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peace and prosperity, and save England from the was reduced every year; there really was not enough perils of a convulsion.

to supply the country under a dearth. He knew from The bill was finally ordered to be read a second experience the great effect that a small supply of any time, by about double the majority which the catho- commodity had in a market that was overstocked, lic bill received.

and the slight effect that a large supply of any commo

dity had in a market that was not overstocked, and he THE CORN LAWS.

be, at this present moment, did not believe that the In the house of lords, on the evening of the 25th corn-market was overstocked; and he really thought April, the earl of Lauderdale rose, and requested to when he took into consideration the increased know of the earl of Liverpool, what were the inten- state of the population, and the great waste of tions of his majesty's ministers upon the subject of the consumption that was generated by the wealth of corn laws? The earl of Liverpool replied, at con- the country-that, between that period and the next siderable length. In the course of his remarks, he harvest, the price of corn might rise beyond the said

protecting price, which would at once give room to “With respect to our present situation, as to the the admission of the whole glut at present in the gralaw, it was impossible that it could remain perma- paries on the continent; and the government therefore nent. The system, he was perfectly satisfied, must had come to the resolution of releasing the bonded be revised, and some considerable alterations made corn, which had been warehoused for six years, and io it. Many of their lordships would be aware that the of enabling the owners to bring it into the market.” price of corn had recently been double in this country to its

“He could not refrain from dissenting from price on the continent. In 1815, when the present sys- the language which had fallen from his honorable tem was adopted, it was argued, for the farmers, and friend, the member for Suffolk, who had modestly by those who supported the bill, that the price, then asked, “Why not let well alone?” (Hear, hear.) fixed, was necessary to secure a reasonable profit to "The present law,” his honorable friend said, “workthe cultivator. It was then stated that 80s. the quartered well.” He, (Mr. Huskisson), had always underwas necessary to secure a reasonable profit to the stood that the great desideratum, in this important farmer. Having stated thus much, he should not dis- question, was to provide for the steadiness of price, and charge his duty, if he gave any opinion, at present, as lo guard against excessive fluctuations in it from the to the mode their lordships ought to follow. He vicissitudes of trade. How did the present law provide would only say, that the question could not be taken for these ends? By limiting the markets from which into consideration this session, but must be postpon- we drew our supplies—by destroying the vent which ed till the future session, and he should wait for that we should otherwise have for our produce whenever before he gave his opinion as to the course proper we were blessed with a superabundant harvest-and to be adopted."

by exposing us to an alternate fluctuation of high and (This is sufficient to shew what the premier means low prices. To say, of a system, which affected the by “free trade.” It is with him a very serious thing price of labor and the comforts of the laborer, and to allow even the importation of bread stuffs, (though which cramped the resources, not only of the manuat half the price at which those produced in Britain facturer, but also of the farmer himself--to say of are furnished), and requires much time for con such a system that it worked well, was so completely sideration!

refuted by the report of 1821, that he was surprised The following are some extracts from the speech that any man should be bold enough to make it. of Mr. Huskisson, in the house of commons, April 28, What did they think of its working well in 1822, when a motion to consider the corp laws was underwhen corn was as low as 38s. per quarter-(Hear debate-but the house refused to consider it, 187 to hear)- when gentlemen came down to the house 47!

nightly, to talk of a national bankruptcy, and to proMr. Huskisson said-After the declaration of his pose the most extraordinary changes in the currency? hon. friend, (Mr. Gooch), that at the present period (Hear.) At the present moment it might work well the burthens of the country were considerably dimi--but had the country gentlemen forgoiten their own nished-he thought that the time was nearly arrived misfortunes, their former predictions of ruin to the when that alteration ought to take place. Having country, nay, their repeated requests that this system, said the present time was not the most fit for such an which now worked so well, should be instantly alteralteration, it was not for him to assert that the whole ed? (Hear, hear.) In two years, the price of corn had of the difficulty would be removed by the next ses- varied from 112s. to 38s. per quarter. Such a fluctuasion. It was possible that some vent might be obtain- tion in price, deprived the business of the farmer of ed for the glut at present in the foreign market. If all security, and converted it into a business of mere it should be absorbed, it would remove one great dif- gambling. The bubbles in the shares of mines could ficulty in mecting the question, if not, he, for one, not produco more gambling than that to which such looking at the time, which the present laws had been Auctuations must necessarily lead.” in operation, and the chance of having better infor

"There was a great fallacy, in which gentle. ination on the subject next session, would be pre- men were apt to indulge, by saying that, if the price pared, when it arrived, to go into the full considera-did Auctuate excessively, they still produce a fair tion of it with the view of providing some permanent average price! A fair average price!' He wondered measure. Dificulties, he was prepared to expect; what this phrase meant, when applied to the proribut they were not such as, in his opinion, might notj sions of the people. He should like to know how be overcome."

any gentleman, who was accustomed to eat a good -"He believed it was the intention of the le- dinner every day, would like to be kept one week gislature, in 1821, to give to the British farmer a mo- without food and to be supplied the next with twice nopoly of the home market, for a certain period, in as much as he wanted. Would he feel satisfied at order to redeem the great losses he had sustained; being told that he had got a fair average quantity of but, by the commencement of next session, that pe provisions for each day in the two weeks? (Hear, riod would have been suficiently extended. He hear, and a laugh.). He thought that the gentleman could not believe the stock on hand at home to be would not be satisfied--that he would find such an very great. The accumulation which had been so averaging system to be neither wholesome to his conmuch spoken of consisted, he believed, of one million stitution nor pleasant to his stomach. (Hear, hear.) of quarters, but there was a difficulty in fixing on But it was said that to withdraw our protection from the quantity accurately. Some had been wasted, the manufactures of the country, and to continue it some spoiled, some used, so that the amount of it to the corn, w3s acting upon an erroneous system;

BY THE PRESIDENT OF TIIE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:

he denied this position entirely, and contended that, , case, he would ask, what would the condition of these reasoning from analogy, in a case like the present, who produced these articles, if the workmen could not promust necessarily lead to an erroneous conclusion. cure money lo purchase them? Agriculture could not In the first place, we could manufacture cheaper than any flourish unless all other classes in the country were in prosother country; but every other couniry could grow corn perity. Commerce and manufactures could not be sustaincheaper than we could. In the next, we exported 30 ed here, if they met with greater advantages in other counmillions of cotton annually; and not 30 bushels of tries.* The profits now derived from them were smallcorn. Then there was no accumulation of cottons er than they had been at any former period; and any on the continent, but there was an accumulation of thing which tended to increase them, would be procorn. When there was an accumulation of cotton, ductive of great benefit. He mentioned this circumthe manufacturer could contract his supply; but stance to prove, that it would be necessary to enter, could a similar measure be adopted by the agricultu- at a future time, upon the revision of the corn laws; rist, when there was an accumulation of corn? Besides though he maintained, as he had before done, that the these considerations, there were several others, ap- present was not the moment for commencing it.” plying to agriculture, and not to manufactures, which

“There were other considerations connectwere suficient to convince any impartial man that ed with this subject, which, in his opinion, it would the argument, founded upon this analogy, was any be better to leave with the government for the prething but logical. (Hear, hear.) He was not one of sent. There were some countries which still shewed themthose who wished to lessen the rank which the agri- selves obstinate, and blindly adhered to the old prohibitory culturists held in the country. To be admitted into system noluithstanding the example set by this country! it that class ought to be the ambition of every man who, was worth consideration, whether it might not be by his industry and his talents, had acquired a for- desirable that they should still retain in their hands tune for his family. He was not disposed to look at the means of inducing those countries to alter their the landed interest with a view merely to the pro- system for the better, by excluding their produce portion it contributed to the public burthens. Seeing from British ports. The places to which he alluded that rents were now adjusting themselves to the al were some of the greatesi corn growing countries in tered state of the currency, and to the diminished Europe; and it might be of some advantage that they burthens of the country, he would give such a pro should have an opportunity of saying to them, unit tection as was suited to the present circumstances you aller your system you shall not participate in our

our fres of the landed interest. But there must be a limit to trade." the price at which they should admit foreign corn. They must, in legislating on the subject, look to that rate of wages depending on the price of corn, which, Treaty with Colombia. when it arrived, must have a tendency to drive capital and skill out of the country into foreign states. They could not force them to remain here. They

A PROCLAMATION, must look to the effect produced on them by the price

Whereas a general convention of peace, amity, of labor, and endeavor, by moderating it, to guard against the evil. If the consequence of the high navigation and commerce, between the United States price of labor, arising from a high price of corn, was cluded and signed, at Bogota, on the third day of

of America and the republic of Colombia, was conto drive the manufaciuring capital from the country, October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight by which so many millions were employed, there was no class of society that would suffer more by it than hundred and twenty-!our; which convention being in the agricultural interest. (Hear.). How did the ag.

the English and Spanish languages, is word for word ricultwists get a market for their prorluce how were the

as follows:t manufacturers enabled to pay high prices for it, but in con-, General convention of peace, amily, navigation and comsequence of the high wages they received. At this moment merce, between the United States of America and the reAmerican cotton goods were on their passage to different public of Colombia. ports in the Mediterranean, and were selling there at a In the name of God, author and legislator of the Universe. price at which we could not afford to furnish them to the con The United States of America, and the republic of sumer. If capital had not a fair remuneration here, Colombia, desiring to make lasting and firm the friendit would seek for it in America. To give it a fair re- ship and good understanding which happily prevails muneration, the price of labor must be kept down; between both nations, have resolved to fix, in a manfor, if it were not kept down, the distress it would occa ner clear, distinct and positive, the rules which shall sion to the manufacturer would soon revert with tenfold in future be religiously observed between the one force upon the agriculturist. An hon. meuber had stat. and the other, by means of a treaty or general coned, and almost as if it had been a reproach to them, vention of peace, friendship, commerce and navigathat the workmon of London had roast-beef and tion, plum-pudding on Saturday, Sunday, Monday and For this most desirable object, the president of the Tuesday. He did not mean to assert that they had it United States of America has conferred full powers not, and he had little doubt that they were accustom- on RICHARD CLOUG! ANDERSON, junior, a citizen of ed to wash such dainties down by large draughts of the said states, and their minister plenipotentiary to the ancient and constitutional beverage of the nation, the said republic, and the vice president of the repubbeer. Now he would wish the honorable member, lic of Colombia, charged with the executive power, the next time that he presided at the farmer's club, to on PEDRO GUAL, secretary of state and of foreign reask the members of it, whence came the roast-beef, lations, who, after having exchanged their said full the plum-pudding and the beer, on wbich the work- powers in due and proper form, have agreed to the men banquetted? The answer must be, that they following articles: were all the production of the country; and, that being the

*What will the let-us-alone men in the United States *The reader will please lo observe this-Vir. Hus. say to this. It is the very argument that we have kisson is decidedly the friend of free trade" when always used in support of domestio industry, and the such trade acts as a monopoly in favor of British sub- principle on which the grain-growers of the republie jects!

[Ed. Reg.
have for several years acted.

(ED. REG. 1 But it seems there is likely to be "accumulations The Spanish rersion is omitted, because that it of cottons" on the continent, by what the gentleman cannot be useful to one out of an hundred of our reaates below.

IBID. ders, and would occupy much room. [Ibid.

ARTICLE Ist.

ARTICLE 7th. There shall be a perfect, firm and inviolable peace All the ships, merchandise and effects, belonging and sincere friendship between the United States of to the citizens of one of the contracting parties, America and the republic of Colombia, in all the ex- which may be captured by pirates, whether within tent of their possessions and territories, and between the limits of its jurisdiction or on the high seas, and their people and citizens respectively, without dis may be carried or found in the rivers, roads, bays, tinction of persons or places.

ports, or dominions, of the other, shall be delivered ARTICLE 2d.

up to the owners, they proving: in due and proper The United States «.? America and the republic of form, their rights, before the competent tribunals; it Colombia, desiring to live in peace and harmony with being well understood that the claim should be made all the other nations of the earth, by means of a policy within the term of one year by the parties themfrank and equally friendly with all, engage mutually selves, their attorneys, or agents of the respective not to grant any particular favor to other nations, in governments. respect of commerce and navigation, which shall not

ARTICLE Sth. immediately become common to the other party, who When any vessel, belonging to the citizens of either shall enjoy the same freely, if the concession was of the contracting parties, shall be wrecked, founfreely made, or on allowing the same compensation, dered, or shall suffer any damage on the coasts, or if the concession was conditional.

within the dominions of the other, there shall be ARTICLE 3d.

given to them all assistance and protection, in the The citizens of the United States may frequent all same manner which is usual and customary with the the coasts and countries of the republic of Colombia, vessels of the nation where the damage happens, perand reside and trade there, in all sorts of produce, mitting them to unload the said vessel, if necessary, manufactures and merchandise, and shall pay no

of its merchandise and effects, without exacting for other or greater duties, charges or fees, whatsoever, it any duty, impost or contribution whatever, until than the most favored iration is or shall be obliged to they may be exported. pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, privileges and

ARTICLE 9th. exemptions in navigation and commerce, which the

The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall most favored nation docs or shall enjoy, submitting have power to dispose of their personal goods within themselves, nevertheless, to the laws, decrees and the jurisdiction of the other, bý sale, donation, testae. usages, there established, and to which are submitted ment or otherwise, and their representatives, being the subjects and citizens of the most favored nations. citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said

In like manner the citizens of the republic of Co-personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, lombia may frequent all the coasts and countries of and they may take possession thereof, either by themthe United States, and reside and trade there, in all selves or others acting for them, and dispose of the sorts of produce, manufactures and merchandise, and same at their will, paying such dues only as the in. shall pay no other or greater duties, charges or rees, habitants of the country, wherein the said goods are, whatsoever, than the most favored nation is or shall be shall be subject to pay in like cases: And if, in the obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, pri- case of real estate, the said heirs would be prevented vileges and exemptions in navigation and commerce, from entering into the possession of the inheritance, which the most favored nation does or shall enjoy on account of their character of aliens, there shall submitting themselves, nevertheless, to the laws, debe granted to them the term of three years to dispose crees and usages, there established, and to which are of the same, as they may think proper, and to withsubmitted the subjects and citizens of the most favor- draw their proceeds without molestation, and exempt ed nations.

from all rights of detraction, on the part of the governARTICLE 4th.

ment of the respective states. It is likewise agreed that it shall be wholly free for

ARTICLE 10th. all merchants, commanders of ships and other citi

Both the contracting parties promise and engige, zens of both countries, to manage themselves their formally, to give their special protection to the perown business in all the ports and places subject to sons and property of the citizens of each other, of the jurisdiction of each other, as well with respect to all occupations, who may be in the territories subthe consignment and sale of their goods and merchan-ject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, trandise by wholesale or retail, as with respect to the sient or dwelling therein, leaving open and free to loading, unloading and sending off their ships; they them the tribunals of justice for their judicial rebeing, in all these cases, to be treated as citizens of course, on the same terms which are usual and cus the country in which they reside, or at least to be tomary with the natives or citizens of the country in placed on a footing with ihe subjects or citizens of which they may be; for which they may employ in the most favored nation.

dcfence of their rights, such advocatcs, solicitors, no

taries, agents and factors, as they may judge proper, ARTICLE 5th. The citizens of neither of the contracting parties shall have free opportunity to be present at the deci

in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall be liable to any embargo, nor be detained with sions and sentences of the tribunals, in all cases their vessels, cargoes, merchandises, or effects, for which may concern them, and likewise at the taking any military expedition, por for any public or pri- of all examinations and evidences which may be exvaie purpose whatever, without allowing to those in-hibited in the said trials. ierested a suficient indemnification.

ARTICLE Uth.
ARTICLE 6th.

It is likewise agreed that the most perfect and enWhenever the citizens of either of the con!ract- tire security of conscience shall be enjoyed by the ing parties shall be forced to seek refuge or asylum citizens of both the contracting parties in the counin the rivers, bays, ports, or dominions, of the other, trics subject to the jurisdiction of the one and the with their vessels, whether merchant or of war, other, without their being liable to be disturbed or public or private, through stress of weather, pursuit möfested on account of their religious belief, so long of pirates, or enemies, they shall be received and as they respectilic laws and established usages of the treated with humanity, giving to them all favor and country. Moreover, thic bodies of.the citizens of one protection for repairing their ships, procuring pro- of the contracting parties, who may die in the terri• visions, and placing themselves in a situation to con- tories of the other, shall be buried in the usual burytinue their voyage, without obstacle or hindrance of ing brounds, or in other decent and suitable places, ang kiad.

I and shall be proccted from violation or disturbance

ARTICLE 12th.

ARTICLE 15th. It shall be lawful for the citizens of the United All other merchandises and things, not compreStates of America and of the republic of Colombia, to hended in the articles of contraband explicitly enu. sail with their ships, with all manner of liberty and merated and classified, as above, shall be held and security, no distinction being made, who are the pro- considered as free, and subjects of free and lawful prietors of the merchandise laden thereon, from any commerce, so that they may be carried and transport to the places of those who now are or hereafter ported in the freest manner by both the contracting shall be at enmity with either of the contracting par- parties, even to places belonging to an enemy, extics. It shall likewise be lawful for the citizens afore- cepting only those places which are at that time besaid to sail with their ships and merchandises before- sieged or blocked up; and to avoid all doubt in this mentioned, and to trade with the same liberty and particular, it is declared that those places only are security from the places, ports and havens, of those besieged or blockaded which are actually attacked who are enemies of both or either party, without any by a belligerant force capable of preventing the entry opposition or disturbance whatsoever, not only direct- of the neutral. Is from the places of the enemy, beforementioned, to

ARTICLE 16th. neutral places, but also from one place belonging to an The articles of contraband, before enumerated and enemy to another place belonging to an enemy, whe- classified, which may be found in a vessel bound for ther they be under the jurisdiction of one power or an enemy's port, shall be subject to detention and under several. And it is hereby stipulated, that free confiscation, leaving free the rest of the cargo and the ships shall also give freedom to goods, and that every ship, that the owners may dispose of them as they see thing shall be deemed to be free and exempt, which proper. No vessel of either of the two nations shall shall be found on board the ships belonging to the be detained on the high seas on account of having on citizens of either of the contracting parties, although board articles of contraband, whenever the master, the whole lading, or any part thereof, should apper- captain or supercargo of said vessel, will deliver up tain to the enemies of either, contraband goods being the articles of contraband to the captor, unless the always excepted. It is also agreed, in like manner, quantity of such articles be so great and of so large a that the same liberty be extended to persons who are bulk, that they cannot be received on board the capon board a free ship, with this effect, that although they turing ship without great inconvenience; but in this be enemies to both or either party, they are not to be and in all other cases of just detention, the ressel taken out of that free ship, unless they are officers or detained shall be sent to the nearest convenient and soldiers, and in the actual service of the enemies: safe port, for trial and judgment, according to law. Provided, however, and it is hereby agreed, that the

ARTICLE 17th. stipulations in this article contained, declaring that And whereas it frequently happens that vessels the flag shall cover the property, shall be understood sail for a port or place belonging to an enemy, withas applying to those powers only who recognise this out knowing that the same is besieged, blockaded, or principle; but is either of the two contracting parties invested, it is agreed, that every vessel, so circumshall be at war with a third, and the other neutral, stanced, may be turned away from such port or place, the flag of the neutral shall cover the property of eneo but shall not be detained, nor sball any part of her inies whose governments acknowledge this principle, cargo, if not contraband, be confiscated, unless, after and not of others.

| warning of such blockade or investment, from the comARTICLE 13th.

manding officer of the blockading forces, she shall It is likewise agreed, that, in the case where the again attempt to enter, but she shall be permitted to neutral flag of one of the contracting parties shall go to any other port or place she shall think proper. protect the property of the enemies of the other, by Nor shall any vessel of either, that may have entered virtue of the above stipulation, it shall always be un-into such port before the same was actually besieged, derstood that the neuiral property found on board blockaded or invested, by the other, be restrained such enemy's vessels shall be held and considered as from quitting such place with her cargo, nor if found enemy's property, and as such shall be liable to de. therein after the reduction and surrender, shall such tention and contiscation, except such property as was vessel or her cargo, be liable to confiscation, but they put on board such vessel before the declaration of shall be restored to the oweners thereof. war, or even afterwards, if it were done without the

ARTICLE 19th. knowledge of it; but the contracting parties agree, In order to prevent all kind of disorder in the visitthat two months having elapsed after the declaration, ing and examination of the ships and cargoes of both their citizens shall not plead ignorance thereof. On the contracting parties on the high seas, they have the contrary, if the fag of the neutral does not protect agreed mutually, that whenever a vessel of war, pubthe enemy's property, in that case the goods and mer- lic or private, shall meet with a neutral of the other chandises of the neutral, embarked in such enemy's contracting party, the first shall remain out of canships, shall be free.

non shot, and may send its boat, with two or three ARTICLE 14th.

men only, in order to execute the said examination of This liberty of navigation and commerce shall ex- the papers concerning the ownership and cargo of the tend to all kinds of merchandises, excepting those resssel, without causing the least extortion, violence, only which are distinguished by the name of contra- or ill treatment, for which the commanders of the band, and under this name of contraband, or prohi- said armed ships shall be responsible with their perbited goods, shall be comprehended

sons and property; for which purpose the commanist. Cannons, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunder- ders of said private armed vessels shall, before rebusses, muskets, fuzees, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, ceiving their commissions, give suficient security to swords, sabres, lances, spears, halberds and granades, answer for all the damages they may commit. And bombs, powder, matches, balls, and all other things it is expressly agreed that the neutral party shall in belooging to the use of these arms;

no case be required to go on board the examining 2d!y: Bucklers, helmets, breast-plates, coats of vessel, for the purpose of exhibiting her papers, or mail, infantry belts and clothes, made up in the form for any other purpose whaiever. and for a military ise;

ARTICLE 19th. 3dly. Cavalry belts, and horses with their furniture; To avoid all kind of vexation and abuse in the ex

Athly. And generally all kinds of arms and instru- amination of the papers relating to the ownership of ments of iron, steel, brass and copper, or of any other the vessels belonging to the citizens of the two conmaterials manufactured, prepared and formed, ex- tracting parties, they have ageed, and do agree, that, pressly to make war by aca or land.

in case one of them should be engaged in war, ths

ships and vessels belonging to the citizens of the other war, or of national difference, be sequestered or conmust be furnished with sea-letters or passports, ex- fiscated. pressing the name, property and bulk of the ship, as

ARTICLE 25th. also the name and place of habitation of the master Both the contracting parties being desirous of avoidor commander of said vessel, in order that it may ing inequality in relation to their public communicathereby appear, that the ship really and truly belongs tions and official intercourse, have agreed, and do to the citizens of one of the parties; they have like-agree, to grant to the envoys, ministers, and other wise agreed that such ships being laden, bosides the public agents, the same favors, immunities, and exsaid sea-letters or passports, shall also be provided emptions, which those of the most favored nation do with certificates containing the several particulars of or shall enjoy; it being understood that whatever the cargo, and the place whence the ship sailed, so favors, immunities, or privileges, the United States that it may be known whether any forbidden or con- of America or the republic of Colombia may find it traband goods be on board the same; which certificates proper to give to the ministers and public agents of shall be made out by the officers of the place whence any other power, shall by the same act be extended to the ship sailed, in the accustomed from; without those of each of the contracting parties. which requisites, said vessel may be detained to be

ARTICLE 26th. adjudged by the competent tribunal, and may be de To make more effectual the protection wbich the clared legal prize, unless the said defect shall be sa- United States and the republic of Colombia shall aftisfied or supplied by testimony entirely equivalent. ford in future to the navigation and commerce of the ARTICLE 20th.

citizens of each other, they agree to receive and adIt is further agreed that the stipulations above ex- mit consuls and vice-consuls in all the ports open to pressed relative to the visiting and examination of foreign commerce, who shall enjoy in them all the Tessels, shall apply only to those which sail without rights, prerogatives, and immunities, of the consuls convoy; and when said vessels shall be under convoy, and vice-consuls of the most favored pation; each the verbal declaration of the commander of the con- contracting party, however, remaining at liberty to voy, on his word of honor, that the vessels under his except those ports and places in which the admission protection belong to the nation whose flag he carries and residence of such consuls may not seem conve--and when they are bound to an enemy's port, that nient. they have no contraband goods on board, shall be

ARTICLE 27th. sufficient.

In order that the consuls and vice-consuls of the ARTICLE 21st.

two contracting parties may enjoy the rights, preroIt is further agreed, that in all cases the established gatives, and immunities, which belong to thein, by courts for prize causes, in the country to which the their public character, they shall, before entering on prizes may be conducted, shall alone take cognisance the exercise of their functions, exhibit their comof them. And whenever such tribunal of either par- mission or patent, in due form, to the government ty shall pronounce judgment against any vessel or to which they are accredited; and having obtained goods, or property claimed by the citizens of the their exequatur, they shall be held and considered as other party, the sentence or decree shall mention the such, by all the authorities, magistrates, and inhabireasons or motives on which the same shall have tants, in the consular district in which they reside. been founded, and an authenticated copy of the sen

ARTICLE 28th. tence or decree, and of all the proceedings in the It is likewise agreed, that the consuls, their secrecase, shall, if demanded, be delivered to the com- taries, officers, and persons attached to the service mander or agent of said vessel, without any delay, he of consuls, they not being citizens of the country in paying the legal fees for the same.

which the consul resides, shall be exempt from all ARTICLE 22d.

public service, and also from all kiod of taxes, imWhenever one of the contracting parties shall be posts, and contributions, except those which they engaged in war with another state, no citizen of the shall be obliged to pay, on account of commerce, or other contracting party shall accept a commission, or their property, to which the citizens and inhabitants, letter of marque, for the purpose of assisting or co- vative and foreign, of the country in which they reoperating hostilely, with the said enemy, against the side, are subject, being in every thing besides subject said party so at war, under the pain of being treated to the laws of the respective states. The archives as a pirate.

and papers of the consulates shall be respected inARTICLE 23d.

violably, and uoder no pretext whatever shall any IT, by any fatality which cannot be expected, and magistrate seize, or in any way interfere with them. which God forbid, the two contracting parties should

ARTICLE 29th. . be engaged in a war with each other, they have

The said consuls shall have the power to require agreed, and do agree, now for then, that there shall the assistance of the authorities of the country for be allowed the term of six months to the merchants the arrest, detention and custody of deserters from residing on the coasts and in the ports of each other; the public and private vessels of their country, and and the term of one year to those who dwell in the for that purpose they shall address themselves to the interior, to arrange their business and transport their courts, judges and officers competent, and shau deeffects wherever they please, giving to them the safe mand the said deserters in writing, proving by an exconduct necessary for it, which may serve as a suffi- bibition of the registers of the vessel's or ship’s roll, cient protection until they arrive at the designated or other public documents, that those men were part port. The citizens of all other occupations who may of the said crews: and on this demand, so proved, ve established in the territories or dominions of thel (saving, however, where the contrary is proved,) the United States and of the republic of Colombia, shall delivery shall not be refused. Such deserters, when be respected and maintained in the full enjoyment of arrested, shall be put at the disposal of the said contheir personal liberty and property, unless their par- suls, and may be put in the public prisons at the reticular conduct shall cause them to forfeit this pro- quest and expense of those who claim them, to be tection, which in consideration of humanity the con- sent to the ships to which they belonged, or to others tracting parties engage to give them.

of the same nation. But if they be not sent back withARTICLE 241h.

in two months, to be counted from the day of their Neither the debts due from individuals of the one arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall be no nation to the individuals of the other, nor shares, nor more arrested for the same cause. moneys, which they may have in public funds, nor in

ARTICLE 30th. public or private banks, shall ever, in any event of For the purpose of more efectually protecting

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