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ments of gratitude and friendship, should, with one when it was divided, and the county of Isle-of-Wight, voice, pronounce this individual the “GUEST OF THE in which col. Parker resided, being separated from it, NATION," and pay him the highest honors the citizens Mr. Newton was elected to represent the Norfolk of a free nation can offer, is an event which must district. A change of representatives, it is true, thus excite the astonishment of Europe, and show the in- took place, but it was not made by the election of the estimable price of liberty."

people. Mr. Newton bas represented it ever since.

[Herald MR. RANDOLPH. We understand, (says the Richmond Enquirer), that, at the last Prince Edward NEW YORK. The number of deaths in the city of court, Mr. John Randolph addressed bis constituents New York during the year 1824, was 4,341-of which in a manner and with matter which gave great and 1,244 were men; 1,204 were boys; 887 were women, universal satisfaction. He descanted, with great and 1,006 were girls. The whole number of deaths eloquence and power, on the alarming encroachments by consumption was 736; by convulsions, 231; by of the general government upon the rights of the states. dropsy, 377; by dysentery, 120; by hives or croup This constituted the principal theme of his impressive 139; by intemperance, 70; by meazies, 100; by smali. address.

Pox, 394_by whooping cough 116; still born, 250.

of persons of color, the whole number of deaths was GENERAL JACKSON was received at Brownsville, Pa. 716. by the people, en inasse, and by the military, amidst the ringing of belis and discharges of artillery.

PHILADELPHIA--the Allms House. The editor of the

Sentinel, who is one of the managers of the Alms COL. ROGER Jones, lately appointed adjutant gene- House, states that the present number of its inmates ral of the army of the United States, was, for several is 1,096—and at no time during the season has reached years past, stationed at Fort Severn, near Annapolis, 1,300. Of these 1,096, between 600 and 650, are old the inhabitants of which oity invited him to a public and infirm, insane, blind, cripple or laboring under dinner previous to his departure for the seat of go- acute diseases. In the children's asylum, there are, vernment. On removing the cloth, the following besides, 200 paupers incapable of labor, they being untoast was given

der eight years of age. The whole number of outBy gen. Harwood-Our much respected and es. I door pensioners is probably not less than 1,200; and teemed guest and fellow-citizen, col. Roger Jones- it may possibly reach 1,600. His intended departure from this city, excites feelings of the deepest regret for our loss, tempered with PENNSYLVANIA. The legislature has finally passed, emotions of joy at his just promotion to office. and the governor has approved, the bill auihorizing

After this toast was drank, col. Joves rose and ad- the people of that state to rote for or against a coue dressed the company in the following terms:

vention. Gentlemen: I would do great injustice to my own feelings if I were not to attempt, however humble INDIANA. A statement of the places of the nativity, the essay, to return you my sincere thanks for this and of the professions of the members of the house evidence of that kindness, with which you have been of representatives, was lately published, of which the pleased to regard me. It is now more than three following is a summary view: Born in-Massachuyears since I have been a sajourner here, during setts 2, Connecticut 3, New York 2, Pennsylvania 6, which time the utmost harmony and good fellowship Maryland 1, Virginia 7, North Carolina io, South have subsisted between our garrisor and the society of Carolina 1, Kentucky 7, Tennessee 1, Ohio 2, Indiana Annapolis. We have indeed been considered, as wo 1, Ireland 1. Of whom, 32 are farmers, 4 attornies, really feel ourselves to be, one of the families which 3 physicians, 2 merchants, 1 innkeeper, and ? not compose this friendly and hospitable community. In pursuing any business. What! only one born in Indiour happy country, the interest and feelings of the ana? the learned European may ask: Yes, Indiana officers of the army are coirpletely identified with was a wilderness a little while ago. those of the people; and it is the perception of this fact, illustrated, I trust, throughout the course of my “THE BOLIVAR." This is the name of a fine steam command, and as a neighbor, together with your boat just launched at New York, for the navigation very indulgent predilections, to which I am indebted of the river Magdalena, in Colombia. A little while for the kindness and good will which hare marked the since, one would have been thought a madman if he progress, and now the close of my residence among had ventured on the execution of this project, beyou. Permit me, gentlemen, to give

cause that the boatmen would have regarded it an inThe hospitable citizens of this ancient metropolis fringement on their rights, and have assuredly knifed -May the blessings of liberty and emancipation con- all that were engaged in it! But the state of society spire not to deprive them of their colonial privilege has changed--and it is not probable that the boatmen of representation.*

of the Magdalena will interfere in the matter. By capt. T. Franklin-The remaining officers at These boatmen, and the porters and guides through Fort Sovern--Their unexceptionable conduct as su- the mountains of Colombia, Mexico, &c. were among balterns, proves them worthy of being the successors the most lawless and brutal of mankind; and though of their worthy oolonel.

generally faithful as to the performance of an engage

ment, because that their livelihood depended upon "STEADY HABITS." It appears, from the Richmond the business which they pursued, they otherwise did Enquirer, that there will be an opposition to the re- pretty much as they pleased. We recollect to have election of the late congressional representatives of read that one of the viceroys of Mexico was compellthis state, in eleven of the twenty-two districts, which is ed to abandon a project of making a good road in a rather uncommon-[That is, that so many are op- certain mountainous district, because, on account of posed.]

the narrowness and difficulty of the pass, a large It is a singular fact that the people of Norfolk dis- number of persons earned a living by the transportatrict have never changed their representative since the es- tion of goods on their own backs, like beasts of bur-tablishinent of the federal government. Colonel Joshua then. They would not admit of an interference in Parker represented the district from 1789 to 1801, their business!

*Alluding to the effort of the late legislature, to take Foreign news. The arrival of one of the packete away the two delegates from Annapolis.

at New York furnishics London dates to oth March.

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In the house of commons on the 1st March, a billy I have the honor to be, respectfully, your most obewas offered by sic Francis Burdett, founded on the dient,

JOHN H. EATON. petition of the catholics for emancipation. After a Ilon. Henry Clay, secretary of slate. very long debate, the vote stood, for ihe motion 247, against it, 234, majority 13. Mr. Canning addressed

Washington, 30th March, 1825. the liouse while sick, and leaning the whole time upon SIR: Your letter, ander date of the 28th inst. was a stick. The tone of his voice was so feeble that his handed to me yesterday. After referring to an adremarks were not heard distinctly in the gallery. He dress of mine to my late constituents, published in the remained ill on the 3rd, in consequence of his exer- National Journal of Monday, and from which you tions in the house.

quote certain passages, you observe, “the imputalion The “budgel" for the year had been introduced which your phraseology would seem to covey is, that on which occasion the chancellor of the exchequer the letter which appeared in the Columbian Obsercongratulated the house on the prosperity of the finan- ver, and acknowledged by Mr. Kremer, was not wrilces and of the country.

ten by him, but was, in fact, written by me; and that There is to be an actual increase in the British by me he was made to avow himself, though "somcarmy of 15,828 men-including 5,860 for India. what equivocally," the author. Your language and

There was a great demand for cotton at Liverpool meaning are somewhat equivocal too; but as, by fair --40,000 bales were sold during the week ending ?sth interpretation, they appear to warrant this construcFebruary. Bowed, at from 10 to 13}d.; Orleans, 12; tion, I present myself before you, to require you disto 15d.; Tennessee, 104 to 13d.; Sea Island, 21 d. to tinctly to state, whether or not any such meaning was 23. 6d.; Brazilian, 12% to 141. d; Colombian, 104 to by you designed to be conveyed." 11d.; Peruvian, 14d.; West India, 104d.; Egyptian 12} In the part of my address to which you refer, having to 15d.; Bourbon, 1444.; Bengal, 71 to 8d. per lb. stated a particular fact respecting you, I observe, "!

The Servians have been checked in an attempt state the fact as it was communicated to me, and that they made to throw off the Turkish yoke. The leave you to judge." I cannot, therefore, admit your Sultan is making mighty preparations for opening right to call on me for my ipferences from a fact which the next campaign against the Greeks. The army I have submitted to my constituents, leaving them 10 destined for this purpose is to consist of 50,000 men. draw their oion conclusions. But, in the spirit of A violent epidemic has shewn itself at Napoli de Ro- frankness, which has ever guided me, I have no hemanja and caused many deaths. A great number of sitation in stating that, in regard to the letter in the persons had abandoned the place.

Columbian Observer, I have not formed, and therefore did not intend to intimate, any opinion of the

person who was its real author. I was satisfied to Messrs. Eaton and Clay,

take Mr. Kremer's declaration, that he was not the The Washington papers contain the following letters, author of the letter, as made to the late secretary of

published at the request of Mr. Eaton, "explanato- the navy. ry of the meaning that should attach to particular In the same spirit of frankness, however, it is expressions contained in Mr. Clay's address to his proper for me to add, that I did believe, from your constituents:

nocturnal interview with Mr. K. referred to in my Washington, 28th March, 1825. address, that you prepared or advised the publication Sir: In the National Journal of this morning, over of his card in the guarded terms in which it is expressyour signature, I find my name introduced with the ed. I should be happy, by a disavowal on your part following remarks:

of the fact of that interview, or of its supposed ob"A few days after the publication of my card, another ject, to be able to declare, as, in the event of such discard, under Mr. Kremer's name, was published in the avowal I would take pleasure in declaring, that i hare Intelligencer. The night before, as I was voluntarily been mistaken in supposing that you bud any agency informed, Mr. Eaton, a senator from Tennessee, and in the composition or publication of thai carii. the biographer of general Jackson, was closcuted for I have the honor to be, your obcdient serrant, some time with him. I pretend'not to know the object

II. CLAY of Mr. Eaton's visit to him. I state the fact as it was The hon. Jolin H. Ealon. communicated to me, and leave you to judge. Mr. Kremer's card is composed with some care, and no

Washington, March 31, 1995. little art; and he is made to avow in it, though somc Sir: Your letter, in answer to mine, was rceir what equivocally, that he is the author of the letter at 4 o'clock yesterday; from the delay, I was dispos to the editor of the Columbian Observer. To Mr. to think you had concluded not to reply. Crowninshield, a member from Massachusetts, for On reading your communication to your late merly secretary of the navy, he declared he was not stituents, I had understood you as intending to the author of that letter."

vey the idea, not "by inference from a fact, but The imputation which your phraseology would most by actual averment, that the letter published in seem to convey, is, that the letter which appeared in the Columbian Observer was written by me; and that, the Columbian Observer, and acknowledged by Mr. (to escape or avoid responsibility, by me, Mr. KreKremer, was not written by him, but was, in fact, mer was made to acknowledge himself its author: written by me; and that by me he was made to avow your reply to my letter disavows this, and states that himself, though somewhat equivocally," the author. "you have not formed, and therefore did not intend Your language and meaning are somewhat equivocal to intimate, any opinion of the person who was its 100; but as, by fair interpretation, they appear to war-real author, being satisfied to take Mr. Kremer's de. rant this construction, I present myseli before you, claration that he was not the author of the letter, as to require you distinctly to state, whether or not any made to the late secretary of the navy." such meaning was by you designed to be conveyed. Having nothing to do with this controversy, surthe If this be the idea intended to be communicated, I than as I considered the introduction of my name in will not persuade myself but that at least you are pos- tended personally and directly to affeci myself, sessed of facts and circumstances to fix against me might omit any notice of the concluding part of your the opprobrious charge of writing a letter, which, remark, as derived from Mr. Crowninshield, late seas the inference must be, I was not merely afraid to cretary of the navy. In justice, however, to ar abacknowledge, but which, through fioesse, arrange-sent individual, with whom my name has been assament, and closet management, i had caused to be ciated, I shall not forhear the opinion that Mr. Krearowed by one, who was innocent of producing it. mer never did use the language impuled to him. It


is a mistake; any thing but fact; and, without intend-, solicitude to defend Mr. Kremer? Why question the ing to ascribe the error to you, I claim the right of credibility of Mr. Crowninshield? He has not claim. saying, that reason revolts at the idea, that he shoulded to be confessor of Mr. K.-a term, the religious ashave made Mr. Crowninshield his confessor, and to sociations with which might have suggested to you him uttered a language, at war with his public and re- the propriety of abstaining from its use, whatever peated private declarations made to his friends. occasion he may have for the office. The American

The concluding paragraph of your letter expresses public is the best judge, whether a gentleman of Mr. a belief that I "prepared, or advised, the publication Crowninshield's well known character, for honor, of his (Mr. K's) card, in the guarded terms in which itprobity, and veracity, has falsely testified, or Mr. Kreis expressed;" and you declare yourself ready to ac- mer has been prevailed upon to avow himself the auknowledge the mistake, if I will offer any disavowal. thor of a letter which he never wrote.

If you had properly reflected as to what belonged to In regard to your polite intimation, that I had not courtesy, you would have sought from me informa- properly reflected upon what belonged to courtesy, I tion about this, before my name was introduced be- have two observations to make, the first of which is, fore the public, and your belief formed. You knew that I am yet to be made sensible of any particular me sufficiently well, to beliere that I would not de-claim that you have upon me for any extraordinary cline candidly to answer any inquiries necessary and observation of its rules; and the second is, that when proper to be made. This was not done; but, on the I may think I shall have occasion to learn them, I shall information you had received, you yielded it your not be tempted, even by a gratuitous offer, to reconfidence, and proceeded to a defence before the nounce my indisputable right to choose my own pre: public. Without intending to be understood, as either ceptor. admitting or denying any thing respecting my imputed i made no demand upon you for an explanation of visit to Mr. Kremer, on the evening preceding the tho object of your interview with Mr. Kremer, the publication of his card, suppose the fact to be, that I night preceding the publication of this card. The did visit him; and suppose too, that it was, as you privilege of any one to derive from his society whathave termed it, a "nocturnal visit;" was there any ever enjoymonts it can afford, literary, scientific, or thing existing that should have denied me this privi- political, was never contested, as it never will be enlege? Or does it, therefore, necessarily result, that I ried, by me. My intention was to afford you an op should haye been engaged in any plan against your portunity of making an explanation of the object of rights, or conspiracy against you? There is no one your visit to him, if you chose to do so. In declining more interested than yourself in denying the force of it, I acquiesce entirely in your determination, conclusion as derived from circumstance; and it is I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, a little strange, that while, in your own case, you should

H. CLAR object to it, as a rule of proper application, you The hon. John H. Eaton, &c. &c. &c. should, at the same time, clasin it as rightfully entitled to operate in the cases of others. You will excuse me from making an attempt to re

Washington, 2d April, 1825. move any belief, which you entertain upon this sub Sir: Your letter of yesterday is received. As there ject: it is a matter which gives me no concern. In is nothing now of inquiry or argument between us, I the communication made to you, my object was to as- might forbear offering a reply, but, from a desire to certain, distinctly, your meaning as to the letter pub- correct some perversion given both to the meaning Jished in the Columbian 'Observer, and to that you and expression of my last communication to you. I have frankly replied. Had you referred to me five shall notice but one of them. days ago, on this subject, I should with pleasure have I did not assert that Mr. Kremer never used the answered you; but having exhibited your belief and language imputed to him by you, as derived from Mr. opinions to the public, I am precluded from any ex. Crowninshield; it is given as matter of bolief only. " planation: you have no right to ask it; nor I, in justice cannot forbear the opinion," is the expression used, to myself, any right to give it.

accompanied by a full and sufficient reason why that Respectfully, your obedient sesvant,

opinion could not be incorrect; and that your infor

JOHN H. EATON. inant must be mistaken. It was unnecessary for you Hon. II. Clay, secretary of state.

to talk of Mr. Crowdinshield's honor and veracity to me. I entertain as high an opinion of them as you

can; but that he is mistaken, I have no more doubt Washington, isi April, 1823.

than I have that Mr. Kremer is also a correct man. Sir: I received yesterday your note of the 31st ul- His differing with you can assuredly not render him e timo. With respect to mine, in answer to yours of better or worse member of society. the 28th, (in your reception of which you seem to I admit, most cheerfully, that I have no claim on think there was some delay), allow me to remark, your courtesy, and to "any extraordinary observance that it was my intention to have despatched it through of its rules. I have claims, in this respect, on no a friend, who, when I sent for him, happened to be one; society, not me, creates the claim, and has long out of the city, in consequence of which I despatched since established amongst her subjects, that hers are it through another channel; that, amidst my ollicial rules every where in fashion, and always to be reengagements, I cannot mark the hours with the same garded. I'am a little surprised, that you should claims precision as a gentleman can of your presumed lei- to enter any protest against them, while you evince sure; that I received your own note, the day after it such warmth of regard for the catholic principle of bore date; and that, by your own admission, you re- confession. Permit me to assure you, that, with such ceived my note at 4 o'clock of the day succeeding arowals before me, I have not the least desire to questhat on which yours was delivered.

tion "your indisputable right to choose your own Whilst you disclaim having any thing to do with precepior." the controversy into which I have been most reluc For the privilege conceded by you of visting Mr. tantly drawn by others, under Mr. Kremer's name, Kremer, and of deriving "from his society whatever you have chosen to observe, entirely in justice to that enjoyments it can afford, literary, scientific, or politigentleman, that he never used the language to which cal,” I ought to feel grateful, however I may omit to Mr. Crowninshield testifies; "that it is a mistake; any express my gratitude. Mr. Kremer is considered an thing but fact;” and to claim the right of saying honest man; he bears with him, every where, this "that reason revolts at the idea, that he should have reputation; and, whilst he bears it, is fair company made Mr. Crowninshield his confessor.” Why this for any ons, although he may not, like false coin, aim

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to assume any gloss appearance, or to pass for any that the motives which influenced me were foundtbing beyond a real value.

ed in patriotism; that the necessity for my conduct Respectfully, your most obedient,

really existed, and that "my vindication is written in

JOUİN H. EATON. every page of the law of nations, as well as the first Hon. H. Clay, secretary of stale.

law of nature, self-defence," I shall then hope that

atonement will be made for this foreible withdrawal, Commodore Porter.

for an alleged offence, from my command, by restor

ing me to my former station, and allowing me to reWe recently published the instructions from the navy tire fron it in a manner more honorable to myself

department, (see page 55 of the present volume); and my country, and loss injurious to my feelings and since when the following correspondence has ap- character, peared in the newspapers:

This, sir, will be an act of justice that I hope will NAVY DEPARTMENT, 27th December, 1825.

not be denied to me. SIR: Your letter of the 15th November last, relat I have the honor to be, with great respect, your ing to the extraordinary transactions at Faxardo, in obedient servant,

D. PORTER. the island of Porto Rico, on the of that month, Hon. Samuel L. Southard, secretary of the navy. has been received and considered.

It is not intended, at this time, to pronounce an opi- Extract of a letter from com. Porter to the hon. secretary nion on the propriety of those transactions on your of the navy, dated Washington, March 16, 1825. part, but their importance demands for them a full "Officers continue to make to me their reports and investigation, and you will proceed, without unneces- to request of me orders Not knowing whether the sary delay, to this place, to furnish such explanations department still consider me in command of the West as may be required of every thing connected with India squadron, I have been at a loss how to act. Will their cause, origin, progress and termination. For you be pleased to instruct me on the subject. that purpose, you will bring with you those officers “I have the honor to be, with great respect, your whose testimony is necessary, particularly lieut. Platt, obedient servant,

D. PORTER. and such written evidence as you may suppose useful. “Hon. Samuel L. Southard."

You will return in such convenient vessel as may be E.ctract of a letter from hon. Samuel L. Southard to com. best spared from the squadron, and, on your leaving Porter, dated navy department, 16th March, 1825. the station, you will deliver the command to captain “It was the intention of the department, in order Warrington, with all such papers, instructions and ing captain Warrington to the West Indies, to relieve information, as may be useful to enable him, in the you from the command of the squadron there." most effectual manper, to accomplish all the objects “I am, respectfully, &c. for which the vessels now under your command were

“SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD. placed there.

Com. David Porter, U. S. navy present." I am, very respectfully, &c.

SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD. Com. David Porter, commanding U. S.

Iuternal Improvements. , , &c.}


Report of the committee on roads and canals, upon the subU. S. SHIP JOHN ADAM,

ject of internal improvements, accompanied by a bill Thompson's Island, January 30, 1825. "concerning internal improvements." SJR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt The committee of roads and canals beg leave here pf your orders of the 27th ult. informing me of your with to report a bill "concerning internal improvereception of mine of the 15th of November, relating ments." This bill proposes to authorize the presito what you have been pleased to term “the extra- dent of the United States to borrow, on the best ordinary transactions at Faxardo," and recalling me terms he can, any sums of money, not exceeding, from my command for a full investigation of my con- in the whole, ten millions of dollars; which sums are duct in that affair.

to be borrowed at such times as may be necessary Agreeably to your orders, I shall leave this place for the purposes contained in the second section of for Washington "without unnecessary delay," and the bill, and to be redeemable at the end of have taken measures to obtain all the testimony neo years, cessary, and such written evidence as I suppose use The second section authorizes the secretary of the ful, and, on my arrival in the United States, shall treasury to make subscriptions, on the part of the hold myself ready to justify my coşduct in every par. United States, in such companies for internal imticular, not only by the laws of nations and of nature, provements as may be incorporated by the respective and by bighly approved precedent, but, if necessary, states, and as congress may approve from time to by the orders of the secretary of the navy.

time. To use the emphatic language of Mr. Adams, “By The third section contains a provision, that each "all the laws of neutrality and war, as well as of state may, under certain restrictions, purchase the "prudenee and humanity," I was warranted in chas- stock subecribed in such state, and take a transfer of tising and intimidating the authorities of a place who the same from the secretary of the treasury: had not only become the allies and protectors of out The fourth section directs the secretary of the trea. laws and pirates, but our active enemies, by the im- sury, as long as any stock belongs to the United States, prisonment and forcible detention of an American to receive the dividends on the same, and to vote for oficer, while in the performance of his duties. "There the officers of each company, according to the shares will need,” (continues Mr. Adams),“no citation from subscribed. printed treatises on international law, to prove the The committee have directed their attention, main“correctness of this principle. It is engraved in ada- ly, to such considerations of the subject as may lead "mant on the common sense of mankind. No writer to the actual execution of internal improvements. "Cupon the laws of nations ever pretended to contra The construction of the federal government, as 8 "dict it; pone of any reputation or aathority ever general head, and the existence of many staios at womited to insert it."

separate parts of the whole, create obstacles against I am willing, sir, to submit my conduct in this af- the execution of many important works, but none, it fair to the strictest investigation, and, if I cannot fully is believed, which may not be overcome, and in a manjustify it, I shall cheerfully submit to the severest pu- ner that will be reconcileable to the pretensions of sishment that can be idlicted. But, if it shall appear the different goveroments.


As to the objects of improrements, whether they! The object of introducing the bill, this session, is belong to the general government or to a state, the to lay the subject generally before the public; it is execution of them will be, in a degree, beneficial not designed to act on it until the nextsession of conto the whole. An object of improvement may be gress, when its details, if the principles of the bill are entirely within in a state, and still be of a federal sanctioned, can be revised and improved. character, as a road to a fortification. The object The committee cannot conceive how the general may embrace parts of two states, as a bridge over a government can aid in the internal improvements of river that divides the two states; yet the states may the country, in most cases, with greater propriety erect the bridge if congress gives its consent, other than by subscriptions to companies incorporated by vise any agroement or compact between the states the respective states. Congress will have the opinion will not be binding; in such a case, congress could, of the United States' engineers, who will make the either give consent or cause the bridge to be erected necessary surveys, plans and estimates; and it will by the United States, if it was necessary to answer bave the opinion of a state in each case, and ol' intelany national purpose; or it might be erected by a ligent stockholders, as to the importance and probable company incorporated by the two states. If the ob- profits of each work; and, finally, congress will exerject of improvement has a wide range, and is to pass cise its own judgment on the utility and national chaihrough many states, there the general government racter of the work. The prosecution of the works, can act alone, as in the case of the improvements of besides, will be conducted by interested individuals, the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. These improvements with less expense and delay, than, perhaps, it could cannot be distinguished from any other, of the same be done by ihe public. importance, that passes through a number of states. As congress will probably make other expenditures,

It is unnecessary, at the present, to make any effort in specific cases, from tinie to time, the sum is here to ascertain where the true line on this subject lics limited to ten millions of dollars; yet congress can. between the general and states governments; con- adopt the principle, that no subscription shall be made gress must decide on each case as it arises, and it is to any incorporated company until a certain proporbelieved that there never can be any collision. Con- tion of the estimated expense shall have been subgress will never be disposed to act without the co- scribed for, either by the state or individuals; and operation of the states, except in a national work, this may augment the actual expenditures for public passing through different states, and were the s'ates, improvements to more than double the sum mentionthrough which it passes, are not interested in a degree ed in the bill. Sereral of the states have executed sufficient to induce them to undertake the perfection of many important works, and, with a judicious encouthe work, or any considerable part of it; such cases, ragement from the general government, a great deal in the opinion of the committee, may be considered as more may be anticipated on their parts. of the first national class, and cannot be included in The aid of the general government will seldom be any general and specific systems: for, although the required in the construction of roads. The roads mountains, streams, and the variety of our climate which will be necessary for thie accommodation of and soil, will not change, still it would be rash to the states, will, in most cases, answer the purposes of adopt a system designating where roads, canals and the general government. Attention will, perhaps, bridges, should be located ten or twenty years hence; have to be paid to parts of leading mail routes, where each case must depend on the course of trade, and the interest of the states is not sufficient to induce the circumstances that may exist, at the moment it is them to keep such parts in good repair. In the late to be carried into execution.

report of the secretary of war, the extension of the The committee, however, are of opinion, that there Cumberland road from Wheeling to St. Louis, and is a secondary class of cases, on which the general the construction of a durable road from the seat of government and the states can act conjointly, by the government to New Orleans, are considered as obsubscription of stock, on the part of the United States, jects of vational importance. in companies incorporated in the respective states, By the report of the postmaster general, of the 15th for internal improvements.

December, 1924, it appears that the route on which The plan proposed by the bill, after much reflec- thc mail is carried from the seat of government to New tion, has been deemed to be the most judicious of any Orleans, is estimated at 1,380 miles, and requires a that can be devised. It is a plan of encouragement, travel of 24 days in the winter and spring seasons of and, in its operation, will not interfere with objects of the year. The mail on this route is sometimes entire the first class. It will excile the states to incorporate ly obstructed by high waters; and, when this is not companics for such objects as will be, in a degree, the case, it is frequently much injured by the mail national, and sufficiently so as to induce congress to horses swimming creeks and through swamps, by countenance them. It leaves congress to decide in which newspapers are frequently destroyed, and leteach case, when presented, upon its own circum- ters obliterated. In the report, it is further remarkstances and merits.

ed, that the route, by the way of Warrenton, Abington Congress, on all occasions, is to act for the good of and Knoxville, affords great facilities, for the conthe whole; and there must be many instances where struction of a mail road. Through Virginia and Tenthe public interest of the union will require larger nessee, the materials are abundant for the formation. expenditures in one portion of the country than in of a turnpike, and through the states of Alabama and another.

Mississippi, it is believed, from information which States, which have important natural advantages has been obtained, that, in no part of the union, can for improvements, will not be willing to yield them to an artificial road, of the same length, be constructed thic general government, although they may stand in at less expense. On this part of the route, the face need of its aid in the beginning--for instance, Penn- of the country is level, and the soil well adapted for sylvania, from her interest and pride, never could be the formation of a solid road. If a substantial road disposed to permit the contemplated canal, from the were made in this direction to New Orleans, the mail Susquehannah to Pittsburg, to go into any other hands could be transported to that place from this city in than her own. This plan contains the advantage of eleven days. If the road were to pass through the receiving aid froin the general government, while it capitals of Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia, it retains to the states the right of purchasing the intes could be conveyed in less than twelve days. The derest of the United States at pleasure.

partment now pays at the rate of $52 76 a mile for Congress can act, in any case, after receiving the ihe transportation of the mail, three times in each neressary information, wiilo't vaiting for informa week, to New Orleans; when, on a good turnpike road, con from other places

lit could be conveyed, in a stage, as often and in less

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