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which had, for some time, been disturbing the neigh- ing way when led by religion. A general censorship. borhood of the village. On this occasion, we were of all the books printed in the country or abroad has accompanied hy some of the inhabilants of Samba been confided to the ministry for ecclesiastical afContaye, one of whom gave the first wound to the fairs, under the immediate care of a counsellor of animal; in consequence of it he was disarmed by the state, and the director of publie instruction. rest of his companions, and led prisoner (his hands tied behind his back), to the town, at whose outer spproa, h they were met by all the women, singing

THE ROAD TO MEXICO. St. Louis, June 27. Seven and lapping hands. The dead animal, covered with wagons belonging to the expedition, setting out for the a white cloth, was carried by four men on a bier, con- purpose of making the road from Missouri to the structed for the purpose, accompanied by the others Mexican provinces, left here on Wednesday las.. of teir party, shouting, firing shots and dancing, or one of the commissioners, maj. Sibley, the surveyor, Iulher playing all sorts of monkey tricks. As I was Joseph C. Brown, esq. and the secretary to the comro: a little surprised at seeing the man, whom I con- missioners, captain Gamble, lest here on Saturday reived ough to be rewarded for having first so disa- and yesterday on their way up. They will, it is supb.ed the animal as to prevent it from attacking us, posed, be joined by the other commissioner, colonel thus treated, 1 requested an explanation; and was Reeves, and proceed in their arduous undertakingerformed, being a subject only, he was guilty of a

A great part of their time will be necessarily emgreat crime in killing or shooting a sovereign, and ployed in treating with the different tribes of Indians, mus! suffer this punishment until released by the through whose country they will have to pass, and chiefs of the village, who, knowing the deceased to whose permission they will have to obtain for making have been their enemy, would not only do so imme- the road. The hot weather, the number of lies, and diately, but commend the man for his good conduct. the difficulty of getting their wagons through a trackI endeavored, to no purpose, to find out the origin of less country, will oblige them to travel slow, and it this extraordinary mock-ceremony, but could only will be some time before they complete the work. gain the answer, frequently given by an African, The commissioners say twelve or thirteen months. "that his forefathers had always done so.'' (A better reason than this, in favor of "legitimate govereigns," could not have been given!)

Tue HUDSON AND THE DELAWARE. Companies have been formed and the stocks subscribed, for making

three canals between the Hudson and the Delaware. A Quakea in Kent, (says an English paper), being The Delaware and Raritan canal, by way of New pressed by a zealous tory to conform to the establish- Brunswick; the Morris canal, from the Passaic, as ed church, made this answer "Friend, thou mayest Patterson, to the mouth of the Lehigh, in the Delaspare thy breath and persuasion; I never will belong ware; the Hudson and Delaware canal, leading from to that church which is always in danger." the first named river, not far from Kingston, to the

[The cant cry of the tory party is the church is in Lackawaxen, and the region of coal. The Delaware, danger," whenever any proceeding is suggested that above the Lackawaxen, may be easily made navimay lessen its secular power or reduce the emolu- gable for one hundred miles. The ceremony of ments of its ministers.)

breaking ground for the last, was performed, on the

13th ultimo, by Philip Hone, esq. of New York, preRussia. The autocrat, (says a London paper), sident of the board of managers, on the summit is much puzzled with the problem how to give the level, in the midst of a great concourse of people poor education without giving them desires which assembled for the occasion-a full account of wbiche they cannot gratify. In short, nature is to be put we have on file, and desire to give at some future on quite a new footing in Russia. We suepect there day: Mr. Hone has thrown the weight of his chais more of his father in the emperor than people racter and wealth into this undertaking, and it will be are aware of, otherwise he would have his fate more successful. The following extract from his address strongly impressed on his memory.

will be read with much interest: The following is the article referred to:

In the present age of improvement, when the capi"Warsaw, May, 2. The emperor has left the capi- tal, the enterprise and the public spirit of the citital for a few days, to view the manufactures newly zens of our happy republic are actively employed in established in the district of Massovia and Katesch developing its resources, unfolding its natural advan

"In the speech of the minister of the interior on tages, and rendering operative all the blessings with the state of the kingdom, is the following pagsage: - which a kind Providence has endowed it-andertak'It is to be lamented, that the want of ready money, ings, like that which has been this day commenced, and the poverty of the country people, have hitherto become matters of ordinary occurrence; and an enprevented the general introduction of elementary terprise, which, a few years since, would, from its schools. It cannot be unobserved, that a liberal and sië very magnitude, have been by some deemed chimeperior education given to the presunt, would, in his prea rical, and the success of which would have been consent circumstances, be a real misfortune for him. He sidered, at least doubtfu! by all, is nou viewed with would become acquainted with much, but, unable to little interest, except by these immediately concernes enjoy it, would experience many wishes, and look in in its accomplishment, and its projectors have less to vain for the gratification of them; and all this would hope from the applause which may crown their šucembitter his life, and fill bim with dislike to the rich - cess, than to fear from the odiuin which is a natural instability, and often the deceitful resolution to take consequence of a failure. up various oceupations without being able to pursue The state of New York enjoys the pre-eminence them; and the end of the unhappiness lies already of having first boldly taken up the line of march in in the child which the man prepares for himself in the proud era of internal navigation. Our Schuylers mature age. ' Circumstances have made it possible and our Morrises, who first conceived the noble to introduce various improvements into the school project of uniting the great lakes and rivers with the system. A general committee of superintendance ocean which bounds our territory, were not permilhas been appointed, whose chief business it is to ted to enjoy the successful accomplishment of their watch over the moral and religious behaviour of the labors; but their precious legacy has been worthly students. In this manner, education is founded on improved by those to whom it descended, and the the principles of morality, and where mere learning great design, opposed as it has been by the hones! miglit lead to many errors, it finds its true and uuerr: I doubts of some and unworthy prejudices of others

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has succeeded beyond the most sanguine expectations, which New-York has obtained in works of internal of those whose fame and reputation were identified improvement and public utility, is in no danger of with its success.

being tarnished by the operations of the Delaware "Our state owes an impagable debt of gratitude to and Hudson canal company." the illustrious individual who is now at the head of The ceremonies were concluded with a dinner and its government, and to his associates in the canal the drinking of toasts among them the following: commission, for their unwearied exertions to carry The Delaware and Hudson canal-Posterity will into effect the measures adopted by successive legis. celebrate the anniversary of its commencement as a Jatures, who, less sanguine than themselves, were new era in the history of improvement. still disposed to give every facility to their opera . The legislature of the state of New-York- to whose tions; and the successfui completion of the great liberality and enlightened policy the citizens of western and northern canals, while it attests to suc- Orange, Sullivan and Ulster, are indebted for the ca.ceeding generationis how much may be effected by nal, the commencement of which we this day celepublic spirit and individual exertion, will serve to brate. stimulate other sections of our country to similar ef The state of Pennsylvania-willing that the Delaforts in the great work of internal improvement. ware and the Hudson should shake hands, may she

"The undertaking which has now been commenced be as prosperous as she is great and magnanimous. does not claim an equal share of consideration with The cause of interoal improvement throughout the that to which I have just adverted; but, when viewed union. as the work of individuals, associated under the sanc 'Tbe union of the states, cemented by works like tion of the state, but deriving no support from its this-it will be imperishable. sunds, and when the great and important conse-1. By John Sudam, esq. vice president. The presiquences which cannot fail to result from it, are fairly dent and orator of the day--his enlightened judgment considered, we feel assured that the public will give has enabled him to appreciate the advantages of the us the benefit of their good wishes, and contribute, at Delaware and Iludson canal; his name has given to least, a friendly "God speed ye" to a work, which, if Ulster and Sullivan a strong arm in completing it. successful, must increase the prosperity and redound (Mr. Hone here rose and thanked the company in to the glory of the state. But, from you, citizens of a feeling and appropriate manner, for the honor this Orange, Sullivan and Ulster, we have a right to ex. day coníerred on him.].. pect something more; and, judging by the friendly By David Ilunter, esq. vice president. New-York co-operation and support which many of you have and Pennsylvania, twin sisters of the republic, may hitherto afforded us, we have no apprehension that their common efforts produce internal wealth for themour expectations will be disappointed. We are pre-selves, and external strength for their country. paring to open for you the means of communication By Charles H. Ruggles, Esq. vice president. The with a sister state, rich in the production of the soil

, health of a citizen of a sister state, Maurice Wurts, and possessing an inexhaustable supply of coal, which, esq. whose mind first conceived the project of the from its situation and the imperfect navigation of Delaware and Hudson canal, and whose ardor and the rivers, is of little more value than the rich gems, perseverance has brought the work to an auspicious which "the dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear." commencement. The products of your own farms, and the timber of your own forests, will also be increased in “LIVE THE CONSTITUTION!" This was the heading value, to an amount incalculable, by the facilities of one of the editorial essays in the Register when, which will be afforded you of conveġing them, within the memorable year 1814, I was engaged in exposlittle labor and expense, to a market always calling ing the wickedness and weakoess of certain mad for supplies and never supplied. But, in the prosecu- seekers of power in the east, seemingly resolved "'TO tion of this work, we have many difficulties to en-RUIN OR TO RULE The state;" arid little then did I supcounter, many obstables to remove, and although, pose that I should resort to it again to direct the atfrom recent experience, it has been found that the tention of the readers of this work to similar, but less talents and industry of our countrymen are sufficient reasonable or excuseable, proceedings of some polttito overcome them all, yet we may be allowed to say, cians in the south, with whom it has been my common in the language of an accomplished orator of a sister practice to think and act, on political subjects, for state, who saw all the difficulties, while he expatiated almost thirty years past: but that which was wrong in on the advantages of such an enterprise, “to accom- the one cannot be right in the other, and the progress plish all these objects, man raises the valley, levels or safety of the constitution cannot any more be subihe hill, diverts the stream, perforates the mountain, mitted to the factious of the south than to those of he leads the river in unaccustomed channels, and the the east. bird of the air views the white sail of commerce! I wish it clearly understood that I am not in the uşurping her accustomed baunts."

least alarmed by the governor of Georgia's “call to PSeveral routes were surveyed, and that which arms," or by the agitations which are attempted in was adopted appears to have been selected after much some other states, for, (as I believe),

party political consideration. Neither the length of the canal or its purposes !--but it is the injunction of WasHisoron, estimated cost is given in the address, which other and the duty of every good citizen, “to froun indigwise affords a pretty clear view of the different routes nantly on the first daronings of every attempt to alienate proposed—but, in conclusion, Mr. Hone said any portion of our country from the rest, or enfeeble the

Contracts have been entered into for excavation sacred ties which now linker together the various paris.?? and locks on a considerable portion of the line, and And, as "prevention is always better than cure," it is the peaceful and beautiful valley, in which I have true policy to meet such things at their beginning, now the honor of addressing you, will soon be the that, if possible, they may be stilled in their birth scene of active and vigorous operations. The hardy which is not a difficult matter to do, I shouid prearm of labor, directed by science and professional sume, in the present instance; because it cannot be tenus gifts of nature subservient to the improvementsed to the union than those of any other part of the reof art. The citizens of our state and those of the public, or more willing that the inestimable blessings state of Pennsylvania, will be convinced that the pri- which they derive from it should even be questionvileges granted by their respective legislatures, are ed, because certain individuals are not in ofñce, or cunnot not intended to be merely employed as objects

of in- direct the affairs of the general government just as they terested speculation, and that the proud character I please!


by political fire-brands in the south, to disturb thener of the REGISTER, that I am entirely opposed to

"Commerce” was the great stalking-horse in the ed, that Mr. King believes the public funds may be east, that political power might pass out of the hands rightsully used to purchase, emancipate and remove of those who then held it-and now it is "slavery or no the slaves, surely the “free states," which have a much slavery," to use the language of gov. Troup and others, deeper interest in these funds than the "slave states," that is to be the rallying word in the south! It is no on account of their superior population and excess inore intended to disturb the last than it was to de- of contributions to the public purse), ought to be the stroy the former. Indeed, every body disavows a right first to complain of it--and especially so, when I shall in the government, and there is no disposition in the shew it is the pecuniary interest of the people of the people, to interfere with the "slave question,” as it "free states” that slavery should exist in the south, Thow stands, unless in the way of friendly sugges- as at present it does. I am not myself favorable to tion and disinterested advice and yet this black Mr. King's project, on several accounts--but it will subject is broached to cause an agitation, which, if be time enough to consider it when the priblic debt is ever it goes beyond fulminating words, can tend only paid of, and we are at a loss to know what to do with to the swist destruction of the intemperate authors our money! of it.

As to the second, it is most clearly shewn that Mr. I may, hereafter, examine the pretences on which Wirt not only did not use the words imputed to him, this clanor is attempted to be raised, and endeavor to but he expressly declared that, as to the case before point out the object of it; but, at present, prefer the the court, he had no instruction from the government demonstration of two facts-- 1st, that the people of whatever! the free states* CANNOT be jealous of the "slave Not being of those who have abused the people of holding states;" or possess a wish to "intermeddle” the south, on account of their slaves, or one of the cause they have all which they need already, or soon as proper to be brought suddenly about, I hope must possess it

, without any effort;—and, 2ndly, that they, for whom I feel most interested, will pashew it to be the unquestionable PECUNIARY INTEREST tiently read and carefully consider the momentous of the former that the latter shall remain as they are. facts which I shall respectfully submit to them-beIf these things are established and that they will being conscious that I have not intended, in the least, I have no manner of doubt, we shall be at a loss to to misrepresent or distort any thing connected with find out any other motive to operate on the people of

of the matters under examination; nor, on a cautious "free states.? and justify the suspicion of what is 50 review of the subject, do I see any reason to believe

if not also forth, I am mistakesIt public repose.

slavery and the slave system, whether of white men. it may be well, however, just to mention the pre- under the ordinances of the "holy alliance," or of rences on which this clamor is founded, if founda- black men, by virtue of the laws of England, France tion it can he said to have at all, except in the dis- and many other European nations, and those of the turbed imaginations of those who make it. The first United States--yet, that I have never agitated or disis the resolution of Mr. King, submitted to the senate, turbed "the question" as it now rests. On the conand expressive of his opininn, that, after the public trary, to the best of my abilities, I have tindicated and debt is paid, the proceeds of the sales of the public defended this class of my fellow-citizens agaiost the lands should be appropriated to the emuncipation and unprincipled attacks of British writers, whose aneesSemoral of such slaves, as by the laws of the several states tors it was that forced this curse on their southern comay be respectively allowed.--and the second isy certain lonies in America, which, it is to the glory of Virgiexpressions, imputed to Mr. Wirt, attorney general nia, that she resisted before the revolution. And as of the United States, and said to have been used by to a general or sudden emancipation, in the present him in discussing a case before the supreme court. condition of the slaves, without the removal of those

As 10 the first--the project of "einancipation and emancipated, I regard it as chiefly another phrase to gemary" is substantiallye as old as the best term of express an idea of extermination: for, admitting that pressed on the consideration of the general gorernment by location, without its being necessary that the whites the lumiinture of Virginia:--and its principle is the should destroy them, for the defence of their own same as that on which the "American Colonization persons and property, which I do not believe is prosociety' is now acting!!-and yet this society is a bable-experience has shewn us that their numbers great favorite with many of the chief slave-holders will rapidly decline, through their improvidence and in the United States!!! And, as to expending the wait of knowledge how to take care of themselves. public money for such purposes, it is now really done As I have observed, on another occasion. Malthus in the protectiep afforded by the navy to the colony never thought of such a 'check to population, and at Liberia... This has never been objected to, but, 1 yet it is a powerful one. The bills of mortality for believe, universaily approved of. The amount of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, &c. always show the cost or of the services rendered to the colonists, an excess proportion of deaths among the free blacks, Pues not affect the principle. If the arm of the whether compared with the amount of the white poUnited States can be rightfully extended one inch, or pulation in these cities, or the few slaves that may be : cent of the public money be expended, for the pro- in them, or such as are located elsewhere." Those fection and support of this colony, the whole military matters, however, do not come up for discussion at borce of the nation, and all its surplus funds, may be this time, and I only refer to them to express my opislevoted to a similar object, under the direction of nion, that any scheme for a general emancipation, congress. But congress has no right to interfere with which does not, also, take in a project for colonizapropcrly in slaves; and the men that would seriously tion, or at least of removal, is hostile to the safety of Think of it, ought to be ranked in the same class of the free population, and must needs abridge the duegitators that I am reproving, except that the motive ration of the lives of those on whom it is intended to might be more praise-worthyst And if it be objecte confer a benefit. It is possible, that sa man had bel

*That is, as to the aid of the general government, selves,” be ugain set up by a mad-fool and traitor in ia redioving the emancipated.

the east-or some other like medman and traiter in i The effect on the welfare of the people of this the south, were now to cry out the Potomac the boundunion is the same, whether the inscription, the dary--the commercial and manufacturing states hy them PL10112C the boundary--the negro states to them- scroll


Whole No.

From the

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ter be dead than alive,"--but the surest and best By the

Majority in proof of comfortable living is the duration of life; census of in congress. "free slalis." "slave Holding favor of the and comfort depends as much on a peculiar construc 1790 105 tion of the mind as in personal convenience the 1800 142

61 value of the last is more determined by the action of

136 106

80 the mind than by the cnjoyment of the body.

1820 212 123

34 Population of what are called the "free states," in 1830* 225 136



As to the power of the states in the senate:—The New-Hampshire, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, Ver- "free states are Maine, New Hampshire, Massachumont, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania and setts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, NewDelaware,

2,027,248 York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ohio, Deduct for the slaves then in these states, 49,254 Indiana '

and Minois, 13--shewing a presegt majority

of two states. Michigan will, probably, be added beFree inhabitants in 1790,

1,977,994 fore 1830, to this class of states, and Arkansas or Population of the same states in 1820, with

Florida may be so to the other. After these, no addithat of the new "free states of Ohio, In

tions can be made to the biglave states;"? but several diana, Illinois, Mainc and the territory of

new "frec states," fronting on both barks of the MisMichigan,

5,225,107 sissippi, north of Minois and Missouri, may be erIVhole probable population* of the "free

pected to rise up in a very few years. states in 1830,


It is not worth while, however, io look forward

beyond 1530-- for the "free states will then have a "Federal number” for electing representa positive majority in the house of representatives of the tives to congress, after 1830,

the same. United States, equal to one half of the whole force of Population of the “slave holding states," in the "slave-holding states” in that body. What greater

1790-to wit, Maryland, Virginia, North degree of political power can be asked than this, when Carolina, South-Carolina, Georgia, Ken

backed by such a vast superiority of physical strength, tucky and Tennessey,

1,893,078 if it should be thought proper to disturb the slave quesDeduct slaves,

648,437 tion, or determine any other matter by considerations

growing out of real or supposed oppositions of inte! Free population in 1790,

1,244,641 rest between the two classes of states? It is idlePopulation of the same states in 1820, with

nay, it is wicked, to encourage the idea that the “free that of the new "slave bolding states” of

states” arc jealous of the political power of the "slavo Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Missouri

states.” They may have been, but cannot now be. and the territory of Arkansas, 4,367,598

Yet there are other and very important matters to Deduct slaves,


be seriously considered, as having direct relation to

the imposing facts above presented, to shew the Free population in 1820,


march of political, as well as of moral and physical

power, if either shall ever be brought to bear upon Whole probable population of the “slave the "slave question,” which Heaven forbid! except in holding states" in 1830,

5,500,000 the way of friendly counsel and generous assistance, (Of whom almost TWO MILLIONS will be slaves']

if the tirst be deemed acceptable or the second is re"Federal number” for electing representa

quired. Missouri, Kentucky and Maryland cannot long tives congress after 1830,

4,700,000 have a deep interest in slaves as property, and, in

general, they are unprofitable in these states, as they Gross excess of population in the "free states,” in 1790, only

must necessarily be in any section of our country that

134,170 The same, in 1820,


is manufacturing, commercial or grain-growing; for The same, (probable), in 1830,



PERITY OF A PEOPLE ENGAGED IN EITHER OF THOSE PURExcess of free population in the "free states”

SUITS. This is easily demonstrated by the single fact, in 1790,

733,353 that free labor can be hired, in the free states," by The same, in 1820,

2,388,000 the year, for the interest of the money vested in slaves, (at 'The same, (probable), in 1830-about 3,600,000 the high prices which they have brought for the culMajority of “federal numbers” in the "free tivation of cotton and sugar), and the cost of clothing states,” in 1790,

375,000 and taking care of them! And if, to this plain matter of The same, in 1820,

1,470,000 fact, we add the “tear and wear” of slaves, the losses The same, (probable), in 1830, 2,500,000 in them by diseases and death, and the subsistence of

those necessary to keep up the stock and who are not Now let us look at the progress of the power of fitted for the field, we shall easily arrive at the conclus representation, in those different classes of states: sion, that any given quantity of labor, suited to the

constitution and habits of the free whites, can be *The "probable population" is taken from some performed at a less expense by them than by slaves-calculations made in this paper-see Vol. XXII, page and besides, when a farmer does not want his free 341; and considerable faith is placed in their near- laborers, he may discharge them, but the slaves must ness to what the result of the census will shew as the be kept and maintained all the year round. These amount and location of the people of the United States remarks are applicable to every business in which the in 1830, from the success that attended similar cal- white man labors for himself, either on his own culations, prospectively made, as to the population farm or in his own manufactory or work-shop; and in 1820. If any thing unexpected has happened

since it is presumed that no one will venture to question these facts were presumed, (July 1822), it is decid- the force of the proposition, because it is nakedly. edly in favor of a greater augmentation of persons in and plainly an obstinate truth. If, therefore, the the "free states"--because in them it is, that all, or four great interests of our country, the farming, the nearly all, the great internal improvements are mak-planting, the manufacturing and the commercial ALL ing, new manufactories established, &c. which, it is prosper, slave labor will be perpetually pressing into needless

to say, mightily increase a people, by fur- the second and excluding from the other three, as surely nishing the means of their subsistence, which

encourages marriage, and docs away the jour of having *The ratio being fixed at 50,000. See Weekly Tamilies to support

Register, Vol. XXII, page 341, &c,


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as men shall pursue that which is most profitable to cotton and sugar, because that they cannot come into them. What irresistible proof of this momentous fact competition with the free laborers for the production do we need? Look at the world! —the freest nations of grain, as mechanics or manufacturers, or to enare the most prosperous and powerfvud; they always have gage in commercial businesses. Kentucky is condiheen so. Place Greeee against Asia in old times, and tioned very much like Missouri, but will chiefly beGreat Britain against Russia in the present day. come a manufacturing state. Thousands of slaves Avhat were, or are, herds of dronish slaves com- are exported annually from Maryland. Their number pared with bee-like communities of freemen? And, has increased only 4,000 since 1790. The cultivation for a more farciliar example, what is the production of tobacco, which has been their main business, canof enslaver Ireland, compared with the freer mistress not be extended, for it is found that the demand carinot kingdom, England? Yet the Irish are not less indus- be increased;* and in Ohio and Pennsylvania, those trious or less capable of labor than the English-but kinds of tobacco, which have been most profitable to they want those stimulants to industry which the the Maryland planters, begin to be extensively raised hope of bettering one's condition so abundantly sup-| by the hands of freemen-and they can raise it cheap plies. The slave is only a laboring-machine, not to er than we do by slaves. Maryland, besides, is rapidly be moved by a zeal to excel, for to excel will not be increasing in manufacturing establishments, and noshefit him any thing. "Tis suflicient that he does his thing but these, supported by commerce, will preven! day's work, and has no thought for the morrow. a decrease of her population. The fact is, that the He has no hope. His opinion is settled that he will small increase we have had, may be said to be waouls always be a slave.

confined to those districts in which there were, anů To apply these things to the condition of the states are, very few slaves. For instance, Baltimore, Fredejust named. Missouri will probably be the first of rick and Washington counties had 109,300 inhabithem to enact laws for the extinction of slavery, not-tants in 1790, of whom, 15,598 were slaves, Charles, withstanding there was so great a desire to introduce St. Mary's and Prince George's had, in the same year, it. The admission of slaves has naturally checked 54,056, of whom 28,148 were slaves—the first three the immigration of free laboring whites, and, po counties shewed an increase of 50,500, by the ceodoubt, kept away tens of thousands of those classes sus of 1820, of which increase only 4,000 was of of society which are, not only specially advantageous slaves-whereas the three last counties exhibited an to new states, but indispensable to the prosperity actual decrease of 4,500, of which decrease one half of every society. A nation of kings, lords, masters, was in the slaves. (It is thus also in Virginia. The Jawyers, doctors or priests, would be a very con- slave population either checks or drives out the free temptible one; but a nation of ploughmen, mechanics white—as is shewn by a comparison of the different and artizans, will command respect--for they have censuses. Unless for the increase in the counties free souls and strong arms!'. The press of popu. that have not many slaves, both Maryland and Viration to Missouri was immediately stopped on the ginia would have made but little advance in white admission of slaves; and it now halts in Ohio, Mi- population for the last thirty years. This is capachigan, Indiana or Mlinois, except that small part blo of demonstration from otficial documents.t] it is which, chiefly from the southern Atlantic states, goes to Alabama and Florida--but these last are not the The first class of states are what may be called to"hives" to supply inhabitants for new lands; and bacco or rice planting, though, latterly, in North-Cathat part of the free people who leave thom are those rolina, large quantities of cotton have been raised, kvhom they can the worst spare. Missouri is a grain- and some also in Virginia. The second class are the growing state-it also abounds in minerals; it will be cotton or sugar planting; and the rush of the slave come a manufacturing state, and great efforts are mak- population into them is fearfully great. The three sog to open and extend a valuable commerce between first had five sevenths of the whole slave population in It and the interior provinces of Mexico. If either of 1790, but, in 1820, they had less than one half. The these succeed and become profitable, (and we hope last had only a little more than one sixth of that pothat each of them

may), the inevitable consequence pulation in 1790, but more than one third of the whole will be an influx of population from the “free states;" in 1820. They will probably have nearly one-half in and, if the present majority of the people are really in 1830. favor of the slave system, as adapted to their wants or There are a good many slaves in Kentucky and proinotive of their interests, (a matter very much to Tennessee-in 1810, 125,000, and in 1920, 206,000. be daunted), they will soon be over-ruled by the newThe next census will, probably, shew no increase in $mmigrants, whose principles, or prejudices, are op- Kentucky, but a considerable increase in Tennessee, posed to it, and who are desirous also of preserving because of the cultivation of cotton in the latter. the DIGNITY QE LABOR, by the exclusion of slaves. The other cotton growing states will exhibit a treVery few slaves are now introduced into Missouri- mendous increase. their transport is to the south, * for the cultivation of *It is worthy of remark, that the whole export of

tobacco has been rather decreased than increased in *Their transport is to the south!" Yes--and it is the last thirty years—see the commercial table, paga a melancholy truth; but I do not wish to dwell upon 329. In the years 1791 and 1792, we exported 213,700 it further than to show the fact,

hhds, and, in 1823 and 1824, 176,892--and, yet, the SLAVES.

two last years shew a greater export than any other In 1790. In 1800. In 1820 two succeeding years, for twenty years past, by many Maryland,

103,036 107,707 107,398 thousand hhds. Virginia, 292,627 946,969 425,153

1790. 1820. North-Carolina, 100,572 233,196 205,117 $Free whites in Maryland 208,649 260,022

Virginia 442,117 602,974 496,235 587,971 737,669

650,766 862,996 South-Carolina, 107,091 146,151 251,783

650,766 Georgia,

39,264 59,699 149,656 Alabama,


Inerease in 30 years 212,230 Louisiana,

89,064 or at the rate of a little more than thirty per cent. Mississippi

3,489 32,941 in thirty years, whereas in the United States, generally, (including these

states), the increase has 136,555 209,339 545,223 been more than one hundred and fifty per pent for

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