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the people the right of choosing the senators and the fall, to the moral power of freedom, which animates presidents and vice presidents of the United States. all the energies of man, and furnishes inducement:
Permit me to "conclude" with the assurance that I to activity, that no other state of things can exhibit. am, with great respect, a Marylander, as well as
With all these advantages, you have felt the paraA FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN. lytic effects of the want of markets for your surplus
productions. Cut off from almost all profitable com
munications with the great market towns of the AtMr. Clinton's Address, lantic, your principal reliance has been on the conAfter perfor:ning the ceremony of breaking ground for sumption produced by emigration, and on the smal! making the Erie and Ohio canal, on the 4th July, 1825. profils elicited by distant, expensive and difficult
When Mr. Ewing had concluded his oration, Mr. transportations. You will now have not only the Clinton rose and addressed the audience as follows: markets of New Orleans and New York, but of Phi
He began by stating - That no language could de- ladelphia, Baltimore and Montreal. The canals of scribe the sublimity of the scene, or the auspicious New York, in their connexion with the Susquehannah consequences of the proceedings of this day, As for and lake Ontario, which must speedily be formed, himself, he could not restrain the expression of the will furnish almost all these vast accommodations. feelings which animated his bosom on this occasion. This great work will also confirm your patriotism, The day which he had long looked for, with extreme and make you proud of your country. Every man of solicitude, had at length arrived-a day of joy and Ohio will say, not in a tone of rhodomontade, but in a congratulation to all the friends of freedom and spirit of temperate oncomium, see what my country union, and which would lay the foundations of both has done in her juvenile state! And if she has achieved on an imperishable basis.
this gigantic enterprise in infancy, what will she not There is, said he, a peculiar fitness in the selection effect in the maturity of her strength, when her popuof the natal day of the American nation, for the com- lation becomes exuberant and her whole territory in mencement of one of the greatest works of the age. lulicujtivation? And your sister states, and the civiliz. If this day has established our freedom and riven used world will be astonished. It will exhibit a spectacle, a national being, it will also consummate the pros-f unprecedented and amazing-an infant wielding the perity of the American people, and stii farther ex- club of Hercules, and managing the lever of Archialt our national character in the estimation of the medes with irresistible power. When the eagle, in civilized world.
its first flight from the aeric, soars to the heavens, The completion of this work will form a navigable looks at the sun with an unfailing eye, and bears in communication between our great lakes or mediter- its talons the thunderbolts of Jove, who will not adranean seas and the Gulf of Mexico, the bay of New mire this sublime sight? York and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It will open But I shall no longer engross your time, which has three avenues from our vast interior to the Atlantic been more profitably directed to the very able and
It will form a cordon of navigable circum- eloquent discourse, just now pronounced.' Suffice it vallation round the most fertile and extensive por- to say, that all your energies will be awakened-that, tion of the Uuited States. its blessings every man at the expiration of ten years from the completion of can foresce, but no human being can predict all the this work, arlear annual revenue of a million of dolauspicious influences which will spring from this lars will be at your disposal, which will, of course, be state of things.
applied to all beneficial purposes; that every citizen It will unite the East and the West, the North and of Ohio will feel the exaltation of his country in the the South, by identity of interest, by frequency of conduct of his own life; that your fame will be co-escommunication, and by all the ties which can con- tensive with civilized man; ihat the benedictions of nect human beings in the bonds of friendship and 30- the most remote posterity will follow you; that the cial intercourse. The union of the states will be as wise and good of all countries, and of all times, wil! firm as the everlasting hills; and from this great epoch look back to you with respect, and will be ready to in our history we may dismiss all fears of a dismem- exclaim with the great legislator of the Jews:"blessberment of the American republic.
ed of the Lord be this land, for the precious things of As a channel of commerce-as a stimulus to ma heaven, for the dew and for the deep that coucheth benufactures—as a source of revenue--as an encou- neath, for the precious things of the earth and fulness ragement to agriculture, it will excite into activity all thereof.” kinds of productive and laudaole industry, and dif The following is an extract from Mr. Ex. fuse a spirit of emulation and a power of exertion, ofing's oration. "To the first projector of the magwhich nothing but actual experience can furnish an nificent work, of which this is the extension-to you, adequate idea. It will be a great school of ingenuity [gov. Clinton), our illustrious and honored guest, we that will produce eminent engineers and mechani- tender the respectful and high consideration of a ciaos. It will be a guardian of morality, by rousing people, who greet you as the friend and benefactor the human mind from a state of torpidity and inac- of their country. Early impressed with the advantivity. But there are other considerations which tages to be derived to your native state, from the ju. press with irresistible force in estimating the merits dicious application of her resources to the improveof this great undertaking
ment of internal commerce, you were the first to proThe history of Ohio, from its forest state to the pose that magnificent work, which is now the pride ot present period, is without a parallel in the history of your siate and the admiration of the nation. 'I'hrough mankind. Her existence, as a confederate state, good and evil report, whether the popular voice apdoes not extend beyond twenty-three years, when plauded or condemned, you were its constant, tried her population did not exceed fifty thousand souls; and unyielding advocate: your Jabors have been and her first effective settlement reaches back little crowned with success: the work is consummated, and more than thirty years. She now has a population, stands an honorable and enduring monumeut to your moral, patriotic and intelligent, ofnçar eight hundred wisdom and patriolism. Citizens of Ohio-the grand thousand human beings; and of the twenty-five mil- work which is this day begun, is the effort of our injions of acres, contained in her territory, perhaps fant state, yet in the cradle of her prosperity. In not one-seventh part has been brought to a state of other countries, where works of this kind have been cultivation.
effected, they were the achievements of pational maTo what has this great increase of population been turity, after ages of progressive improvement bad owing? To the unsurpassed fertility of your soil; to passed away. But our state has not grown up like she undoubted salubrity of your climate; but, abored other nations, by the slow and gradual increase of
stationary people, but has drawn from her sister, such a letter as, from my letters of the 31st of May, states, and the various nations of Europe, a portion Sth, 18th and 230 June, to yourself, and our frequent of their talent, their strength, and their enterprise: verbal communications, as well as those verbal and exhibiting, at once, all the vigor and freshness of written to your aid-de-camp and friend, col. Lumpyouth, the strength and firmness of manhood, and the kin, you ought, in my opinion, to have anticipated; wisdom of age. Great as is the undertaking, your and such an one as, I was convinced, 'for the honor powers are equal to its completion; be but united, of human nature,' (to use your own eloquent lanfirm and persevering, and if heaven smile on your guage), you expected. labors, success sure. Animated by the hopes and Your excellency informs me 'that, if the letter is cheered by the prospects of our individual state, we authentic,' I am to consider all intercourse between this day join, with the assembled millions of our fel- your government and myself as 'suspended.' Be it low citizens, to hail the anniversary of our national so; I know of no intercourse between your governindependence. We join in thankfulness and grati- ment and myself, which is at all necessary, which is tude to the Ruler of nations, for the past blessings, not, on your part, perfectly voluntary and agreeable. which he has showered upon our favored and happy Being an officer of the general government, I can go country; and in fervent aspirations, for the contin- on to discharge my duties fearlessly, according to the uance of her prosperity, and the perpetuity of her dictates of my conscience, and to the best of my union."
judgment; and, if I am to be added to the list of the proscribed, for interposing the shield of my govern
ment to prevent the destruction of a man doomed to Gov. Troup and Major Andrews. be condemned without a hearing or trial, I wish that
[For the letter referred to bg gov. Troup, see the suspension not only continued, but absolute and perlast number of the Register, page 332.]
manent. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, As your excellency has thought it your duty to ad
Milledgeville, 28th June, 1825. dress me your letter of the 28th June, I have felt it SIR-I call your attention to a letter purporting to my right to reply to it; and to inform you that I can be yours, and addressed to the agent, in extenuation now see, so far as the examinations have progressed, of your conduct for the act of suspension, and pub- and they have been both numerous and important, no lished in a paper here of this morning, called the cause for the accusations against the agent, unless in Patriot. If this letter be authentic, you will consi- his inflexible integrity and firmness, in stemming a der all intercourse between yourself and this go-torrent of corruption, disgracesul, in my opinion, to vernment suspended from the moment of the receipt the national character. A sense of duty compels me of this.
G. M. TROUP. to say, that, in using these expressions, I have no T. P. Andrews, esq. special agent,
allusion to your excellency; for I sincerely believe Creek agency.
that the same persons who have caused this outcry Extract of a letter from major Andrews to gov. Troup, against the Indian agent, have abused that confidence
dated Princeton, (Indian Nution), 4th July, 1825. which your excellency was compelled to repose in "I acknowledge the receipt of your communication consequence of your official station. of the 28th, which has given me pain as a man, but With high respect and consideration, I remain which causes no uneasiness, on my part, as an agent your excellency's obedient servant, or officer of the general government. It has given
(Signed) T. P. ANDREWS, Special agent. me pain as a gentleman, because I think I can per To his excellency George M. Troup, ceive that you feel compelled, (I presume from a
Governor of Georgia, Milledgeville.” sense of public duty), to transfer the pursuit by the
authorities of Georgia, from the Indian agemente. the Gov. Troup & the Attorney General. special agent of the United States' government. It causes no uneasiness on my part, as an officer or agent
(FROM THE NATIONAL JOURNAL.) of the government, because I cannot suppose, for a The following correspondence will sufficiently esmoment, that my government will censure me for plain itself. It is to be lamented that governor Troup doing an act of sacred duty to the Indian agent, at the had not taken the trouble to inform himself a little same time that I performed, in suspending him from more accurately as to the facts, before he suffered his functions, an act of courtesy to yourself and go-| himself to indulge in an invective against the admivernment, which you thought necessary to the ascer- nistration, through the sides of the attorney general. tainment of unbiassed testimony. Had I entered into It will be observed, that not only is the offensive refeelings of denunciation against the Indian agent, be- mark imputed to the attorney general by governor fore his trial, or suspended him without doing him pre- Troup, disproved by all the judges of the supreme sent justice, by a frank exposition of the reasons court, who have yet been heard from, by the reporwhich actuated me in doing so, I should, indeed, have ter, and by the very eminent gentleman, Mr. Emmet, apprehended the disapprobation of my government, whose letter is among those annexed; but, that the (to which alone I look in the discharge of my duties), attorney general, at the time, openly and solemnly because that government is administered by men declared, that the executive had no part in the case pre-eminent for temperate and reasonable councils, then under argument, and that the positions which and who cannot be induced, by any consideration, he should maintain in the discussion were entirely to violate the rights guaranteed to every citizen of his own, for which he, and he alone, was responsible. our country, however humble, by its constitution, This declaration, we are told, was elicited by a and by the immutable principles of justice.
paragraph which appeared in one of the papers of "Your excellency calls on me to avow or disavow this city, on the morning on which the attorney gethe letter to the Indian agent, of which you appear neral was expected to speak, intimating that the pubto complain. With the exception of a few typographi- lic could now have an opportunity of hearing, through cal errors, I own it as my letter. I send you a cor- the attorney general, the sentiments of the executive rect copy. It is such a letter as my sense of justice on the subject of the slave trade, and by a similar imperiously called on me to address him, in perform- suggestion from one of the counsel opposed to him. ing a harsh act towards him-was approved of by my
Mr. Wirt to. Chief Justice Marshall. best judgment, such as it is—is approbated by a mar,
WASHINGTON, July 2, 1825. who, for wisdom, stands inferior to few, and in honor Sır: In a late official communication by gov. Troup to none—and such an one as, I confidently trust, will to the legislature of Georgia, I find myself charged receive the approbation of my governinent. It is l with having maintained before the supreme court of
the United States, at the last term, the proposition to bave left none upon my memory. The cases did "that slavery, being inconsistent with the laws of Godt not warrant, or call for, such sentiments; nor can I and nature, cannot exist." Will you do me the jus. imagine in what way they could have been made to tice to say, in reply, whether, either your notes of ar- apply with the least propriety to the subjects under gument, or your recollection, impute that proposition discussion. to me, or any sentiment or opinion that slavery, as Since the receipt of your letter, I have carefully it now exists in the several states, could, or ought to examined my notes, which fully assure me of the be abolished, or be attempted be abolished, or in- faithfulness of my memory. terfered with at all by the authority of the govern I am, dear sir, very respectfully, your most obediwent of the United States.
BUSH. WASHINGTON. I have the honor to remain, &c.
Judge Duval to Mr. Wirt.
RICHMOND, July 14, 1825.
SIR_Your letter of the 2d was received at the Chief Justice Marshall to Mr. Wirt.
moment of my leaving home for this place. That RICHMOND, July 6, 1825.
circumstance, in connexion with a heavy domestic Sir: received yesterday evening your letter of the calamity, has prevented an earlier answer. 2d, stating that governor Troup, in an oficial report
It is stated, in your letter to me, that, in a late of to the legislature of Georgia, had charged you with ficial communication from governor Troup to the having maintained before the supreme court, at the legislature of Georgia, you are charged with having last term, the proposition that slavery, being incon- maintained, before the supreme court of the United sistent with the laws of God and nature, cannot ex- States, at the last term, the proposition, "hat slava ist;" and requesting me to say "whether my notes of ry, being inconsistent with the laws of God and nathe argument or recollection impute that proposition ture, cannot exist;” and you request me to say to you, or any sentiment or opinion, that slavery, as whether my notes of argument, or my recollertion, it now exists in the several states, could be, or ought impute that proposition to you, or any sentiment or to be, abolished, or attempted to be abolished, or in- opinion that slavery, as it not exists in the United terfered with at all
, by the government of the United States, could, or ought to be, abolished, or attempted States."
to be abolished, or interfered with at all, by the age It is not in my power to refer to my notes, because thority of the government of the United States. they were, as is my custom, delivered to Mr. Whea Your letter, without doubt, refers to the cause of ton at the close of the term, who supposes they may the African negroes who had been captured and be of some use to him in drawing out the arguments taken from American, Portuguese and Spanish vese of counsel. I can, therefore, appeal only to memory. sels, and brought into the United States in a vessel
I have no recollection of your having uttered, in called the general Ramirez, under the command of any form, the sentiment imputed to you. The impres-John Smith, a citizen of the United States. On sion on my mind is, that you denounced the slave their arrival, the vessel and the Africans were libelled trade, not slavery; the practice of making freemen and claimed by the Portuguese and Spanish viceslaves; not that of holding in slavery those who were consuls, reciprocally. They were claimed by John born slaves. I think it impossible that you can have Smith, as captured, jure belli, and they were claimed hinted at any interference of the government of the by the United States, as having been transported from union with slavery in the respective states; because foreign parts by American citizens, in contravention I think such a hint, however remote, would have ex- to our laws, and as entitled to their freedom by these cited my attention too strongly to be entirely forgol- laws, and by the law of nations. This cause was arten. I recollect distinctly that, in some argumenta gued and decided at the last term of the supreme I think in the case of the Africans claimed by the court, consuls of Spain and Portugal --you stated in terms,
I answer, without hesitation, that I have no recolthat you had no authority to speak the sentiments of lection whatever, that you maintained the proposition the government; and that the arguments you should imputed to you by governor Troup, in the argument use were to be considered as entirely your own.
of the cause beforementioned, or in any other cause. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, I brought with me the notes which were taken in the
J. MARSHALL. argument of the case, and they are full. They cor
respond with my recollection. If you had made use Bushrod Washington to Mr. Wirt.
of such an argument, it would not have escaped my Mount VERNON, July 9th, 1825.
notice. You contended that the slave trade is not Dear sir: The harvest having prevented me from countenanced by the law of nations;-that, by the sending to Alexandria for some days past, is the apa existing law of nations, it is unlawful;—that these logy. I have to offer for not having returned you an Africans were under the protection of the laws of the earlier answer to your letter of the 2d instant.
United States, and, prima facia, free by those laws, You request me to state whether my notes or re
&c. &c. collection of your argument of the African negro
I can say, also, according to my recollection, and cases, before the last supreme court, imputes to you upon recurring to my notes, that, in the course of your the assertion of the propositioo "that slavery, being argument in that cause, you did not utter a sentiment inconsistent with the laws of God and nature, cannot or opinion that slavery, as it now exists in the sereexist;" or any sentimentor opinion that slavery, as it ral states, could, or ought to be abolished, or interfernow exists in the several states, could be, or oughted with at all by the authority of the government of to be, abolished, or attempted to be abolished, or in the United States. terfered with at all, by the authority of the govern that you had no instruclions from the executive relative lo
You commenced your argument by the observation ment of the United States.
I feel no hesitation in answering, that no part of this case. And you added, that you understood that no your argument maintained any or either of these pro- complaint had been made to the executive by the goverit positions directly, nor did the general scope of it ment of Spain or of Portugal. warrant, in my opinion, the deduction of any such
It is deemed unnecessary to be more particular. sentiment if any thing resembling it was said, or With great respect and esteem, insinuated, it passed by me so entirely unperceived,
G. DUVALL as to make no ia pression on my mind, and certainly Hon. Mr. Viri.
Judge Thompson to Mr. Wirt.
I presume the occasion alluded to, was the argum NEW YORK, July 6th, 1825. ment of the Antelope, which was the case of certain Sir: Your letter of the ad instant, in relation to go- Africans, taken on board a vessel found hovering near Ternor 'Troup's late communication to the legislature the coasts of the United States, and claimed as Spaof Georgia, has been received. By the quotation in nish and Portuguese property, and also by the United your letter from the communication, it seems you are States as having been transported from foreign councharged with maintaining the proposition, that sla. tries by American citizens, contrary to the slave trade very, being inconsistent with the laws of God and acts of congress, and as entitled to their freedom by nature, cannot exist."
I have looked over my notes of those acts and by the law of nations. your argument in the case referred to, and do not find in the argument of this cause, on the part of the that I have noted any such unqualified proposition government, it would have been foreign to your purbeing laid down by you. Nor have I the least recol- pose to contend that slavery could not legally exist lection of your urging any such sentiment in the sense according to the laws of the several states, or that imputed to you. And I am persuaded it would have it ought to be abolished in those states by the authorimade a strong impression on my mind, if you had ty of the United States' government, since the quesendeavored to establish the proposition that slavery tion related to Africans, who where claimed as slaves did not, at this time, legally exist in our country, or under the laws of Spain and Portugal, and whose that the courts of justice were not bound to recognise freedom was asserted under the same laws, the acts its existence, and to respect and enforce the laws in of congress, the law of nations, and treaties between relation to it. And I think your argument could not, certain foreign states. I am the more confident in justice, warrant a conclusion that you intended, in that no such propositions or sentiments as those any manner whatever, to call in question the laws of imputed to you, where asserted by you, because I listhe southern states on the subject of slavery. tened with great attention to the arguments on both I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, sides, both on account of the interesting nature of
(the subject, and the power and ability with which it Wm. Wirt, esquire,
was handled. Indeed, I distinctly remember, that Atlorney general of the United Slates. you rested the causc exclusively upon the question
whether it was a trade in contravention of the acts
of congress, and whether the Africans, being rightThomas Addis Emmet, esq. lo Mr. Tviri.
fully in the custody of the court, could be restored to New-YORK, July 5th, 1625.
those who claimed them as slaves, without their showDear Sir: I have read the official communication ing a clear legal titic by credible testimony, and that from governor Troup to the legislature of Georgia, you expressly disclaimed a right, on the part of our mentioned in your letter, with very great surprise, cruisers to seize a Spanish or Portuguese slave ship, and no less regret. So far as relates to what is there on the high seas, to bring her in for adjudication, imputed to you, I can confidently say the statement is and then throw the burden of the proof of proprietary incorrect. 'I attended with very great interest to the interest upon the claimants. The only occasion, on whole argument of the African cases, and, since the which I recollect you to have alluded to the laws of receipt of your letter this morning, consulted my the several states on the subject of slavery, was friend, Mr David B. Ogden, who was also present at where, in considering the question how far negroes, it, and authorizes me to say that his recollections on found on the coast of Africa, or in the possession of the subject agrees with mine. You spoke of slavery slave traders on the voyage from the coast, were to in the United States, as an evil inflicted on the colo- be presumed to be slaves, you distinctly admitted, nies by the mother country, and for which they ought thai the local laws of the states where slavery is veto be pitied, and not blamed; and though I cannot cognized, geuerally considered all persons of cocite your words, I collected, from what you said, that lour as, prima facia, slaves, and imposed the burthen you regarded it as an evil which must be submitted of proof upon them to show the contrary; at the to. I am confident you expressed no opinion that same time, that you insisted that even in those states slavery, as it now exists in the several states, can be, or the possession of a newly imported African, would ought to be abolished, or attempted to be abolished, or in- not be considered as evidence of property, since terfered with at all, by the authority of the governanent of such profession was liable to the suspicion of its havthe United States. I am the more decided on this ing been acquired in violation of the acts of congress point because I was, at the time, struck with your prohibiting the slave trade. discretion in answering some observations made by
I am, sir, with great respect, your very obedient Mr. Berrien, and which seemed to leave an opening servant,
II. ITHEATON. for expressing such sentiments, if you entertained
To the hon. William Wirt, them, or thought fit to disclose them.
Attorney general of the U. States.
Greek Official Papers.
Missolonghi, April 18. Notwithstanding every thing Henry Wheaton to Mr. Wirt.
published by the Journal of Athens respecting OdysNew-YORK, July 5th, 1825. seus, there can be no longer doubt that he has beStr: I have received your letter of the 2d July, in- come the enemy of the country, and of the present quiring whether you maintained, before the supreme order of things. If circumstances hitherto have causcourt of the United States, at the last term, the pro-jed bim to be looked upon as one of the best of chiefs, "position, that slavery, being inconsistent with the and so great a friend of liberty, that some have even * laws of God and nature, cannot crisi," or whether compared him to the illustrious Bolivar, his characyou maintained "any sentiment, or proposition, that ter has, at last, discovered itself in its real colors. * slavery, as it exists in the several states, could, or. As soon as this man, who is only greedy of wealth,
ought to be abolished, or attempted to be abolislied, egotistical and ambitious, perceived that the laws "or interfered with at all, by the authority of the go- were beginning to acquire force and effect, and that * veroment of the U. States"--I have great pleasure in she could no longer exercise an illegal influence over being able to state, both from recollection and from public affairs, he joined the standard of anarchy, and my notes taken at the time, that neither of those refused to obey the order of government. In order propositions was maintained by you before the court Ito portray his character in its proper light, we pub
FROM THE CONSTITUTIONEL.
Jish his letter to the primates of Athens and their re- rino, hoping to besiege and take that fortress; but it is ply to it.
toa well defended, and too strong to be taken even by "Gentlemen, primates of Athens, I embrace you. four times that number of enemies. Thus, up to this
“I have addressed you numerous letters, to induce day, there have only been skirmishes, in which the you to restore me my money, and you reply, by re- enemy have lost 1,300 men. His excellency the preferring me to government. It was not to government sident, Conduriottis, has been elected chief of the I lent my money, but rather to yourselves, as may be forces destined to besiege Patras, and it is several seen by your signatures. I, therefore, write you once days since be proceeded on that expeditiou; but, on more, for the last time, that you send me back the account of the landing of the Arabs at Modon, he money which I expended in provisioning your for- proceeded thither, and from thence he will march to tresses, and also my physician whom you retain Patras. among you—otherwise, you may be assured, I will A corps of 8 to 10,000 men has entered into Westset about burning your olive trees and devastating ern Greece. They must really imagine that they your plains. Think not to intimidate me by the men can strike terror into the deserts, since, on advancing tion of your government; when I have reason on my into Western Greece, they will only meet stones and side, I fear not God himself. In the course of five guns, and if even they succeed in reaching the intedays, I shall expect a categorical answer on your part; rior, they will find that Anatolico and Missolonghi and be sure not to forget that you will be answerable are impregnable. for the misfortunes your refusal may bring upon this In Eastern Greece there have only appeared 400 province.
"ODYSSEUS ANDRETZO. horsemen, accompanied by the renegade Odysseus, "Izereniko, 1825."
who, not being able to seduce the people to his trai
torous opinions, threw off the mask, deserted to the The answer of the Athenian primates. Turks, and took up arms against his country; but the "General Odysseus: We have received your letter, brave general Gouras, with a force of 5,000 chosen in which you menace us with the devastation of our men, attacked him, and drove him, with his complains and the burning of our olive trees, unless we panions, to Tarentum; he keeps them closely blocksend you back your money and your physician in the aded up there, and we think that shortly Odysseus space of five days.,
and his troops will experience the fate they merit. “That money, you know, has been expended by The enemy have begun the campaign this year yourself in provisioning a citadel which belongs to much earlier than usual; and we do not doubt that government; your physician has been employed as this fisth campaign they will employ all their efforts; the surgeon of the garrison, and consequently per- but we also confidently hope and believe, that those forms a public function; we, therefore, recommend- exertions will fail, and that the Greeks, by brilliant ed to you, and we still recommend you, to apply to victories, will advance their independence. The gogovernment, who will not, certainly, be guilty of the vernment is occupied in expediting three strong least injustice towards you. Only make your claims corps of troops-one will be stationed at Volo, one known to the proper quarter, and you will receive is destined for the besieging of Negroponte, and the satisfaction. As to the threats you make, we cannot other for Agrapha. A fourth corps, of less strength, be persuaded that we have any cause to apprehend will be stationed at Patranziki. that our plains or olive trees will be destroyed by According to all appearances, the Sultan has placthat very Odysseus who, during four invasions, pre- ed all his hopes on two forces that of the Albanians, served them uninjured, and combatted so often to de- and that of Mehemed Ali Pacha. As to the Egypfend them. THE PRIMATES OF ATHENS." tians, we have spoken of them above; and as to the "Athens, 1825.
Albanians, the experience of four years has taught us [In pursuance of his threat, Odysseus did, however, what may be expected from them, especially on comat the head of four hundred horsemen, make an paring our forces of this year with those of the preirruption into Eastern Greece, and labored to seduce ceding campaign. Our vessels also are cruising on his countrymen from their allegiance and join the the coasts of Albania. Turkish standard. But he was met by general Gou Napoli di Romania, April 4, 1925, 0. S. ras, who drove him, at the head of five hundred men, into Tarentum, where he was closely blocked up.
Second despatch. This is the last official intelligence received of this The executive body to Messrs. John Orlando and Andreas traitor.)
The enemy before Navarino, having experienced Official intelligence-first despatch.
defeats at various times, is, at present, in distress,
and is endeavoring to retire into the fortresses of The executive body to Messrs. John Orlando and Andreas Modon and Coron. We hope that none of them will Luriottis.
escape. us, and that their present position may serve The government thinks necessary to inform you of them as a salutary lesson. On the Sist March, (12th the true state of affairs at present in Greece. It is April), a curious engagement took place. About one very probable that report will have augmented the hundred Greeks, under general Macrojanis, sallied the number of troops landed by Ibrahim Pacha at out of the fortress, sword in hand, threw themselves Modon and Coron; learn, then, that the forces, dis on the centre of the enemy, and, after having killed embarked by him at those places, do not exceed more than 500, according to the most authentic in8,000. It was a regular corps, consisting of Arab formation we have received, they returned into the soldiers, and commanded by about forty European fortress, laden with booty, having lost only one adventurers; six thousand only of them were fighting of their companions, and with only seven slightly men, the rest were servants, such as grooms, &c. wounded. They were accompanied by about 350 horsemen, or It is also proper to inform you of the heroic acganized in the manner of the Mamelukes. This corps tion of John Mavro Michaelis, son of Petros Mavro was able to advance to within eight hours' distance Michaelis. That young man, accompanied by his of Modon and Coron; but they were ot able to do brother George, had hardly learned that the enemy any injury—but, on the contrary, in a skirmish which advanced towards Navarivo, when he went to throw took place with 1,000 Greeks, under our general, Pas- himself into that fortress with a body of soldiers. sos Mavromuniottis, they were forced to retire. As, Unwilling to remain in the fortress, he sallied forth however, our troops were not in readiness to oppose and threw himself on the enemy, and occasioned them them, they advanced shortly after towards to Nara-la considerable loss. Death, however, deprived us of
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF GREECE.