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1849-1853. — ELEVENTH administration. President,

Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana, died July 9, 1850. Vice-President,

Millard Fillmore, of New York, succeeded to office.

J. M. Clayton, of Delaware, March 7, 1849. Secretaries of State, Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, July 20, 1850.

Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, December 9, 3852.

Secretaries of Treasury, { W.M. Meredith, of Pennsylvania

, March 7, 1849.

Secretaries of War,

Thomas Corwin, of Ohio, July 20, 1850.
G. W. Crawford, of Georgia, March 7, 1849.
W. A. Graham, of North Carolina, July 20, 1850.
John P. Kennedy, of Maryland, July 22, 1852.

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Secretaries of Nary, William Graham, of North Carolina, July 20, 1850.

Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, March 7, 1849. Secretaries of Interior,

James A. Pearce, of Maryland, July 20, 1850. (a new office)

Alexander H. H. Stuart, of Virginia, Sept. 12, 1850.

Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, March 9, 1849. Postmasters-General, N. K. Hall, of New York, July 20, 1850.

Samuel D. Hubbard, of Connecticut, August 31, 1852. Attorneys-General,

John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, July 20, 1850.
Speakers of the House of Representatives,

Howell Cobb, of Georgia, Thirty-first Congress, 1849.
Linn Boyd, of Kentucky, Thirty-second Congress, 1851.


1853, JANUARY 1. Una appeared in Providence, Rhode Island.

It was the first woman's rights paper, and was edited by Mrs. Paulina Wright Davis, who had lectured before women upon physiology as early as 1844.

1853. — The first woman's medical college was opened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The same year, Antoinette Brown was ordained as a minister of a church in New York state.

1853, JANUARY 1.— The Illustrated News appeared in New York city.

It lived only a year.

1853, FEBRUARY 21. — Congress added the three-dollar gold piece to the number of coins.

Silver being rated so low that it was exported, the weight of silver in the coinage was lessened, and the mint made a charge for coining it for individuals. The silver coins issued under this were made “legal tenders in payment of debts for all sums not exceeding five dollars.”

1853, MARCH 3. --Congress passed an act instituting a survey of a railway route from the Mississippi to the Pacific.

Supplementary acts were passed in May and August, 1854. The report of the surveys was published in 1855-61, in thirteen volumes.


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1853. — WASHINGTON TERRITORY was formed from the northern half of Oregon.

1853. — CONGRESS voted the payment of seven millions for the Gadsden purchase from Mexico.

It added twenty-seven thousand five hundred square miles to the territory of the United States.

1853, MARCH 4. - Franklin Pierce, in his inaugural address as President, expressed the conviction that the question of slavery was settled.

He said: “I believe that involuntary servitude, as it exists in different states in this confederacy, is recognized by the Constitution. I believe that it stands like any other admitted right, and that the states where it exists are entitled to efficient remedies to enforce the constitutional provisions. I hold that the laws of 1850, commonly called the compromise measures,' are strictly constitutional, and to be unhesitatingly carried into effect. I fervently hope that the question is at rest, and that no sectional, or ambitious, or fanatical excitement may again threaten the durability of our institutions, or obscure the light of our prosperity.”

1853, March 17. - Santa Anna, who had been recalled from exile, was for the fifth time placed at the head of the Mexican government, with the title of President.

In reality he was clothed with unlimited power.

1853, MAY 10. - The British Parliament abolished in Canada the “clergy reserves." 1853, JULY 14. — The Crystal Palace, New York, was opened

for a universal industrial exhibition.

1853, JULY. — Martin Koszta, an Hungarian by birth, but a naturalized citizen, was liberated, as such, by the Austrian authorities.

The demand was made by Captain Ingraham, in command of the sloop-of-war St. Louis. The occurrence took place at Smyrna, where Koszta had been seized by the Austrian consul-general. For this vindication of the rights of naturalized citizens, Congress voted Captain Ingraham a medal.

1853. — A SECOND Arctic expedition in search of Sir John Franklin sailed from New York in the spring.

It was commanded by Dr. Kane. The expense was borne by Messrs. Grinnell of New York, and Peabody of London. It returned in the fall of 1855.

1853.- THE first volume of the American Nautical Almanack was published.

It was supervised by Captain C. H. Davis, who was assisted by Professors Peirce and Winlock, of Harvard University.

1853. — The first successful steam fire-engine was used in Cincinnati, Ohio.

It was built by A. B. Latta. In 1841, one had been built for the insurance companies in New York, but its excessive weight rendered it practically useless.

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1853. — The New York Clipper appeared in New York city. It was published by Frank Queen, and was the first theatrical journal. 1853. — The New York Clearing House was established.

It was organized by fifty-two banks in the city, and enables them to settle balances of millions by the payment of the slight difference of accounts. In the spring of 1856, the Boston Clearing House went into operation.

1854, JANUARY 9. - The Astor Library, in New York city, was opened to the public.

Jolin Jacob Astor left the endowment for it at his death in 1848.

1854. - The artesian well in the Belcher Sugar Refinery at St. Louis was completed.

It was begun in 1849, and is said to be the deepest in the world, being 2199 feet deep.

1854. — Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper appeared in New York city

1854, MAY 30. — An act was passed “to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska."

The bill was introduced by Stephen A. Douglas, the chairman of the Senate committee on territories. One of its provisions was as follows : “That the constitution and all the laws of the United States which are not locally inapplicable, shall have the same force and effect within the said territory as elsewhere within the United States, except the eighth section of the act preparatory to the admission of Missouri into the Union, approved March 6, 1820, which being inconsistent with the principle of non-intervention by Congress with slavery in the states and territories, as recognized by the legislation of 1850, commonly called the Compromise Measures, is hereby declared inoperative and void : it being the true intent and meaning of this act, not to legislate slavery into any territory or state, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the constitution of the United States : Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to revive or put in force any law or regulation which may have existed prior to the act of 6th of March, 1820, either protecting, establishing, prohibiting, or abolishing slavery.” On the passage of this act societies were instituted in both the northern and southern states to aid emigration to Kansas, those in the northern to keep slavery from Kansas, and those in the southern to introduce it.

1854. — A TREATY was made with Japan.

It was made by Commodore Perry, and opened that country to commericial intercourse with the United States.

1854. A RECIPROCITY treaty was made between Great Britain and the United States.

It opened the colonial ports to commerce.

1854. — A FACTORY for preparing kerosene oil was started at Newtown, Long Island.

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1854, MAY 31. - The President issued a proclamation denouncing a contemplated expedition against Cuba.

1854, JULY 13. — A United States frigate bombarded and burned Greytown, Nicaragua.

She had been sent to demand reparation for property stolen from American citizens, and when it was refused, fired upon the town.

1854, AUGUST. - The Ostend manifesto was issued.

It was issued by our representatives at London, Madrid, and Paris, – Buchanan, Soulé, and Mason, respectively, — who met at Ostend, and published the result of their conference concerning Cuba. In it they urged that Cuba, from its geographical position, should belong to the United States, and that should Spain free the slaves there, the United States should endeavor by force to possess the island.

1854, AUGUST 2.— The reciprocity treaty between England and the United States regulating the relation between the latter and Canada in regard to trade, fisheries, &c., was ratified.

This treaty was negotiated by Lord Elgin. In 1864 the United States proposed its abrogation.

1854. - An act was passed by Congress relieving the children born abroad, of American fathers, from alienage.

1854, OCTOBER. - A. H. Reeder, appointed governor of Kansas, arrived in the territory.

He appointed an election for the 29th of November to choose a delegate to Congress. John W. Whitfield was declared elected. Claims were made of fraud in the election, and a committee appointed by the House to investigate, sustained the claims, reporting that in nine of the seventeen election districts more than two thirds of the voters were non-residents who had come into the territory only for the purpose of voting.

1854. — The observatory at Ann Harbor, Michigan, was built.

1855, JANUARY 2. — Juan Alvarez began a revolt against Santa Anna.

Santa Anna abdicated, and Carrera was elected president in August, Santa Anna again going into exile.

1855 — The railway suspension bridge at Niagara was completed.

It was built by Mr. Roebling. In 1848 a suspension bridge had been built here by C. Ellet, who the same year built one at Wheeling over the Ohio. The first was removed to give place to this one, and that at Wheeling blew down in 1854. As early as 1796 a small suspension bridge of chain cables had been built by Mr. Finley.

1855, MARCH 30. — An election was held in Kansas for members to the assembly.

A census had been taken. Companies of men from Missouri again presented themselves and demanded to vote, in one district forcibly dispersing the judges.

The governor set aside the election from evidence to invalidate it, and ordered a new election in the six contested districts in May.

1855, JULY 2. — The legislature of Kansas met at Paunee City, the place appointed by the governor.

Seats were refused to the members elected at the May election, and were given to those chosen at the March election. A bill was passed removing the seat of government to Shawnee Mission, near the border of Missouri. This the governor vetoed, and the legislature passed again by a two-thirds vote. The legislature passed laws copied from those of Missouri. The slave laws were very rigorous. Any one printing or circulating anything “ calculated to promote a disorderly or dangerous disaffection among the slaves, or to induce them to escape from the service of their masters, or to resist their authority,” or any one aiding in such printing or circulation, was “guilty of a felony and to be imprisoned at hard labor not less than five years.” Any free person denying the right to hold slaves in the territory, and publishing or circulating any book, paper, or circular maintaining such denial, to be imprisoned at hard labor for two years. Candidates were obliged to take an oath to support the fugitive slave law, as were judges of election and voters, if challenged, and attorneys admitted to practice in the courts. Jurors were chosen by the sheriff, and “no person who was conscientiously opposed to the holding of slaves, or who did not admit the right to hold slaves in the territory, should be a juror in any cause” affecting the right to hold slaves, or relating to slave property.

1855, July 31. — A. H. Reeder, the governor of Kansas Ter. ritory, was removed from office.

The position reverted to Daniel Woodson, the secretary of the territory.

1855. — The charter was granted the Elmira Female College, and this institution was organized at Elmira, New York.

This was the first charter granted by the state for a female college designed to raise the standard of education for women to an equality with that for men.

1855. — A COMPANY under the direction of Dr. Keil settled at Shoalwater Bay, in Washington Territory.

They were a religious community. In 1856 they moved to Aurora, in Oregon. They came from Bethel, Missouri.

1855, SEPTEMBER 1. -- Wilson Shannon, appointed as governor of Kansas, to succeed Governor Reeder, entered upon the office.

He was removed August 21, 1856, and Woodson again assumed the office.

1855, SEPTEMBER 19. - d convention of delegates met at Topeka, Kansas, “ to consider and determine upon all subjects of public interest, and particularly upon that having reference to the speedy formation of a state constitution, with an intention of an immediate application to be admitted as a state into the Union."

A general meeting at Lawrence, August 15, had proposed such a convention, and various other meetings in the state had seconded the movement. The convention arranged for an election for delegates to a constitutional convention in October.

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