupe, says he, no coinmiffioned oficer of the work, shews, that the author ftill

p!eserves

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preserves his eccentricity. The present thus confined, look as if they had come publication, however, is not destitute of out of the Black Hole of Calcutta, with useful observations; and like all Mr. Ry- cadaverous countenances, drenched with mer's other publications, affords marks of a sweat and the vapour of the breath, and benevolence of heart which does him ho- reeking with heat. I have seen human nour. The following patlage points out nature undergoing severe discipline in vaan abuse which is certainly disgraceful 10 rious countries, barbarous and polished, humanity, and which we hope will be at- but I do not recolleet to have seen my tended io in every future war, by those fellow-creatures any where in a more unwhole province it is to reclify it.

pleasant situation, than I have seen the “When I was surgeon to his Majesty's subjects of a nation, to justly renowned ship Conqueftadore, then ftationed at the for magnanimity, benevolence and pity, Nore, to receive impreffed men from ten- on board British tenders. luis said, the ders, &c. I have received poor wretches urgency, thc exigency of affairs require it. under my care, by the tender from the It may be so; and I bow down with retower, in the most pitiable condition. The verence, though unconvinced. O for the method is to shut up sixty or eighty ill- purse and the power of an absolute mofared mortals in the hold of a small vessel, narch, and a royal mandate to travel where they are sometimes, as it were, thronghout his dominions in queft of huflowed in bulk. The hatch-way, if the man woe; to faturate the wants of wretchmen become troublelome for want of edness, in ftations beneath the notice of common cool air, is at times hermetically unfeeling athuence and gaudy giddy blafealed. As they are not suffered to come zonry; and above all, O for the purse and upon deck, to answer the calls of nature, powerot Majcity, to reward in the genılent shere is a tub, or a bucket, placed below and moit delicate way, that fuficring glory in the midst of them. The eflluvia from of humanity, whicli, like parience on a human excrement, must of course, add monument smiling at grief, nobly perishes greatly to the milerv of Britons lo treated. in fome lone retreat, a triumphant and Under such circumitances many faint, and splendid facrifice to the dignity of our na. fome die : others have been received on ture, rather than say thank you, to all the board the guardship, with fever that has inonarchs upon earıh.” inmediately exhibiied putuid phenomena, For anecdotes of the author, see Vol. terminating in death. These wretches, III. p. 204. after having been eighteen or twenty hours E Navs on Shakespeare's Dramatic Characters of Richard the Third, King Lear, and

Timon of Athens: 10 which are added, an Ellay on the Faults of Shakespeare, and additional Obsirvations on the Character of Hamlet. By Mr. Richardion, Pro

fetior of Humanity in the University of Glasgow. Murray, 1784. ΤΗ THERE is a natural propensity in school is fill, in some measure, retained

mankind, io transfer their ideas con- in univerfries, where the advancement of cerning objects which are known to them, knowledge is retarded, and ignorance rento others with which they are wholly un- dered venerable by the fanction of parlia. acquainted. Hence a few principles or ment. But the hiltory of the human mind causes, limited both in their operation and is made the basis of logic, metaphysics, extent, have been held forth in different and moral philosophy in most of thote se, theories of philosophy, as the grand c.. mindnies that, being free from the dread gines that govern the universe. shid tha' of innovation, kecp. pace with the prothe absurdity of fuch a method of philo- gress of science. In the university to sophiling was often confeffed, ingenious which the author of the essays, which have men continued for ages, to advance in the given rise to these observations, belongs, mares of theory and conocture; a:d in. the professors Hutchinson and Smith had that wild and endless course, exerted the attended, with great sayacity and accuracy, atmost vigour of underifandili,, and fubli.

w the phenomena of the moral world; mity of anius Natural philulophy, at and, from the nature of man, deduced the Dalt, began to be illurimaed by the lights laws, together with the principles by which of experiment, and she dicoveries made they are enforced, thai ought to regulate in that fcience have been wondertet. huinan conduct. The fiftens of thele inWriters on metaphysical as well as moral genious philosophers are inderd Jiiferent; subjects, in process of time, imitated this but in ihis they both agree, that at every exemple. The jas ou of the Ariitoiciian tuin ibey make app.cals to common dife,

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anded

and to the workings of the heart as un- painful nor pleasant, in the extreinag of folded in hiftory. Mr. Richardion treads pain or of picalure, but liangely delightis the fame feps with his illustrious pre- ful” After having made thele remarks, decrisors, when, in a philosophical ana- the author proceeds to illufirate, by a pailvlis and illustration of some of Shake- ticular analysis of some triking scenes in speare's remarksble' characters published the tragedy of Richard the Third, “ That force years ago, he contemplated that the pleafure we receive from the character faithful minor of nature, and traced the of Richard, is produced by those emoti. various influence of external cautes upon ons, which arise in the mind, on behold. de images which it reflects. He thews ing great intellectual ability employed for how true to nature the poet appears in inhuman and perfidious purpoles." In the his conceptions, and deduces such reflec- prosecution of this design, our author, at cons as both enlighten the theory, and ihe same tiine that he illaltiates a very ter i to facilitate the practice of virtue.- curious truth on the conduct of the para The duscourses now offered by this inge- fions, exhibits in a very friking light the Dious author to the public, as we are in- wonderful penetration and art of the formed in a preface, were written at dif. poci. ferent times; and read before a literary In the esay on the dramatic character of fociety in the College of Glasgow. The King Lear, dr. Richardlon points out the firit of them relates to the dramatic cha. difference benaveen actions that flow from rater of King Richard the Third. The mere fenfibility, and chofe which arise lices of this prince, Mr. Richardson ob from a fense of dury. This difference feres, by no means answer the purpose has been recognized by Dr. Smith, and of a foil io the virties of any other per- other writers on morals. Dr. Smith, luas represented in the poem; for the when handling that subject, fupposes the virtues and innocence of oihers lerve only case of a wife who performs all kind of. to render his hideous guilt the more inex- fices to her hulband, from an affectionate Cuiable. Neither does the pleasure we and tender disposition; and that of a wife receive, entirely arise from the gratifica- who performs all good offices to him from bonof our resentme!t, or the due display of a fense of dury. He juitly observes, that Fortis al justice. We are pleaied, no where senlibility is not confirmed by princobi, with the punilhment of Richard. ciple, it is not eniiled to the highest deli is not his punishment, however, but the gree of praile, but in many respecis, is display of his enormities, and their pro. deficient. In illuilrating this truin from glus to this completion, that form the the trag dy of King Lear, Mr. Richardcticí subject of our attention. By what fou fucivs an intimate acquaintance with andices has the author rendered the Thucás human nature, and an exquisite taste in ing vices of Richard an a nusing sociacle? diamatic cuiucilm. Olis conclufions on Ivay do we nor turn fruin the Richard of this subject are oi a practical and useful Shakelpeare, as we carn from his Titus nature, and evince the great importance Andronicus? The futjed, as Mr. Rich- of regulating and fintifying in isitments ardlun observes, is cunous and deserves of benevolnce by one indsins and the cur attention.

standard of virtue. lle profeffor goes on The lingulır appearance in question, to thew, thit mere fenhbility, undirected according to our author, is produced not by reficction, renders men capricioudy mby veiling and contrasting oftenlive fra- confiare in their ailections, duri vanalle, tures and colours, by to connecting thera 21.., of courie irrefolute in the conduct. with agreeable qualities reliding in the These thinys, together with the miferies characier itself, ihat the dil'assecable ef- they occasion, are certainly well i!luliated lect is either enurely removed, or by its Lv Shakespeare in his dramatic character union with coalefcing qualities is convert. of King Lear, as Mr. Richard on has ed, agreeably to Mr. Ilumne's Theory of proved isra very satisfactory, picably, and die Fallions, inuo a piealgable feeli

: g. useful inanier. The fatisfaction we receive in conten.pluta

In the third of trefi el.vs, Mr. Rich ing the character of Richued in the varia ardfou semarks, atrise toetus

sininene Qus attendes in which the post has placed liderate profufion which has the appearhun, proceeds from a mixed fecling : a ance of liberality, and is fuppofce even Eeling compounded of honor, on account by the incontiderate perfua bieul, 10 of his guile, and of admiration on account proceed froin a generous principle; but of huis islents. “ By the concurrence of which in reality has its chief orig.. in te these two emotioris, ihe mind is thrown love of diftinétion." This tharalier, with inio a date of unusual aritativi, leider

milenius which decompas.y, ii, is

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