Слике страница

Seville. In 1562, the body was removed to Mexico and buried in the monastery of St. Francis in Tezcuco, and in 1629 again removed to the church of St. Francis in the city of Mexico, and in 1794 again to the Hospital of Jesus, and is now supposed to be in Palermo, Italy.

1540, MAY 23. — Cartier set sail from France with five ships, to make a settlement in Canada.

Cartier was appointed by Francis I. the captain-general of the ships, and John Francois de la Roche, lord of Robertval, in Picardy, as viceroy and lieutenantgovernor for Canada, Hochalaga, Saguenay, Newfoundland, Belle Isle, Cape Breton, and Labrador, with authority to make further conquests. Cartier ascended the St. Lawrence, built a fort on the Island of Orleans, and remained there that winter. The next spring he returned, and on his way met Robertval, who had delayed starting. Robertval proceeded to the St. Lawrence, and spent a winter there, and then returned.

1551. — The emperor Charles V. chartered a royal and pontifi. cal university in Mexico.

It was to have the same privileges as those enjoyed by Salamanca.

The chief authorities for the conquest of Mexico are Cortez's own letters to the emperor of Spain. They have been translated into English. Gomara, who was chaplain to Cortez after the return of the latter to Spain, and afterwards to Cortez's son, wrote a Cronica de la Nueva España (Chronicle of New Spain), which first appeared in 1553, and has been often reprinted. Bernal Diaz del Costillo, who served with Cortez, published a llistoria Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. It seeks chiefly to give the credit, which Gomara had not given, to the companions of Cortez in his conquest of Mexico. It was first published, in Spanish, in 1632.

1562, FEBRUARY. - A colony of French Protestants sailed from France for Florida.

They filled two vessels, under the command of Jean Ribault. The expedition was originated by Admiral de Coligny. A settlement was made at Port Royal, and a fort built upon an island and called Carolina, after Charles IX., king of France. A company was left in the settlement while Ribault returned for supplies. They mutinied, killed their captain, and, having built a vessel, set sail for France. Their provisions being exhausted, they were obliged to eat one of their number, when an English vessel met them and carried them to England.

1563. - The English slave-trade to the West Indies began.

John Hawkins, for a company, went with three ships to the coast of Africa, and brought away three hundred negroes, whom he sold in the West Indies, " with prosperous successe and much gaine to himselfe and the adventurers.”

1564, APRIL 22. — Three ships sailed from France, under the command of René Laudonnière, to carry supplies to the colony at Port Royal.

They landed at the river May, after finding that the colony had abandoned Port Royal, and built a fort. The next year, when in great distress for want of provisions, they were succored by John Hawkins, returning from the sale of his second cargo of slaves. Soon after, Ribault arrived with reinforcements. The Spanish court being informed of this French settlement, sent a fleet under Don


[ocr errors]


Pedro Menendez against them, which arrived a week after Ribault, who sailed out against them. Both fleets were scattered by a storm; but the Spaniards, landing, attacked and carried the fort, Laudonnière and a few others escaping, and finally reaching the French ships. On the return to France the ship containing Ribault was wrecked, and he and his company, who escaped to the shore, were found and killed by the Spaniards. Laudonnière arrived finally in France. Don Pedro Menendez had undertaken at his own expense to conquer Florida, and Philip II. had made him governor for life, with a share of the perquisites belonging to the

He landed first at St. Augustine, which he named from having seen land on the anniversary of that saint, and founded that city, which is the oldest town in the United States. By Menendez cattle were introduced, and are supposed to have been the progenitors of the wild cattle found in the early part of this century in the Southwest.

1568.- DOMINIC DE GOURGES, & native of Gascony, France, hearing of the slaughter of his countrymen in Florida, set out on an expedition, at his own expense, to avenge them, and captured Fort Caroline, hanged the occupants, and then returned to France.

1570. — The Inquisition was established in Mexico by Philip II. 1574. — The first auto-da-fe was celebrated in Mexico.

A Frenchman and an Englislıman were burned as heretics, and eighty other persons were tortured.

1578, JUNE 11. – A patent was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, to found a settlement in America within six years. It gave him jurisdiction over a circle of six hundred miles, from any spot as a centre, “ not actually possessed by any Christian prince or people.” 1583, August. — Sir Humphrey Gilbert reached Newfound

land with three ships, and took possession of it under his charter from Elizabeth.

He found in the harbor of St. John's thirty-six vessels, of various nationalities,
engaged in the fishery. Collecting a contribution from them, establishing the
Church of England, granting titles to land, and declaring all attempts to weaken
the queen’s title treason, he set out to return, and was drowned by the founder-
ing of his vessel on the way over.
1584, MARCH 25. - A charter was granted to Sir Walter

Raleigh by Queen Elizabeth.

Sir Walter Raleigh was the half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and was most probably interested with him in his second voyage. The terms of Raleigh's charter were nearly those granted to Gilbert, any interference with the fishermen at Newfoundland being forbidden.

1584, JULY 4. — An exploring company, sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, under the command of Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow, arrived at the American coast, and landed at a place called by the natives Wococon, and afterwards Roanoke,


an island in the passage from the Sound of Pamlico to Albemarle, where was an Indian village.

On their return two natives accompanied them, and the name of Virginia was given to the country, either by Elizabeth, or by Raleigh in her honor.

1585, JUNE 26. - An expedition sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh landed at Roanoke Island.

Manteo, one of the natives, was with the expedition as interpreter. Sir Richard Grenville, the gencral of the expedition, returned, leaving a colony of one hundred and seven persons under the government of Mr. Ralph Lane. This was the first English colony.

1586, JUNE 18. — An English fleet, under Sir Francis Drake, on its way to England from the West Indies, stopped at the settlement on Roanoke Island, and carried the one hundred and three remaining colonists back to England.

The colony had been in danger of starving, and were saved by the opportune arrival of Drake's fleet. A few days after the departure of the colony, a ship with supplies, sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, arrived, and not finding them, returned. Two or three weeks after this, Sir Richard Grenville, with three ships, arrived, and finding the settlement at Roanoke deserted, returned to England, leaving fifteen men to keep possession of the island.

1587, JULY 22.- A landing was made at Roanoke by a second company sent over by Sir Walter Raleigh with a few associates.

The colony consisted of one hundred and seventeen persons (ninety-one men, seventeen women, and nine children), who were incorporated as the “Burrough of Raleigh in Virginia,” and the government was intrusted to John White as governor, with a council of twelve others. The colonists were men with families. They found that the fifteen men left by Grenville had quarrelled with the Indians and been overcome by them. On the 18th of August, Mrs. Dare, the daughter of White the governor, gave birth to a daughter who was named Virginia. She was the first English child born in North America. On the 27th the governor sailed for England to bring supplies.

1589, MARCH 7.- Sir Walter Raleigh assigned his patent to Thomas Smith and other merchants and adventurers.

He had spent forty thousand pounds in furthering the settlement of America.

1590, MARCH 20. — An expedition to carry supplies to the colony at Roanoke set sail from Plymouth, England, under the command of Governor White.

The colony could not, however, be found, nor was anything ever learned of them.

1598, JANUARY 12. The Marquis de la Roche was given a commission by Henry IV., king of France, to conquer Canada and other adjacent countries “not possessed by any Christian prince."

He sailed with a company made up of convicts taken from prison, left forty of them on the Island of Sables, visited the mainland, and then returned to France.


[ocr errors]

Seven years afterwards, the twelve survivors of the band left on the Island of Sables were carried to France.

1600.- On the death of the Marquis de la Roche bis patent was renewed in favor of M. de Chauvin, a naval officer, who made a connection with a fur-dealer of St. Malo named Pontgravé, and made a voyage up the St. Lawrence to Tadousac at the junction of the Saguenay.

He left a small colony there, and made another voyage, but died before making a third.

1601. - On the death of Chauvin, M. de Chatte, the governor of Dieppe, obtained a commission as governor of Canada, and with Pontgravé and others carried on the trade in furs.

1602, MARCH 26. – Bartholomew Gosnold sailed from Fal- . mouth, England, for the purpose of settling a colony in Virginia.

Gosnold was in the employ of Raleigh's assignees, and was the first to take a direct course, instead of by way of the West Indies. His company consisted of thirty-two persons, of whom twelve purposed “to remayne there for population." He touched the northern coast, and, sailing south, landed on and named Cape Cod. Continuing south, he discovered and named Martha's Vineyard, landed on an island he called Elizabeth Island, in honor of the queen, and built a fort and storehouse. Setting out to return, those who had intended to remain lost heart, and the whole company returned together.

1602, MARCH. - Samuel Mace sailed from Weymouth, England, in a ship provided and fitted out by Sir Walter Raleigh, and touched on the American coast at about 34° north latitude.

He sailed some distance along the coast, and then returned.

1603, APRIL 10. — An expedition under Martin Pring sailed from Milford Haven, England, for North America, and reached the coast between 43 and 44° north latitude.

There were two ships, the Speedwell and the Discoverer. They were fitted out by merchants of Bristol to explore and to collect sassafras. Turning south, they ranged as far as Martha's Vineyard, and returned laden with sassafras and skins. The venture proved profitable to the merchants.

1603, May 10.— Bartholomew Gilbert sailed from Plymouth, England, for Chesapeake Bay by way of the West Indies. On the 29th of July he anchored about a mile from land in about 40° north latitude, and landed with four of his men.

They being all killed by the natives, the rest of the crew set sail and returned to England.

1603. - PONTGRAVÉ, under the auspices of the company in which he was interested, again visited the St. Lawrence and ascended it as high as Hochalaga.

In this voyage he was accompanied by Samuel Champlain, who this year, after his return, published a map of Niagara.

1603, NOVEMBER 3. — Henry IV. of France granted to Pierre du Gast, Sieur de Monts, all that part of the continent between 40° and 46° north latitude, making him lieutenant-general of the country with power to colonize it. On December 18, he was further granted a monopoly of the fur trade in this territory called Acadie.

1604, MARCH 7. - De Monts set sail with four ships from France to form a settlement at Acadie.

One of the vessels in command of Pontgravé was to drive away interloping traders; another was to purchase furs at the St. Lawrence; the others, commanded by himself, had on board Champlain and Pontrincourt, and were to select a site and found a colony. A settlement was made and a fort built on an island in Passamaquoddy Bay, which he called St. Croix (this name being soon given to the adjacent river). The next spring, the colony having suffered from their confined position, search was made for a new situation, and De Monts explored the coast as far south as Cape Cod, where he landed, but was prevented from settling on account of the hostility of the natives; and additional settlers having arrived, the whole colony was removed to Port Royal, now Annapolis. The next summer Cape Cod was further explored for settlement, but the hostility of the natives again prevented it, and the next winter Port Royal, the first settlement in Acadie, was abandoned.

1605, MARCH 31. — George Weymouth, sent by the Earl of Southampton and Lord Arundel to seek for the north-west passage, sailed from the Downs, and touched land about 41° 30' north latitude.

He is thought to have discovered the Penobscot River. On his return he carried with him five Indians.

1606, APRIL 10. — In April, James I. granted a charter to two companies to plant colonies in America between 34° and 45° north latitude.

The first of these, the London Company, was empowered to plant colonies between 34° and 41° north latitude, or between Cape Fear and the east end of Long Island. The second was entitled the Plymouth Company, and consisted chiefly of persons in and about Plymouth and Bristol. Its settlement was to be called the Second Colony of Virginia. It had the right to settle colonies between 38° and 45° north latitude, or between Delaware Bay and Halifax. Neither of them was to make a settlement within a hundred miles of one previously established by the other, and the territory of each colony was limited to fifty miles along the shore, on either side of the spot first occupied, and one hundred miles inland, and the same distance on the ocean, embracing all islands which were within it. A council composed of thirteen residents in each colony, nominated by the king, was to regulate local matters. A council of Virginia, resident in England, and appointed by the king, had a general supervision over both colonies. The fifth of all gold and silver mines, and the fifteenth of all copper, were to be paid to the king. The coinpanies had the power to coin money, lay duties for twenty-one years, and import goods from England free for seven years. The alleged reason for the patent was the advancement of the divine glory “by bringing the Indians and savages resident in these parts to human civility and a settled and quiet

« ПретходнаНастави »