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Opinion of the Court.
duties must be accepted in case of judicial review, but that doctrine, as was also pointed out, does not relieve the courts in a proper case from determining whether the Constitution has been violated or whether statutory powers conferred have been transcended or have been exercised in such an arbitrary way as to amount to the exertion of authority not given, doctrines which but express the elementary principle that an investiture of a public body with discretion does not imply the right to abuse but on the contrary carries with it as a necessary incident the command that the limits of a sound discretion be not transcended which by necessary implication carries with it the existence of judicial power to correct wrongs done by such excess. And without pausing to particularly notice it, we observe in passing that what has just been said is adequate to meet the contention that as violations of the fourth section were made criminal no power existed to enjoin an order of the Commission made under that section because the consequence would be to enjoin criminal prosecution. The right which as we have seen the act gives to test the validity of orders rendered under the fourth section is not to be destroyed by a reference to a provision of that section. The two must be harmoniously enforced.
4. The validity of the order in the light of the statute as interpreted.
The order is in the margin. The main insistence is
1 FOURTH SECTION ORDER NO. 124.
In the matter of the applications, Nos. 205, 342, 343, 344, 349, 350, and 352, on behalf of the Transcontinental Freight Bureau, by R. H. Countiss, agent, for relief from the provisions of the fourth section of the act to regulate commerce as amended June 18, 1910, with respect to rates made from eastern points of shipment which are higher to intermediate points than to Pacific coast terminals.
These applications, as above numbered, on behalf of the Transcontinental Freight Bureau, ask for authority to continue rates from east
Opinion of the Court.
that there was no power after recognizing the existence of competition and the right to charge a lesser rate to the competitive point than to intermediate points to do more than fix a reasonable rate to the intermediate points, that is to say, that under the power transferred to it by the section as amended the Commission was limited to
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ern points of shipment which are higher to intermediate points in Canada and in the States of Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, California, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, and other States east thereof, than to Pacific coast terminals.
Full investigation of the matters and things involved in these petitions, in so far as they concern westbound commodity rates, having been had,
It is ordered, That for the purposes of the disposition of these applications, the United States shall be divided into five zones, as described in the following manner:
(The transcontinental groups hereinafter described are as specified in R. H. Countiss, agent's, transcontinental Tariff I. C. C. No. 929.)
Zone No. 1 comprises all that portion of the United States lying west of a line called Line No. 1, which extends in a general southerly direction from a point immediately east of Grand Portage, Minn.; thence southwesterly, along the northwestern shore of Lake Superior, to a point immediately east of Superior, Wis.; thence southerly, along the eastern boundary of Transcontinental Group F, to the intersection of the Arkansas and Oklahoma State line; thence along the west side of the Kansas City Southern Railway to the Gulf of Mexico.
Zone No. 2 embraces all territory in the United States lying east of Line. No. 1 and west of a line called Line No. 2, which begins at the international boundary between the United States and Canada, immediately west of Cockburn Island, in Lake Huron; passes westerly through the Straits of Mackinaw; southerly, through Lake Michigan to its southern boundary; follows the west boundary of Transcontinental Group C to Paducah, Ky.; thence follows the east side of the Illinois Central Railroad to the southern boundary of Transcontinental Group C; thence follows the east boundary of Group C to the Gulf of Mexico.
Zone No. 3 embraces all territory in the United States lying east of Line No. 2 and north of the south boundary of Transcontinental Group C, and on and west of Line No. 3, which is the Buffalo-Pittsburg line from Buffalo, N. Y., to Wheeling, W. Va., marking the western bound
Opinion of the Court.
ascertaining the existence of competition and to authorizing the carrier to meet it without any authority to do more than exercise its general powers concerning the reasonableness of rates at all points. But this proposition is directly in conflict with the statute as we have construed it and with the plain purpose and intent manifested by its enactment. To uphold the proposition it would be necessary to say that the powers which were essential to the vivification and beneficial realization of the authority transferred had evaporated in the process of transfer and hence that the power perished as the result of the act by which it was conferred. As the prime
ary of Trunk Line Freight Association territory; thence follows the Ohio River to Huntington, W. Va.
Zone No. 4 embraces all territory in the United States east of Line No. 3 and north of the south boundary of Transcontinental Group C. Zone No. 5 embraces all territory south and east of Transcontinental Group C
It is further ordered, (1) That those portions of the above-numbered applications that request authority to maintain higher commodity rates from points in Zone No. 1 to intermediate points than to Pacific coast terminals be, and the same are hereby, denied, effective November 15, 1911; (2) that petitioners herein be, and they are hereby, authorized to establish and maintain, effective November 15, 1911, commodity rates from all points in zones numbered 2, 3, and 4, as above defined, to points intermediate to Pacific coast terminals that are higher to intermediate points than to Pacific coast terminals; provided, that the rates to intermediate points from points in zones numbered 2, 3, and 4 shall not exceed the rates on the same commodities from the same points of origin to the Pacific coast terminals by more than 7 per cent from points in Zone No. 2, 15 per cent from points in Zone No. 3, and 25 per cent from points in Zone No. 4.
The commission does not hereby approve any rates that may be established under this authority, all such rates being subject to complaint, investigation, and correction if they conflict with any other provisions of the act.
By the commission:
JUDSON C. CLEMENTS,
Opinion of the Court.
object of the transfer was to vest the Commission within the scope of the discretion imposed and subject in the nature of things to the limitations arising from the character of the duty exacted and flowing from the other provisions of the act with authority to consider competitive conditions and their relation to persons and places, necessarily there went with the power the right to do that by which alone it could be exerted, and therefore a consideration of the one and the other and the establishment of the basis by percentages was within the power granted. As will be seen by the order and as we have already said for the purpose of the percentages established zones of influence were adopted and the percentages fixed as to such zones varied or fluctuated upon the basis of the influence of the competition in the designated areas. As we have pointed out though somewhat modified the zones as thus selected by the Commission were in substance the same as those previously fixed by the carriers as the basis of the rate-making which was included in the tariffs which were under investigation and therefore we may put that subject out of view. Indeed, except as to questions of power there is no contention in the argument as to the inequality of the zones or percentages or as to any undue preference or discrimination resulting from the action taken. But be this as it may, in view of the findings of the Commission as to the system of rates prevailing in the tariffs which were before it, of the inequalities and burdens engendered by such system, of the possible aggrandizement unnaturally beyond the limits produced by competition in favor of the competitive points and against other points by the tariff in question, facts which we accept and which indeed are unchallenged, we see no ground for saying that the order was not sustained by the facts upon which it was based or that it exceeded the powers which the statute conferred or transcended the limits of the sound legal discretion which it lodged in
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Counsel for Parties.
the Commission when acting upon the subject before it.
It results that the Commerce Court in enjoining the order of the Commission was wrong and its decree to that end must therefore be reversed and the case be remanded to the proper District Court with directions to dismiss the bill for want of equity.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION, ET AL., v. UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD COMPANY ET AL.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION ET AL., v. UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD COMPANY ET AL.
APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES COMMERCE COURT.
Nos. 137, 163. Argued October 18, 21, 22, 1912. Decided June 22, 1914. Decided on authority of preceding case.
THE facts are stated in the opinion.
Mr. Attorney General Wickersham and Mr. Assistant to the Attorney General Fowler, with whom Mr. Blackburn Esterline, Special Assistant to the Attorney General, was on the brief, for the United States.
Mr. P. J. Farrell for the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Mr. Charles Donnelly, Mr. F. W. M. Cutcheon and Mr. F. C. Dillard for appellees.