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Mr. Adams is a man of eminent and distinguished (we cannot doubt, when we advert to some of the facts talents, and I trust will have an honorable, prosper in the last election. One candidate had a decided ous and happy administration, during the term of his preference of eleven out of twenty-four states, by election, for the benefit and glory of our common the people; yet, when the power passed from their country. But it cannot be concealed that he is now hands, and devolved on the house of representatives, placed in a singular and unpleasant dilemma, uns the voice of the people was not regarded by their reknown to our political history. He has been elected presentatives, (in many instances), but their indivipresident of the United States, with a minority smal-dual inclinations, from some cause or other, pursued, ler than the votes of the electoral colleges to general without any reference to the will of their constituJackson. This is a circumstance of great moment, ents. and demands the serious attention of the people of The individual who was manifestly the choice of a this union. The constitution ought to be amended, majority of the people, was not elevated to that disand the election given to the people; for I deem it of tinguished situation for which his qualifications so vital importance to the well being and prosperity of pre-einincntly fitted him, and to which the important our country, that the chief magistrate should have, at services he rendered to his country so richly entitled the commencement of his administration, the confi- him. Another was chosen by the house of represendence and estcem of at least a majority of his fellow- tatives, who had in his favor a less expression of nacitizens.

tional confidence, as manifested in the electoral col

leges. E.ctract from the circular of Mr. Houston, to the freemen This is a subject of serious consideration for the

of the ninth congressional district of the slale of Ten- citizens of the United States; and it will be for them nessee, dated Washington, March 3.

to say, on some subsequent occasion, whether their At a late day of the present session, an appeal was voice shall be heard, and their rights respected, or made by the speaker of the house of representatives, whether they will tamely yield those inestimablo in his otlicial character, requesting an investigation rights to the unhallowed dictation of politicians, who of some charges that had been made against him by a may choose to barter them, for their own individual member of congress from the state of Pennsylvania, aggrandizement, or otherwise dispose of them, conwhich appeared in the character of a letter, in one trary to the known will of their constituents. of the public journals of that state. A motion was submitted to appoint a special committee for the investigation of the subject, which, after consuming two Extract frog Mr. Call's aildress to the people of the first days in discussion, was adopted. To this course I

congressional district of the state of Indiana. was opposed; because I did not think that congress The election of a president of the United States had any thing to do with a difference which had been has been made by congress. This was an event of made personal, by the course pursued by the speaker great importance to the nation. The people had himself. The iinposing situation of the speaker of made the attempt, and, having failed, they saw their the house of representatives is such, that I am never highest constitutional right transferred to the hards willing to give my vote for the extension of his pow- of their representatives in congress, and much solicier, when I can either suspect the existence of per- tude was manifested as to the manner in which they sonal feelings, or that there is even a remote possi- would discharge this heavy responsibility, in the exerbility of rendering congress a court of inquisition, or cise of power not originally designed for them. that it may become an engine of oppression to either You here saw the leading friends and partizans, members of the house or individuals in society, who who had warmly supported and advocated the cause may choose to exercise their constitutional privileges of their respective favorite candidates for the presiin the expression of their opinions.

dency, before the people of a wide extended repube 'The courts in our country are open, at all times, lic, collected together at your capitol, to decide the for the redress of grievances, and to them individuals then unsettled contest. You had good cause to sup: can have recourse, where justice can be adminis- pose that a struggle would ensue between prirate intered to the party aggrieved. There every man is terest, partiality or prejudice, and the duty wbich the presented upon a footing of equality; stripped of representative owed to his constituents; which would power and patronage-no adventitious circumstance triumph, was matter of doubt; and which has triumphof official character, or extensive influence, can bias ed, is now for you to decide. the mind of an impartial jury. The case is there de Although this contest bas terminated in the electermined upon its merits. There is no danger in this tion of a chief magistrate, not the nation's first choice, course,-the constitution has prescribed it. There is nor yours, yet it is a subject of much gratification to no danger of rendering it the firebrand of party zeal. every lover of his country, to see an event, of which But it will assume a very different aspect, if congress is so much evil was foretold, pass by, unattended with to becoine a court for the trial of personal altercation any serious political disturbance; and if, by the too and disputes. It will render it a scene of discord and rigid exercise of constitutional power, the represenconfusion, and the hall of legislation will bicome a tative has crossed the feelings and wishes of his consrene of uproar, party rancor, and personal animo- stituents, yet remember he, as well as the president sity.

himself, must, in due time, surrender to the people, The subject of the presidential election, which agi- the power which they delegated to him, and it will be tated the American community so long, and was of so for them to say whether they will again intrust it 10 much interest to the nation, has resulted in the elec- his hands. tion of a candidate who had not a majority of the Your favorite candidate for the presidency, was votes in the electoral colleges. Nor had hea majo- not a candidate before congress; he, not being one rity of the members in the house of representatives, of the three highest supported by the people, was but only a majority of the stales,

excluded by the constitution, and, agreeable to the As our government is, in all other respects, a re- principles which I avowed to you, my support was presentative republic, where the voice of the people given to general Jackson, the nexi in your regard, governs, there must be a manifest defect of the con as appeared by the electoral returns of my districtstitution in relation to the election of president. he, intleed, was my own choice; but I' have always During the present congress, various resolutions have though it right and espedient that, in this case parbeen submitted in the bouse of representatives, "ro- ticularly, the representative should surrender his posing amendment, but none has yet been adopted. own private attachment for that of his constituents; That there is need for amendment to the constitution, and liad Mt'. Adains or Mr. Crawford been four (a•

Forite, I should, most certainly, bave supported eithered to Mr. Adams, Mr. Storrs, Mr. Craig, general Van of these gentlemen firmly and steadily.

Rensselaer, Mr. Morgan and P. Adams: the latter had My sincerest hope is, that the administration of Mr. been professedly a warm and underiating friend of Adams, during the term for which he is elected, will Mr. Jackson; he was by no means backward in boastde prosperous and happy. Yet I cannot but declare, ing of personal exertions in his favor. Contiding in that I hope never again to see a president of the the professions and official integrity of any three United States who is not the choice of the people, of these, it seemed impossible that Mr. Adams coul! and trust soon to see the constitution so amended, as succeed.” to preclude congress from any sort of interference in “As early, perhaps, as the 16th January, perhaps this matter, leaving its final decision where it ought sooner, it began to be rumored that Mr. Clay hand to be-in the hands of the people.

gone over to Mr. Adams, and that a part of the ken

tucky delegation had gone over with him; and that Extract from the aduress of Mr. Gazlay, oj' Ohio. Mr. Clay was to get the office of secretary of state. "At the commencement of the last session of con- The rumor also embraced Ohio, Missouri and Illinois. gress, the opinion prevailed, generally, that Mr. Jack- For myself, I was utterly unable to believe what I sen would be elected president by the house. This conceived at once so ridiculous and injurious to those opinion was not confined to a few, nor to men of charged with the dereliction. Most persons, with limited means of information, nor to the personal whom I conversed, were in the same temper of mind. friends of Mr. Jackson: It prevailed among men of From this period until the 25th, the numerous lerall parties, and of the best information. Nor was the ters and declarations of respectable persons, made opinion confined to any particular section or division public, will abundantly prove the general unwillingof the union: It prevailed in the New England states, ness to give currency to these reports. The reasons as well as in the west, the north and the south. 80 were obvious which rendered it so difficult to give strong and so general, within my hearing, was this them currency." opinion, that no one pretended publicly to say that “Subsequently to the rumours, and the determinaany other candidate could succeed. The vote of tion of the western members to vote for Mr. A. I held Louisiana, a few days prior to the true account there- conversations, incidentally, with three other of the of, was reported in favor of Mr. Clay. This gave Obio members; two of whom observed that it would rise to various speculations opposed to the election of never do to vote for Mr. Jackson, as he was an eneMr. Jackson. They continued but a few days, and may to internal improvement.” One of them said were put to rest by the true intelligence from that that, from an intimate friend of Mr. Jackson, he had state." An opinion, so prevalent among a people, sup- learned that Mr. Jackson had constitutional scruples posed to have no state secrets—whose communica- on that subject. By a third member of Ohio it was

ion with each other is direct and uprestrained, observed, that, when he was leaving his district, sewould not originate apart from all cause, or be thus veral of his friends gave him a parting charge that, long continued as a mere creation of the fancy. Men whatever he might do, pot to vote for Mr. Adams: ho of the most calculating and solid minds, saw and felt continued, by saying he should risque it, and that, at the cause of its prevalence-all saw it-it was the most, it would be but a nine day's wonder; and, as PUBLIC WILL on which it rested; a foundation against to voting to please his constituents, he felt' no conwhich, it was supposed, no impious hands could or cern on that point: as a member of the state legisladurst be raised. It was honorable to those who felt ture, he had often voted against their express instrucand acknowledged the influence and strength of that tions, but found, in the end, he was more popular power, which, as the impress of a mighty spirit, had than ever. The observation, that, “elect whom we hitherto sustained and controled the destinies of the may, it will be but a nine day's wonder," was very republic. The evidences of this will were the nine- frequently made by members: also, that the better fy-nine electoral votes given to Mr. Jackson by TWELVE sort of people were in favor of Mr. Adains." STATES, eleven of which gave an almost unanimous suffrage; and three others, viz: Ohio, Missouri and [From the Charleston City Gazette, May 13, 1825.) Connecticut, had given decisive evidence that he was It is with no ordinary gratification we publish the their second choice. If any doubt repained to a following replies to the question propounded in the fourth state, (Kentucky), it seemed to be effectually communication from a “Voter," in our paper of yes. removed by the vote of her legislature, requesting her terday: The inquiry was frank and respectful, and representatives in congress to vote for Mr. Jackson, it has been met with a corresponding feeling. The Those who had been educated to respect and regard gentlemen, therefore, whose names are submitted to the public will as the only source of legitimate power the public suffrage, holding no difference of sentiand distinction, and as the ark of public safety, were ment, on a very material point for the public concompelled to acknowledge that Mr. Jackson was fair- sideration, are now to resi their claims entirely on ly entitled to receive, and would receive, in the house, individual merits. Such a contest, whilst honorable (being the only western candidate returned there), to themselves, will have the further advantage of fourteen states out of the twenty-four. It was under- avoiding that violence of conduct and feeling which, stood, as the only exception to the above, that North unfortunately, too much accompany a struggle for Carolina would vote, in the first instance, for Mr. party supremacy. Crawford. It was never understood that her vote,

Charleston, 12th May, 1825, in any event, could be given to Mr. Adains; nor was Mr. Editor: You will oblige me by publishing the it fairly presumable that her delegates in the house underwritten. would finally persist against the unanimous will of the I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient scrvant, state, as expressed in the college of electors.”

W». DRAYTON. "It was not to the above facts alone, that opinions As I consider every citizen entitled to information of the anticipated result were confined. Mi. Scott upon the political sentiments of a candidate for a and Ms. Cook, from the state of Missouri and I!linois, seat in congress, in reply to the question proposed to were pledydd to vote for Mr. Jackson, as the choice one by "A Voter,” in your paper of this morning, I unand will of their respective states. They had openly hesitatingly answer, that I am not "opposed to the declared themselves in his favor. The west, it was president and his cabinet," neither should I join the supposed, would give an undivided suffrage. This opposition' to them in congress," from persona) momay be considered as the state of things on the 15th (tives, in the erent of my being elected a member of of January. New York was divided: fourteen stood that body. After this declaration, that I may avoid • fx Mr. Crawfor!, five (or Vt. Jackson, or, 29 oppos- the possibility of being misunderstood, I will avoil

myself of the occasion to add, that I regard an oppo Naval. The United States vessels at Sackett's Har sition to individuals, as factious, and baneful to the bor, have been sold to Captain Robert Hugunin, of prosperity of the union. A representative in con- Oswego, who will break them up, and remove the gress, in my opinion, is bound by the obligations of materials to Oswego. honor and duty, to support measures, which, after the The North Carolina. Letters from on board this best consideration he can bestow upon them, he ship, dated off the Western Islands, say that she has deems beneficial to his country, and to oppose such proved herself as fine a vessel as ever floated. as he believes to be productive of a different result: The Colombian frigate Venezuela, of 32 guns, under in both casts, regardless of the men from whom such command of capt. Navaio, arrived at New York from measures may originate.

WM. DRAYTON. Carthagena, on Sunday last, and exchanged salutes [To the editor of the City Gazette.]

with the fort on Governor's Island. She is the bearSir: Recognising, distinctly, the right of any citi-er of a messenger with despatches to our government, zen to ascertain the sentiments of those placed in the containing a ratification of the late treaty, &c. situation of candidates for their suffrages, on all

A mob, in one of the eastern towns, at 2 o'clock in the questions of public interest, I readily answer the morning of the 17th inst. pulled down three or four gilestion of "A Voter," in your paper of yesterday, ing too strong for them, they set it on fire, and thuis dis

frame houses, and attacked a brick one, which, pror" Whether I am opposed to the present administration?"

At the last session of the legislature, as one of the longed the tenants of all! This is mentioned only to ask, senators from Charleston, I attended a meeting, the if such events happened in Baltimore, what would the object of which was to determine on a candidaie for charitable and orderly people of some of our cities the presidency. I gave my vote for general Jackson, have said about it? Such things will happen, in every because I believed that the majority of my constitu- .country and in the best regulated communities, and ents were in his favor; and I thought that every per

it does not become any one

to imprecate a whole sosonal preference of my own, if i had any, should ciety for the sudden and unanticipated actions of an yield to that consideration.

inconsiderate or vicious few. The election having terminated, according to the

Died, at Barboursville, in the state of Virginia, provisions of the constitution, in favor of Mr. Adams, on the 16th inst. col. Thomas Barbour, (father of the I thought, and still hope that the minority will ac- present secretary of war), in the 90th year of his age, quiesce-nor can I conceive upon what grounds a

which he reached without fear and without reproach. virtuous man could declare war, in advance, against He was an ardent whig of the revolution, and, except an administration, the only aim of which must be the bis venerable contemporary, Mr. Jefferson, was the public good, and the punishment of which, should last survivor of the members of the house of burgesthey attempt otherwise, is sase in the hands of an ses of Virginia, which, in 1769, made the first protest honest and enlightened people. Long personal know-against the stamp act in which the revolution began. lodge and public observation of Mr. Adams' charac

in Salem, Washington county, N. Y. col. Joter and conduct, have convinced me of his ardent seph McCracken, aged 89 years. He was a gallant purity and patriotism, and render it impossible that I soldier of the revolution, and lost an arm by a cannon can have any prejudices against his untried adminis-ball at Monmouth. tration. Your obedient servant, Wm. Crafts.

Baptism. Cumber Green, a colored woman, in (Mr. Drayton has been elected, by a considerable the 107th year of her age, was lately baptised in the majority.)

Roman catholic church, at York, Pennsylvania. She is said to be in good health and of sound intellect.

Fishing. On Saturday week there were one hunCHRONICLE.

dred and one fishing boats lying at anchor at Cape May. It was an error in our last to say that Mr. Willey The fishing was principally for mackerel. One boat was elected a senator of the United States. It is true, caught upwards of sixty barrels of this fish in one day that he had a very large majority in the house of re- .--the boals were averaging from twenty-five to thirty presentatives—114 to 50, the highest of his opponents, barrels per day. and Mr. Lanman only 4 votes: but in the senate, which Effect of a canal in prospect. Thirteen acres of land, has a concurrent vote, the third stood thus-for Lan- in Worcester, Massachusetts, much of it meadow, man 6, Willey 3, Stoddard 2. Thus no choice has which the owner offered last year for $1,500, sold a been made in Connecticut.

few days ago for eight thousand. Mr. Rush, it is understood, has accepted the The slave trade. The Accession, Roddam, arrived appointment of secretary of the treasury, and is soon at Plymouth from Rio de Janeiro. On the 30th Dec. expected to return to the United States.

in lat. 20, lon. 30, fell in with a brig, with her masts Lewis Shoemaker, of Pennsylvania, has been appoint in the water, and abandoned by the crew; but a numed by the president, to be consular commercial agent ber of blacks were bolding by the starboard fore of the United States at Matanzas, in place of Francis chains and cat-head. The A. took thirty-one off the Adams, deceased.

wreck, and ten from the inside of the vessel. The Com. Porter. The naval court of inquiry, appoint- brig was about 200 tons burden, and appeared to be ed to investigate the conduct of com. Porter, having laden with palm oil; and the blacks stated that the concluded the business before them, and reported the crew lest her when sbe became water logged. The facts to the navy department, adjourned, on Tues- Accession arrived at Bahia on the 12th of February, day last, sine die.

and landed thirty-nine, (two having died on the pasMr. Simpson, of the Park theatre, New York, lately sage), who were given into the hands of goveroment. received 1900 dollars on his benefit night.

Pensacola, April 23. From Tallahassee, we learn, The state bank at Trenton, N. J. has exploded. Its that col. McKee arrived there on the 7th instant. bills are now selling at Baltimore at 50 or 60 per cent. who is authorized, by the president of the United discount. We apprehend some grand rascality in this States, to select a toivnship of land for LAFAYETTE. business, (for the amount of which an hundred little The sale of the lets in 'l'allahassee, the capital of rogues would be sent to a penitentiary), from the fact Florida, which took place on the first Monday of this that very large quantities of the bills of this bank month, amounted to about forty-five thousand dollars; bare lately been strangely forced into circulation in and it is supposed they would have brought much this city, and, perhaps, further south. They were new more, bad not the rain rendered the roads unfit for bills, fresh from the manufuctory.

travelling previous to the day of sale.

PRINTEV BT WILLIAN OGDEN NILES, AT TIIE FRANKLIN PRESS, WATER-STREET, EAST OF SOTTH-STREET.

THIRD SERIES.

No. 14- VOL. IV.]

BALTIMORE, JUNE 4, 1825.

(VOL. XXVIII. WHOLE NO. 716

THE PÅST-THE PRESENT--FOR THE FUNEE.

EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY H. NILES, AT $5 PER ANNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.

TREATY WITH COLOMBIA. The ratification of a , every project to avoid the honest payment of ones general convention of peace, amity, navigation, and debts, it is presumed thatlhave joined "the conspiracommerce, between the United States of America and cy against democratic whig principles," though I ha: the republic of Colombia, concluded and signed at no apprehension that any such conspiracy now exPogota, on the Sd day of October last, by Mr. Rich- isted in Kestucky, or elsewhere in the United States. and C. Anderson, ininister plenipotentiary of the Uni It is not at all necessary to repel this insinuation, ted States in that capital, and don Pedro Gaul, sec- nor shall I return railing with railing. I frankly conretary of state for foreign affairs, were exchanged at fess, that I am ignorant of what is the present system" Washington on the 28th instant, by Mr. Daniel Brent, in Kentucky, of which the writer speaks, for I had chief clerk of the department of state, on the part of almost thought that there was no system at all in rethe United States, and don Jose Maria Salazar, envoy gard to the things referred to:~so it is very possible extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, on the that, as to some of the facts, I may have been led part of his government.

into error by what was stated in various newspapers,

though of as good authority, perhaps, as this anonyGen. LAFAYETTE. The Kentucky papers give us mous essay—but I must believe that the general refull accounts of the reception of the nation's guest marks, as to the operation of the banking and relief at Frankfort, Lexington, &c. The general must have laws, are correct-for the reason that they have always had a busy time of it, for the period of his stay was produced the calamitous results which were mentionshort, and the people of Kentucky were not to be out- ed. "Cato,' bowever, asserts that the present bank has done by those of any other state in demonstrating been of "grcat public utility"---if 20, 1 am really glad the respect they entertained for him. After visiting of it; but i must be permitted to doubt what he says, some other places on the Ohio river, he will have ra- or only to receive it as an exception to an almost unipidly to proceed towards Boston, that he may be there versal principle. And he adds, what is really pleasing in season to lay the corner stone of the monument to intelligence, that the circulation of its paper is regube erected on Bunker's hill. After which he will re- larly reduced-that its calls are not ro-loaned, and turn to Washington city, to take leave of his friends that unless the people shah continue this bark with there, (and on the journey to and fro), that he may a specie capital sufficient to bring its notes to par, embark for France about the 15th August. He will that, in a few years, there will not be one stale bank then have spent about a year among us--such a year in existence in Kentucky.” as never before marked the life of a man. As men The writer uses rough words because I spoke of the fioned in the last Register, a pretty full account of notes of the Bank of the Commonwealth as being a what has happened at different places, with many of "legal tender;"yet I think that the replevin laws the addresses, &c. shall be recorded. The papers are made them so, by their ex post facto interference becarefully preserved for the purpose.

tween debtor and creditor. But these it seems were General Lafayette arrived at Cincinnati on the 19th so amended, last year, as not to have reference to ult. escorted by gov. Desha, of Kentucky, and many contracts made after the passage of the amendatory other gentlemen, and was received by gov. Morrow. act. This is a large advance in the way of improve The proceedings had were highly interesting, and he ment, and no one will rejoice more than I shall, when was welcomed, as usual, to the hearts and homes" Kentucky is relieved of all her relief laws—when of the people. Five hundred free masons were pre- she shall resume her former march in population sent when he visited the lodge-and 1,500 children and power; when her people shall become what by of the Sunday schools marched in procession. A great soil and climate they ought to be, among the hapnumber of people were assembled. He has since been piest and most wealthy of this happy republic. But at Brownsville, Union Town, New Geneva, (to visit iny belicf is, that this highly favored district of our Mr. Gallatin), and other places. He was expected country would have contained at least 100,000 more at Pittsburg on Tuesday last, from whence it is said persous than it now does, if the banking and relief that he would take the direction of the lakes, and laws had never been passed. This, to be sure, is proceed down the Erie canal, the borders of which only a matter of opinion-but it is one that is strongly will be lined with a grateful population.

corroborated by other opinions long since entertain

ed and expressed in the REGISTER FLOJR. The ship Potosi, Baldwin, in 36 days from “Cato” makes a grand flourish about the case of a Cadiz, arrived at New York on Saturday. Leiters re- person who is said to have been "legally murdered!! ceived by her state that the ports of Spain were not in Baltimore, by being confined for debt, and so triopened, for flour, and that the grain crops had been umphs in the law of Kentucky by which imprisonmuch improved by late rains.

ment for it is abolished. Thougli I would not alter The crops of wheat in Chili are spoken of as so the law as to past transactions, that fraudulent perexceedingly large that 150 lbs. of that grain might be sons may be constrained to do justice, I will go farhad for 75 cents. The ports are glutted with flour. ther than this as to the future, and so prevent such in

dividuals from obtaining credit. I would repcal all Kentucky. Some days since, among many news- the laws that have relation to the forcible collection papers received from this state, and well filled with of debts, and thus place crodit on the safer and more ardent articles on its local polities, I found, in the honorable ground of an lionest reputation, being that “Kentucky Gazette," a piece signed "Cato," and on which millions of money pass from hand to hand, headed ". Niles of Baltimore,” which, of course, every day, as temporary accommodations or short attracted attention, and I read it without much ad- loans. These loans are punctually repaid, and so miration of the temper with which it was written common debts would be, if built upon the same rcIt is in reply to some remarks in this work of the 9th sponsible principle. lowerer, from much observaApril, about “money manufactories and relief laws; tion and a great deal of melancholy experience, I and it seems that, because I have been consistent have long since resolved that there is much more to be in my opposition to the paper banking business and feared from no-hearted debtors than hard-hearted wiva

YOL TYYIII.----4.

ditors. I have myscf been as miscrabils poor as al- y of countics, (arbitrary districts of land), and not of most any man ever was rendered by the bad acts of persons, liable to be called into the service of the others--but, among numerous creditors, nover found state, or of property, to pay taxes. The democratic more than one or two that were not rather disposed states of Maryland and Virginia have, practically, to help me, by furnishing new accommodations, than the most aristocraticul constitutions of any in the lo harrass and destroy me, because of their old claims. union, and a small winority of the people legitimalely It was my good fortune to make them believe that l govern in both. would pay them as soon as I could, and so it was their The present constitution is maintained in Maryinteresi to assist me, to say nothing as to what huma- land by the simple operation of pover, in the small nity might have dictated, had not interest pointed out counties--no orie pretends to reason in faror of the tur true policy on the occasion. It ought to be in system--but it is not the less likely to continue on the power of every honest man to furnish reasonable that acconnt. In Virginia, however, there is noch of evidence of his honesty--and if any such do suller, argument in suppori of the present constitution. they are not as one to an bandred of equally honest Those possessing the power of the state are doing men who are injured or ruined by.dishonest debtors, “very well," and will let very well alone,” as long over hom no other law than that of jorce has any as they can. Yet they are rapidly reducing the compower.

parative power of the state by it. i little while since; The writer too says that I have "lost cust" for er- and Virgíuia was at the head of the states-now, as to pressing some doubis concerning the propriety of legis- an effective population, she holds only a fourth rank; lating the judges out of office, because they believed, and, for a combined operation of population and what almost every man out of Kentucky believes, wealth, no more than a filth. It is of no sort of importhat certain acts of the legislature were illegal and tance to me, as a citizen of the U. States, whether Ma ought to be void. The case between the Democratic ryland and Virginia advance or recede in population and Federal party in 1802, as referred to by "Cato," and power, provided the general progress of either has no sort of relation to the present state of things is not affected by such special cases but it is, more in Kentucky. The judiciary act, passed by the latter, or less, the nature of every operation which depresses (as we believed, at the time, to nurture and rally the people of a particulor section of country to intheir political principles), -as repealed by the form- jure the wholc, when all have a common interest in er, as being useless and unnecessary-(though it is ine happiness of all: and, though other states may probable that, from the increase of population and receive the population which leaves those just named business, we shall soon have to resort to something and otherg--still, the amount of the pational force like it to relieve the judges of the supreme court, and may be diminished by the want of that prosperity and the court itself, from the excessive pressure that content in those who remain, which caused so many there is upon them and it--so much so as almost 10 of their fellow-citizens to abandon the homes of their amount to a "denial of justice,” in many cases, and fathers and seck profitable employment and political only for the want of time to investigate them): but rights in new situations, unless the states, throwing in Kentucky the system seems to have been preserved, out their inhabitants, are so densely peopled that though the judges were dismissed, and without an im- there is not space for their enterprize or score peachment.

enough left for inc exertion of their industry-which, Now, it is rather scvere that I should be thus charger certainly, cannot be supposed to exist in Maryland ed with having lost my casi, when the fact is notori- or Virginia. ous to every reader of this paper, that I have always But I have said there are arguments used in support been opposed to the doctrine of infallibility in judges, of the present constitution of Virginia, though we aud contended that they should be held responsible have no reasonings in favor of that of Marylardi. to the people for their opinions, so far as to dismiss The following, copied from the Norfolk Herald," iš them, if thought proper. That the people ought offered as a specimen: to have this power, I have no manner of doubt; but The land of steady habils. This appellation has bethey should not hastily take it up, or use it, in seasons longed to the state of Connecticut, time out of mind. of temporary excitement. Our feelings may materi-We think, however, that Virginia has the best claim ally change in an hour--but the law must rot be to it, at least, in a political point of view: In our inade to depend on our seelings. There are estab- late congressional elections, out of sixteen candiJished principles which affect others as well as our dates for re-election, fifteen were re-elected. We selvos, and before these are broken down, due time do not believe that a similar incident can he cited, as should be allowed for reflection. And I ani free to having occurred in any other state, since the federa! confess, whether it be to join the conspiracy against union. It is the pride of Virginia, that, in matters of democratic whig principles," or not, that I would national concern, they have seldom failed to think, rather have the judges covered with the mantle of in- speak and act as one that their state has ever been l'allibility, as it may be práctically said that they are a stranger to faction; that their elections, however at present, than subject them and the established laws closely contested, have been conducted with the of the land, to the discretion of ordinary legislation strictest propriety. Is it required to be told how it unless the legislators should be men very different in- is that Virginia enjoys this enviable distinction. We deed, from the body of those with whom I have been would answer, because the right of suffrage is limitacquainted as such; persons superior to the influence ed to the freehold qualification. Experience admoof their passions.

nishes us that universal suffrage would change the

sober steady habits of the old dominion, and make Virginia. A great deal is now said in this statem her, at once, a mad-cup and a termagant; not knowand, indeed, something seems to be doing, as to the ing her mind for half a minute, and playing such call of a convention to revise and amend the consti- strange pranks as to forfeit all the respect and contution. Very respectable meetings of the people have sideration she bad ever acquired. Is it among the been held at several places, at which strong com- changes contemplaled by a convention, to barter the mittees were appointed to direct and superintend mca- freehold qualification for universal suffrage! If it is, sures to bring it about. That there is room enough for then we must say, let us have no contention. Better an endinent, we think, cannot be doubted; and we, endure the imperfections of our constitutiop to eterof Maryland, are much interested in the progress of nity, than seck to remedy them by 90 great a sacrijust and liberal principles in Virginia, under a hope fice.” that we also may get rid of the farce of representa Every reader of this work will rerollect, that it has tion to which we are subjected:-a representation | been uniformly opposed to those frequent changes

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