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voters in the congressional district, having viewed | servation which is called for by the address is the the instruction or request of the legislature of Ken- place of its publication. That place was in this city, tucky, on the subject of choosing a president and vicc remote from the centre of Pennsylvania, near which president of the United States, with regret, and the Mr. Kremer's district is situated, and in a paper said request or instruction to our representative in having but a very limited, if any, circulation in it. The congress from this district, being without our know- time is also remarkable. The fact that the president ledge or consent; we, for many reasons, known to intended to nominate me to the senate for the office ourselves, connected with so momentous an occasion, which I now hold, in the course of a few days, was hereby instruct our representative in congress to vote, then well known; and the publication of the address on this occasion, agrceably to his own judgment, was, no doubt, made less with an intention to comand by the best lights he may have on the subject, municate information to the electors of the ninth with, or without the consent of the legislature of congressional district of Pennsylvania, than to affect Kentucky.” This instruction came both unexpected the decision of the senate on the intended nominaand unsolicited by me, and it was accompanied by tion. Of the character and contents of that address letters, assuring me that it expressed the opinion of of Messrs. George Kremer & Co. made up, as it is, of a majority of my constituents. I could not, there assertions, without proof, of inserences, without profore, regard the resolution as conclusive evidence of mises, and of careless, jocose and quizzing conversa
tions of some of my friends, to which I was no party, Viewed, as a mere request, as it purported to be, the and of which I had never heard, it is not my intention general assembly, doubiless, had the power to make to say much. It carried its own refutation, and the it. But, then, with great deference, I think it was parties concerned saw its abortive nature the next worthy of serious consideration, whether the dignity day in the indignant countenance of every unpreof the general assembly ought not to have induced it judiced and bonorable member. In his card, Mr. to forbear addressing itself, not to another legislative Kremer had been made to say, that he held himself body, but to a small part of it, and requesting the ready to "prore, to the satisfaction of unprejudiced members, who compose that part, in a case which the minds, enough to satisfy them of the accuracy of the constitution had confided to them, to vote according statements which are contained in that letter, lo the to the wishes of the general assembly, whether those extent that they concern the course of conduct of H. Clay." wishes did or did not conform to their sense of duty. The object for excluding my friends from this pledge I could not regard the resolution as an instruction; has been noticed. But now the election was decided, for, from the origin of our state, its legislature has and there no longer existed a motive for discriminata never assumed nor exercised the right to instruct ing between them and me. Hence, the only statethe representatives in congress. I did not recognise ments that are made, in the address, having the sem. the right, therefore, of the legislature to instruci mc. blance of proof, relate rather to them than to me; and I recognised that right only when exerted by you. the design was, by cstablishing something like facts That the portion of the public servants, who made up upon them, to make those facts re-act upon me. the general assembly, have no right to instruct that of the few topics of the address upon which I shal! portion of them who constituted the Kentucky de- remark, the first is, the accusation, brought forward legation in the house of representatives, is a proposi- against me, of violating instructions. If the accusation too clear to be argued. The members of the ge- tion were crue, who was the party offended, and to neral assembly would have been the first to behold, whom was I amenable? If I violated any instructions, as a presumptuous interposition, any instruction, if they must have been yours, since you only had the the Kentucky delegation could have committed the right to give them, and to you alone was I responsible. absurdity to issue, from this place, any instruction to Without allowing hardly time for you to hear of my them to vote, in a particular manner, on any of the vote, without waiting to know what your judgment interesting subjects which lately engaged their atten- was of my conduct, George Kremer & Co. chose to tion at Frankfort. And although nothing is further arraign me before the American public a's the violator from my intention than to impute either absurdity or of instructions which I was bound to obey. If, inpresumption to the general assembly, in the adoption stead of being, as you are, and I hope always will of the resolution referred to, I must say that the dif- be, vigilant observers of the conduct of your public ference between an instruction, emanating from them agents, jealous of your rights, and competent to proto the delegation, and from the delegation to them, is tect and defend them, you had been ignorant and not in principle, but is to be found only in the degree culpably confiding, the gratuitous interposition, as of superior importance which belongs to the general your advocate, of the honorable George Kremer, of assembly.
the ninth congressional district in Pennsylvania, Entertaining these views of the election on which would have merited your most grateful acknowledge it was made my duty to vote, I felt myself bound, in ments. Even, upon that supposition, his arraignment the exercise of my best judgment, to prefer Mr. of me would have required for its support one small Adams; and I accordingly voted for him. I should circumstance, which happens not to exist, and that is, have been highly gratified if it had not been my duty the fact of your having actually instructed me to vote to vote on the occasion; but that was not my situa- | according to his pleasure. tion, and I did not choose to shrink from any re The relaiions in which I stood to Mr. Adams, consponsibility which appertained to your representa- stitute the next theme of the address which I shall tive. Shortly after thic election, it was rumored that notice I am described as having assumed "a posiMr. Kremer was preparing a publication, and the tion of peculiar and decided hostility to the election preparations for it which were making, excited inuch of Mr. Adams,” and expressions towards him are espectation. Accordingly, on the 2014 February, the attributed to me, and which I never used. I am address, under his name, lo the "electors of the ninth made also responsible for “pamplilets and essays of congressional district of the state of Pennaylvania,” great ability," published by my friends in Kentucky, made its appearance in the lashington City Gazette. in the course of the canvass. The injustice of the No member of the house, I am persuaded, believed principle of holding me thus answerable, may be testthat Ir. kremer wrote one paragraph of that address, ed by applying it to the case of general Jackson, in or of the plea, which was presented to the comunittec, reference to publications issued, for example, from to the jurisdiction of the house. Those who coun- the Columbian Observer. That I was not in favor selled him, and composed both papers, and their pur- of the election of Mr. Adams, when the contest was poses, were just as well known as the author of any before the people, is most certain. Neither was I in inori fron a committee to the house. The first ob- favor of that of Mr. Crawford or gen. Jackson. That
I ever did any thing against Mr. Adams, or either of | by the friendly anxieties of any of my opponents. the other gentlemen, inconsistent with a fair and If injury accrue to any one, by the delay in publishhonorable competition, I utterly deny. My relations ing the narrative, the public will not suffer by it. It to Mr. Adams have been the subject of much mis- is already known, by the publication of the British conception, if not misrepresentation. I have been and American projets, the protocols, and the corresstated to be under a public pledge to expose some ne pondence between the respective plenipotentiaries, farious conduct of that gentleman, during the negotia- that the British government made, ai Ghent, a demand tion at Ghent, wbich would prove him to be entirely of the navigation of the Mississippi, by an article in unworthy of public confidence; and that, with a their projet, nearly in the same words as those which knowledge of his perfidy, I, nevertheless, voted for were employed in the treaty of 1793; that a majority him. If these imputations are well founded, I should, of the American commissioners was in favor of acindeed, be a fit object for public censure; but if, on ceding to that demand, upon the condition that the the contrary, it shall be found that others, inimical British government would concede to us the same both to him and to me, have substituted their own fishing liberties, within their jurisdiction, as was interested wishes for my public promises, I trust that secured to us by the same treaty of 1783; and that the indignation, which they would excite, will be both demands were finally abandoned. The fact of turned from me. My letter, addressed to the editors these mutual propositions was communicated by me of the Intelligencer, under daie of the 15th November, to the American public in a speech which I delivered 1822, is made the occasion for ascribing to me the in the house of representatives, on the 29th day of promise and the pledge to make those treasonable January, 1816. Mr. Hopkinson had arraigned the disclosures on Mr. Adam Let that letter speak for terms of the treaty of peace, and charged upon the itself, and it will be seen how little justification there war and the administration, the loss of the fishing is for such an assertion. It adverts to the controversy liberties, within the British jurisdiction, which we which had arisen between Messrs Adams and Rus- enjoyed prior to the war. In vindicating, in my resell, and then proceeds to state that, in the course ply to him, the course of the government and the conof the several publications, of which it has been the ditions of the peace, I stated: occasion, and, particularly, in the appeudix to a pam “When the British commissioners demanded, in phlet which had been recently published by the hon. their projet, a renewal to Great Britain of the right to John Quincy Adams, I think there are some errors, the navigation of the Mississippi, secured by the treaty (no doubt unintentional), both as to matters of fact of 1793, a bare majority of the American commisand matters of opinion, in regard to the transactions sioners offered to renew it, upon the condition that at Ghent, relating to the navigation of the Mississippi, the liberties in question were renewed to us. He and certain liberties claimed by the United States in was not one of that majority. He would not trouble the fisheries, and to the part which I bore in those transac- the committee with his reasons for being opposed to lions. These important interests are now well secur the offer. A majority of his colleagues, actuated, he ed"_"An account, therefore, of what occurred in believed, by the best motives, made, however, the offer, the negotiation at Ghent, on those two subjects, is and it was refused by the British commissioners." not, perhaps, necessary to the present or future se (See Daily Nat. Intelligencer, March 21st, 1816.) curity of any of the rights of the nation, and is only And what I thought of my colleagues of the majority interesting as appertaining to its past history. With appears from the same extract. The spring after the these impressions, and being extremely unwilling to termination of the negotiations at Ghent, I went to present myself, at any time, before the public, I had London, and there entered upon a new and highly almost resolved to remain silent, and thus expose my important negotiation with two of them, (Messrs. self to the inference of an acquiescence in the cor- Adams and Gallatin), which resulted, on the 3d July, rectoess of all the statements made by both my col- 1815, in the commercial convention, wbich has been leagues—but I have, on more reflection, thought it since made the basis of most of our commercial armay be expected of me, and be considered as a duty, rangements with foreign powers. Now, if I had dison my part, to contribute all in my power towards a covered, at Ghent, as has been asserted, that either of full and faithful understanding of the transactions re- them was false and faithless to his country, would I ferred to. Under this conviction, I will, at some fu- have voluntarily commenced with them another negoture period, more propitious than the present to tiation? Further-there never has been a period, calm and dispassionate consideration, and when during our whole acquaintance, that Mr. Adams and there can be no misinterpretation of motives, lay I have not exchanged, when we have met, friendly before the public a narrative of those transactions, salutations, and the courtesies and hospitalitics of soas I understood them."
cial intercourse. From even a careless perusal of that letter, it is The address proceeds to characterize the support apparent that the only two subjects of the negotiations which I gave to Mr. Adams as unnatural. The auat Ghent to which it refers, were the navigation of thors of the address have not stated why it is unnatural, of the Mississippi and certain fishing liberties; that and we are, therefore, left to conjecture their meanthe errors, which I had supposed were committed, ap- ing: Is it because Mr. Adams is from New England, plied to both Mr. Russell and Mr. Adams, though more and I am a citizen of the west? If it be unnatural in particularly to the appendix of the latter; that they western states to support a citizen of New England, were unintentional; that they affected myself princi- it must be equally unnatural in the New England pally; that I deemed them of no public importance, states to support a citizen of the west. And, on the as connected with the then, or future, security of any same principle, the New England states ought to be of the rights of the nation, but only interesting to its restrained from concurring in the election of a citizen past history; that I doubted the necessity of my offer- in the southern states, or the southern states from coing to the public any account of those transactions; operating in the election of a citizen of New England. and that the narrative which I promised was to be And, consequently, the support which the last threc presented at a season of more calm, and when there presidents have derived from New England, and that could be no misinterpretation of motives. Although wbich the vice presideni recently received, has been Mr. Adars believes otherwisc, I yet think there are most unnaturally given. The icndency of such rex some unintentional errors in the controrersial paperssoning would be lo denationalize us, and to contract between him and Mr. Russell. But I have reserved every part of the union within the narrow selfish lito myself an exclusive right of judging when I shall mits of its own section. It would be still worse: it execute the promise which I have made, and I shall would lead to the destruction of the union itself. be neither quickoned nor rriorded in its performanci For, if it be unnatural in one section to support a
citizen in another, the union itself must be unnatural;? I must believe that he made them upon the informa-
Before I close this address, it is my duty, which I the Metcalfes, and the other gentlemen from the west,
ral, any verbal observations upon it which he might productions, common to a temperate climate, to a prohare thought proper to make. The letter to Mr. portionate amount. This canal will unite, by a navigaSwartwout bears date the 23d of February. If re- ble communication, the waters of the Ohio, Missis. ceived by him in New York, it must have reached sippi, Missouri, and their tributaries, with the great him, in the ordinary course of the mail, on the 25th lakes: The former affording a steam boat navigation or 26th. Whether intended or not as a “private com- of 5000 miles, now navigated by 80 steam boals, communication," and not for the "public eye,” as alleg, municating with the Gulf of Mexico and the West Ined by him, there is much probability in believing that dies: and the latter presenting an uninterrupted sloop its publication, in New York, on the 4th of March, or ship navigation, of 1200 miles, connected with the was then made, like Mr. Kremer's address, with the Gulf of St. Lawrence, by the river of that name, and view to its arrival in this city in time to affoct my po with the Hudson river, and city of New York, by mination to the senate. In point of fact, it reached means of the Erie canal. The Ohio canal may be here the day before the senate acted on that nomina- considered as the last grand link in a chain of intertion.
nal navigation, extending from New Orleans to New Fellow-citizens, lam sensible that, generally, a pub- York. Through this canal will pass that commerce lic officer had better abstain from any vindication of which always takes place between southern counhis conduct, and leave it to the candor and justice of tries, abounding in tropical productions, and the temhis countrymen, under all its attending circumstances. perate and colder regions, which produce bread stuffs Such has been the course which I have heretofore and provisions, and are the seats of manufactories; a prescribed to myself. This is the first, as I hope it commerce similar, in extent and character, to that may be the last, occasion of my thus appearing before now carried on between the northern Atlantic states, you. The separation which has just taken place be- and the southern states and West India islands. tween us, and the venom, if not the vigor, of the late The Ohio canal also passes through a region, on the onsets upon my public conduct, will, I hope, be al- Muskingum and its branches, abounding in coal of an lowed, in this instance, to form an adequate apology. excellent quality, and which may be procured with It has been upwards of twenty years since I first en- he greatest ease. This mineral has nowhere been tered the public service. Nearly three fourths of that found in the extensive country bordering on the time, with some intermissions, I have represented the lake, in the western part of the rich and populous same district in congress, with but little variation in state of New York, nor in the extensive and fertile its from. During that long period, you have beheld valley of the Scioto. Almost every acre, in these reour country passing through scenes of peace and war, gions, destitute of coal, is susceptible of cultivation; of prosperity and adversity, and of party divisions, lo- and fuel, at no distant day, will become scarce and cal and general, often greatly exasperated against valuable. Inexhaustible quarries of gypsum are each other. I have been an actor in most of those found on the bays and islands of lakes Erle and Huscenes. Throughout the whole of them you have ron, and in the western part of New York. This, clung to me with an affectionate confidence which has on the contrary, has never been found in the intenever been surpassed. I have found in your attach- rior of the state of Ohio. An extensive, profitable inent, in every embarrassmentin my public career, the and highly advantageous commerce, in these articles, greatest consolation, and the most encouraging sup will unquestionably be carried on through the Ohio port. I should regard the loss of it as one of the canal, in a few years after its completion. most alllicting public misfortunes which could be The Miami canal from Cincinnati to Dayton, which fal me. That I have ostea misconceived your true is about 67 miles in length, is located through a couninterests is highly probable. That I have ever sacri- try not surpassed in fertility by any on the globe, and ficed them to the object of personal aggrandizement will become the channel of an extensive trade, which, I utterly deny. And, for the purity of my motives, with the hydraulic power created by its construction, however in other respects I may be unworthy to ap- cannot fail to make it profitable to the state, as well proach the Throne of Grace and Mercy, I appeal to as highly adrantageous to the country through which the justice of my God, with all the confidence which it passes. can low from a consciousness of perfect rectitude. These canals arc estimated to cost about 3,000,000 Your obedient servant,
H. CLAY. dollars. The estimates have been made with the Fashington, 26th March 1823.
greatest care, from accurate surveys, by engineers who have had long experience in the actual construc
tion of the grand canal of New York, and the estimates The Ohio Canal.
may be relied on as correct. FROM THE COLUMBUS (OH10) GAZETTE.
The state, by a solemn legislativc act, has underSummary riew of the proposed canals in Ohio; the act taken to make these canals; and no doubt can be ens
authorizing their construction; the situation and tertained of ber ability to do so. This great work is resources of the state; and its ability to accomplish to be carried on by borrowing the money necessary the work.
for its accomplishment. The loans are authorized The Ohio canal, as located and established by the by the legislature--commissioners are appointed with general assembly, is about three hundred milcs in full power to negotiate these loans; manage the fund length, extending from the Ohio river, along the great appropriated for the payment of the interest and the Scioto valley, northwardly, until it approaches within final redemption of the principal, and to make all neabout ten miles of Columbus, the seat of the state go- cessary arrangements appertaining thereto. vernment, with which it is to be connected by a na To provide for the punctual payment of the intevigable feeder; then, leaving the Scioto valley, it rest on the loans to be outained, there are pledged passes in a north eastwardly direction, across the and appropriated all the profits of the canals, and country to the Muskingum river; thence, up that ri- all grants and donations which may be made in aid ver, and along the valley of one of its branches, cros- of the object--also 40,000 dollars out of the surplus sing the summit between its head waters, and those moneys now remaining in the state treasury—30,000 which fall into the lake, and continuing a northwardly dollars out of the revenues of the present year--a tax direction down the valley of one of the laiter streams is levied on all the property in the state, taxable for to lake Erie. This canal will pass through the heart of state purposes, consisting chicly of real property, the state, and through a country of uncommon fertility; whichi, from year to year, shall be sufficient, together capable, in its present state of partial settlement and with the income of the canals actually collected and cultivation, of producing, for esportation, more than paid over for the year previous, to pay the interest two millions of bushels of wheat, an ually, and other liue on loans, for any and cvery year--and also to
produce a surplus fund for the year 1928 of 10,000
CHRONICLE. dollars, for the year 1829 of 20,000 dollars, for the
New York. Gen. Talmadge, (lieut. governor), has year 1830 of 30,000 dollars, for the year 1831 of 40,000 been nominated by the senate of this state, (18 to 10), dollars, the same sum of 40,000 dollars, for each suc- as a sepator of the United States. The assembly, ceeding, year until three years after the completion which had previously nominated Mr. Spencer, had of the canals: and the sum of 25,000 doliars for each not acted thereon at our last advices from Albany. succeeding year, until the income of the canals will
Baltimore. Mrs. Ellen Moale died in this city & produce said sum of 25,000 dollars, or more per a few days ago. She
was the first white child born num, over and above the amount of interest payable on loans. These surplus sums, together with all the within the district which now contains 70,000 souls! income of the canals, more or less, after paying the Longevity. It is a remarkable fact, that there have interest on loans, and all donations made in aid of the died in the town of Little Compton, R. I, since the 1st work, are to form a surplus fund for the redemption of Jan. 1825, five men and one woman, whose united of the principal borrowed.
ages amounted to 565 years—the eldest was upwards The auditor of state, the superintending officers of of 100 years! the youngest 81 years. the treasury, is to determine the per centum neces Whales, of a very large size, and in considerable sary to be levied on the grand list of taxable property numbers, have lately appeared off the capes of Delaof the state, in order to raise the amount required, ware. from year to year, as provided by law, for canal pur Great ship. The admeasurement of the large ship poses, in addition to the amount of revenue required now building at Quebec, is 5000 tons, or about a third for the ordinary expenses of the state government. more than the Columbus. It is to be launched in The revenue, thus raised by the canal fund, is to be
May next. kept separate and apart from all other moneys in the
i grand balloon! The Courier de la Meuse antreasury, and is inviolably pledged for that purpose nounces an aeronautic scheme, which sinks into inalone. The faith of the state is also pledged not to significance all former attempts. It is planned by a reduce or alter the tax now leried, so as to diminish physician named Robertson; who intends, by means the security given for the punctual payment of the or it, to visit all parts of the globe. This wonderful interest and principal to be borrowed; and that the machine, the Columbus of balloons, is to be called stock, created in ob mining the loans, shall never be the Minerva, and will be 150 feet in diameter, and taxed, or its value in any way impaired by any legis capable of raising 72,954 kilograms, or 149,037 French lative act.
pounds. It will carry sixty persons, provisions for The greatest amount which it will be necessary to five or six months, furniture of all kinds, and scienraise, by taxation, in one year, in order to meet the in- tific instruments. It will consist of a balloon, holding terest due on loans, whilst the work is in a state of pro- 1,767,150 cubic feet of hydrogen gas, and the vessel gression, will probably not exceed $130,000. The altogether will weigh 80,537 pounds. This stupenincome of the canals, when any considerable part dous aerial edifice is only retarded for want of cash! shall be completed, will aid considerably in the pay Law anecdote. The petition of Timothy Oates, in ment of interest due on loans obtained for their con- the year 1794, public crier of the court in Wiltstruction.
shire, represented to the judges: of the ability of the state to raise the revenue ne "That your petitioner is this day 84 years of age, and cessary to meet the interest on loans, without oppreso was a crier in this court before either of your honors sing the people by taxes, no doubt can be entertained were born. That, small as his perquisites are, his by any one acquainted with its situation, history and wants are still smaller. He, alas! can cry no longer, resources. The state contains an area of upwards of but he may possibly lire a little longer; and, during 40,000 square miles, or 25,600,000 acres, most of it that small period, he implores to cry by proxy. His possessing an excellent soil, and capable of sustaining son, Jonathan, has a sonorous echoing voice, capable as dense a population as any part of America of equal of rousing a sleeping juror or witness, to the reextent. There is scarcely a square mile in the state motest nook of the court-house; your petitioner begs which will not admit of settlement, and afford a good that Jonathan may be accepted as his substitute; so farm. Not one sixth of the land in the state is now that, of your petitioner, it may be said, when he is reduced to cultivation, yet it sustains a population of dead and gone, that, although he cried almost all the 750,000 inhabitants, which number is rapidly increas- days of his life, yet he never shed a tear." ing, and affords a vast quantity of surplus productions
The bench granted nem. con. for exportation. A state tax, on land alone, has been levied and collected in one year of upwards of 300,000 Appointments by the president, by and with the advice and dollars, at a time, too, when the state did not contain
consent of the senale. more than one half of its present population. But it Jugustus B. Woodward, as judge of the United States will probably not be necessary to raise a revenue from for that part of the territory of Florida situated betaxation, in any one year, over 200,000 dollars to pay tween the Apalachicola and Suwannee rivers, in the interest on canal loans, and to meet the ordinary place of William W. Blair, deceased. expenses of the state government. The state is free Albert J. Clagget, of Maryland, to be district attor. from debt. It has a surplus of 60,000 dollars now ney for West Florida, in the place of William F. remaining in the treasury, and its currency is sound. Stecl, removed. The bill , which provides for making the canals, of the road from Canton to Zanesville, in the state
Caspar W. Weaver, of Maryland, as superintendant was passed with an uncomm in degree or unanimity of Ohio, under a late law of congress, entitled "An in both branches of the legislature; and, although a act for the continuatior of the Cumberland road.”. few disappointed individuals înay be displeased, and may still attempt to create dissatisfaction, an im
Slephen Carter, as surveyor and inspector of the mense majority of the people are decidedly friendly place of Isaac Guion, deceased.
revenue, for the port of Natchez, Mississippi, in the to the policy.
The above appointments we bave not published Under these circumstances, no doubt can be rea- before The first, that of judge Woodward, was sonably entertained of the security of the stock to be confirmed by the senate on the 22d February; and created, nor of the success of the work.
thс others or the 9th of March.
PRINTED BY WILLIAM OGDEX NILES, AT TIE FRANKLIN PRESE, WATER-STREET, EAST OF SOUTI-STREET.