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lications that touch on religion or public instruction, | and the voltigeurs of Pichinca and Caracas-general
in order to prevent any from being published that Lamar had the command of the left, with the batta-
have not received the sanction of the synod.
lions of Peru, and legions Nos. 1, 2 and 3. The divi-
sion of gen Lara was in reserve.

Turkey and Greece. It appears that the Sultan has resolved on a fifth campaign-a firman has been issued in consequence. He is said to be much alarmed for the safety of his person.

The two armies, although unequal in strength, were ardently desirous to fight. The number of the enemy consisted of about ten thousand, and that of ours five thousand eight hundred.

The Turks yet hold Patras; but its blockade by the Greeks is respected by the British. It was closely in- The battalions of the second division of Colombia vested, and it was thought that, with Coron and Mo-marched, with supported arms, with an intrepidity that don, it could not hold out much longer, It is said had few examples. They had scarcely commenced that Ibrahim Pacha has been defeated in a grand their fire when the Spaniards began to loose ground, nayal battle off Candia, in which he lost fifty ves- and confusion instantly became apparent among them sels; but no farther particulars are given. The The division of Peru, having met with a more vigorGreek elections had been made in a quiet and orderly ous resistance at the enemy's vangurd, under gen manner, and the government appears as well con- Valdez, was re-inforced by gen. Lara with two batsolidated as could be expected. tlions, under Vencedor and Vargas, of the Colombian guard. From that moment nothing could resist the impetuosity of our brave. The second squadron of the hussars, of Junin, under the intrepid commander Olabarria, made a brilliant charge upon the enemy's squadron, which was posted on the right of general Valdez, and obtained a complete victory. The grenadiers of Colombia having alighted, charged on foot, by our right flank, the Spanish infantry. The regiment of hussars of Colombia, under the active colonel Silva, charged with their lances the grenadiers of the vice king's guard, and put them to the Hayti. The French papers of the 12th of Janu- route. This brave colonel received three wounds by lances in the action. All our troops conducted them, ary, contain the documents relating to the negotia-selves as heroes during the short but terrible shock tion between France and Hayti, for a recognition of of the battle. Our loss has been-1 general, 8 of the independence of the latter, and which was ter- ficers, and 300 men, killed-and 6 generals, 24 of minated on the 3d of August, by the following note ficers and 490 men, wounded:-That of the enemyfrom the minister of France: the vice king, wounded-6 generals dead, and 2,600 men, dead and wounded.

Colombia. The private armed schooner Clara, has been captured by a Spanish merchantman, of 20 guns, and carried to Havana. The latter was supposed, by the captain of the former, to be a British man of war, by which mistake, he lost his vessel.

"The government, after the conference you have had with the minister of marine, has decided that, for want of sufficient powers vested in you to accept the conditions established in the royal ordinance, with which you have been made acquainted, the negotiation cannot proceed."

Letters from Paris state, that commissioners were about to sail from France to St. Domingo, to renew the negotiations.

Brazil. The revenue of this empire is said to amount to three millions of pounds sterling-its population is estimated at four millions; of whom, two millions are slaves. The regular army is between 25 and 30,000 strong, and the militia amounts to 50,000 men.

Liberation of Peru.

By the schooner Tobacco Plant, arrived at Norfolk from Carthagena, the Gazette of the last named place, of the 22d of January, was received, and the translation of the following interesting accounts were made for the Norfolk Herald:

OFFICIAL FROM PERU.

The rest of the Spanish army, under general Cante-
rac, capitulated with general Sucre, on the same day.
By this capitulation, all the possessions of the Spa-
niards in Peru, are given up to this republic. All the
Spainish army, and fifteen generals, are in our power.
The chief, ad interim,
MANUEL JOSE SOLER.

(Signed)

PROCLAMATION.

Peruvians! The liberating army, commanded by the intrepid and skillful general Sucre, has at once put an end to the war of Peru, and of the American continent, by one of the most glorious victories ever obtained by the arms of the new world. Yes! The army has fulfilled the promise I made you on its name to accomplish the liberty of Peru in the course of this year.

ORDER OF THE DAY.

Head quarters, Lima, December 22d, 1824. His excellency the liberator, received last night, through the aid-de-camp of gen. Sucre, (capt. Alar con), the confirmation of the battle of Ayacucho, on the 9th inst. under the orders of the immortal gen. Sucre. After five months of skilful manoeuvring on both sides, and several engagements, which always resulted glorious to our arms, gen. Sucre took his position in Ayacucho, and waited for the enemy. On the 8th instant, the two armies had some skirmishes. On the 9th, the liberating army was attacked by the enemy, who had posted himself on the heights in front of provinces of the north and carried war against the our camp. Gen. Valdez, on the vanguard, command-congress:-The navy obeyed no longer the commands ed the right, with four field pieces, four battalions, of the government: The ex-president, Riva Agueco, and two squadrons of hussars-general Monet com- by turns a usurper, rebel and traitor, fought against manded the centre, with five battalions-and general his country and her allies: The auxiliaries of Chili, Villalobos the left, with seven pieces and four batta- by their lamentable defection, deprived us of the aslions. The remainder of the cavalry and of the sistance of their troops; and those of Buenos Ayres. having revolted in Callao against their chiefs, deliverSpanish army remained in the rear. ed that place to the enemy: The president, Torre Tagle, making an appeal to the Spaniards to occupy this capital, achieved the destruction of Peru.

Peruvians! Peru has suffered great military disasters. The troops who guarded it, occupied the free

Our attack was made in the following order: gen. Cordova attacked the right, with the second division of Colombia, composed of the battalions of Bogota,

Peruvians! The time has arrived when I must also

fulfil the promise I made you to divest myself of the
dictatorship on the day that victory would seal your
destiny. The congress of Peru will be assembled on
the tenth of February, (proximo), being the anniver-
sary of the decree by which was confided to me this
supreme authority, and which I will then return to
the legislative body which honored me with their
confidence. These are not empty words.

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Discord, misery, discontent and personal interest | baggages and horses, the garrisons remaining in any had spread their bane through every part of the coun- part of the territory, and other forces and articles try. Peru seemed to exist no more-all was dissolv-belonging to the Spanish government. ed! Under these awful circumstances, the congress appointed me a dictator to save the relics of their last hopes.

Second-Every individual belonging to the Spanish army will be at liberty to return to his country, and his passage will be defrayed by the state of Perumeanwhile he shall be treated with due consideration, and will receive, at least, one half of his pay, according to his grade, during his stay in the territory. Answer-Granted: but the government of Peru will only grant the half pay according to proportionate regulations for the transportation. Those who will return to Spain, will not carry arms against America, during the war of the independence; and no one will go into any part of America occupied by the Spanish armies.

The loyalty, the constancy, and the valor of the army of Colombia, have performed this wonderful undertaking. The Peruvians, when a civil war was raging, acknowledged the legitimate government, and have rendered immense services to the country; while the troops who protected them, have covered themselves with glory on the fields of Junin and Ayacucho. Factions have disappeared from the soil of Peru. This capital has recovered forever its sweet liberty. Callao is invested, and must be given up by capitulation.

Third-Any individual belonging to the Spanish

Peruvians! Peace has succeeded to war; union to

discord: order to anarchy; and happiness to mis-army wishing to enlist in the army of Peru, will enjoy his former grade. fortune! But never forget, I beseech you, that, for these blessings, you are indebted to the illustrious victors of Ayacucho.

Answer-Granted.

Peruvians! The day on which your congress will meet will be a day of glory! the day that will consummate the most fervent wishes of my ambition-Do not ask more!

(Signed)

BOLIVAR. Extraordinary Gazette of the government of Lima, Wednesday, 22d December, 1924.

God preserve your excellency,

(Signed) ANTONIO JOSE DE SUCRE. P.S. I had forgotten to inform your excellency

of

2 remarkable circumstance. According to the rolls
taken from the enemy, it appears they had 9,310 men
on the field of battle, while the liberating army had
only 5,780.
(Signed)
SUCRE.

Fourth-No one shall be accountable for his former opinions, nor for his particular services in the king's cause, nor those known as smugglers: in this particular they will be entitled to the rights of all the articles of this treaty:

Answer-Granted: if, by their conduct, they do not disturb the public order, and if they conform to the laws.

Fifth-Any inhabitant of Peru, either European or American, ecclesiastic or merchant, land-owner or workman, wishing to remove to another country, will be at liberty so to do by virtue of this convention, and to take with him his family and property-he will be protected by the state until his departure, and if he prefers to remain, he will be considered a Peruvian.

LIBERATING ARMY,

Head quarters at Ayacucho, 10th Dec. 1824. To HIS EXCELLENCY THE LIBERATOR.

Most excellent sir: The treaty which I have the honor to transmit to your excellency, signed on the field of battle, where the blood of the liberating army has secured the independence of Peru, becomes the guarantee of the peace of the republic, and is the most brilliant result of the vietory of Ayacucho. The united army feels the liveliest satisfaction in presenting to your excellency all the territory of Peru, which has submitted to your authority, before five months campaign. All the royal army, all the provinces it occupied in this republic, all its places, artillery, magazines, and fifteen Spanish generals, are the be considered in the same point of view as that of trophies which the united army offers to your excel-Americans, unwilling to go to the peninsula, although lency, as a token worthy the illustrious savior of they may have property in that country. Peru; who, from Junin, pointed out to the army the field of Ayacucho as the spot to cover themselves with glory.

Sixth-The state of Peru will also respect the property of the Spaniards who may be absent from the territory-they will be at liberty, for the period of three years, to dispose of their property, which will

Answer-Granted: as in the preceding article, provided the conduct of these individuals will, in no way, be hostile to the cause of the freedom and independence of America-in the event of which, the go vernment of Peru reserves to itself the privilege acting freely and discretionary.

Seventh-The term of one year will be granted to all the interested parties, in order to avail themselves of the stipulations embraced in the fifth article-their property will be subjected to the ordinary duties, but that of individuals belonging to the army to be free of duties.

Answer-Granted.

Answer-Granted: with regard to the inhabitants of the country to be delivered, and agreeably to the conditions mentioned in the preceding article.

Don Jose Canterac, Lieutenant general of the royal armies of his Catholic majesty, being charged with Eighth-The state of Peru will acknowledge the the supreme command of Peru, in the absence of his debts contracted by the administration of the Spaexcellency, the vice king D. Jose LA SERNA, wound-nish government in the territory thereof to the preed and taken prisoner in the battle fought this day, after having taken the advices of the generals and chiefs, re-united after the bloody battle of Ayacucho, &c. &c. has thought it convenient to propose and to regulate with the general of division, Antonio Jose de Sucre, commanding in chief the united army of Peru, the conditions contained in the following articles:

sent day.

Answer-The congress of Peru will decide with regard to this article what will be most convenient to the interests of the republic.

Ninth All the individuals employed in public offices, will be continued therein if it be their desire; otherwise, those preferring to leave the country will be comprehended under the articles 2d and 5th. Answer-Those of the meritorious will be continu

First-The territory, garrisoned by the Spanish troops in Peru, as far as the Desaguadoro, shall be de-ed in their offices if the government should think prolivered to the united liberating army, with the parks per,

of artillery, chests, and all the military magazines. Tenth Every individual belonging to the army, or Answer Granted: and will also be included in the in the government's employ, who may wish to be delivery all the remainder of the Spanish army, the lerazed from the rolis and to remain in the country,

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Inaugural Address.

At a quarter before 12 o'clock, the president elect, accompanied by the president of the United States, and escorted by a considerable body of gentlemen, composed of strangers and citizens, and the military of the District, repaired to the capitol, where he was received by the committee of arrangement of the se nate, and conducted into the senate chamber; from whence he proceeded, with the senate, to the hall of the house of representatives, attended by the heads of departments, the marshal of the District of ColumAnswer-Granted: the same formalities will be observed at the delivery of Callao. The provinces bia, and the gentlemen selected as his associates, for will be delivered to the independent authorities in fifthe officers of the day, and the mayors of the three teen days, and the places the most remote in all the present month.

corporations of the District.

will be at liberty so to do: and in that case their persons will be respected.

Answer-Granted.

Eleventh--The town of Callao will be delivered to the united liberating army, and its garrison will be included in the articles of this treaty.

Answer-Granted: but the town of Callao, with all her colors and military articles, shall be delivered to the liberator, and be subject to his disposal on or before twenty days.

Twelfth-Superior officers of both armies will be sent to the provinces for the purpose of delivering and receiving the archives, magazines, appurtenances, and the troops, deposited in and stationed at, the different garrisons.

Thirteenth-The vessels of war and merchantmen in the ports of Peru, will be allowed the term of six months, from the date of the ratification of this treaty, to get their stores and provisions on board, to enable them to depart from the Pacific.

Answer-Granted: but the ships of war will only be permitted to make preparations for their voyage, without committing any act of hostility, either there or on quitting the Pacific-they being obliged to leave all the seas of America without touching at any port of Chili, or any other port in America, which may be occupied by the Spaniards.

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Seventeenth-To those individuals of the army who may have come to the determination, with regard to their future destination, agreeably to this treaty, leave will be granted them to re-unite with their families their other interests, and to remove to the place they may have chosen; in which case they will be furnished with passports so that they may not be molested in any of the independent states until their arrival at their places of destination.

Answer-Granted.

Eighteenth-Any doubt that may arise in the stipulations of the articles of the present treaty, will be terpreted in favor of the individuals of the Spanish army.

Answer-Granted: this stipulation will depend on the good faith of the contracting parties.

And having concluded and ratified this treaty, which is hereby approved, there will be made four copies of the same, two of which will remain in the power of each of the parties whose signatures are hereto affixed,&c. Delivered and signed, with our hands, on the field of Ayacucho, the 9th of December, 1824.

The president of the senate, with the secretary of the senate, were placed on the right of the chair; the ex-president on his right, and the speaker of the house of representatives, with the clerk of that house, on his left; the heads of departments were seated on the right, and the foreign ministers, with their suits, on the left of the chair.

JOSE CANTERAC.
ANTONIO JOSE DE SUCRE.

The judges of the supreme court occupied a table in front of the chair.

In unfolding to my countrymen the principles by which I shall be governed, in the fulfilment of those duties, my first resort will be to that constitution, which 1 shall swear, to the best of my ability, to prein-serve, protect and defend. That revered instrument enumerates the powers, and prescribes the duties, of the executive magistrate; and, in its first words, declares the purposes to which these, and the whole action of the government, instituted by it, should be invariably and sacredly devoted-to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to the people of this union, in their successive' generations. Since the adoption of this social compact, one of these generations has passed away. It is the work of our forefathers. Administered by some of the most eminent men, who contributed to its formation, through a most eventful period in the annals of

The senate filled the seats immediately in front; members of congress, including the judges of the circuit court of the District of Columbia, with their officers, and such persons as, by the standing rules of congress, are admitted to seats within the chambers, occupied seats on the floor. Officers, civil, military and naval, were also admitted in the lobbies and up on the floor of the hall.

ADDRESS DELIVERED BY

JOIN QUINCY ADAMS,

On being sworn into office, as president of the United
States, on the 4th of March, 1825.

In compliance with an usage, coeval with the existence of our federal constitution, and sanctioned by the example of my predecessors in the career upon which I am about to enter, I appear, my fellow citizens, in your presence, and in that of heaven, to bind myself by the solemnities of a religious obligation to the faithful performance of the duties allotted to me, in the station to which I have been called.

the world, and through all the vicissitudes of peace me, to observe that the great result of this experiment and war, incidental to the condition of associated upon the theory of human rights, has, at the close of man, it has not disappointed the hopes and aspira- that generation by which it was formed, been crowntions of those illustrious benefactors of their age and ed with success equal to the most sarguine expectanation. It has promoted the lasting welfare of that tions of its founders. Union, justice, tranquility, the country, so dear to us all; it has, to an extent, far common defence, the general welfare, and the blessbeyond the ordinary lot of humanity, secured the ings of liberty-all have been promoted by the gofreedom and happiness of this people. We now re-vernment under which we have lived. Standing at this ceive it as a precious inheritance from those to whom point of time; looking back to that generation which we are indebted for its establishment, doubly bound has gone by, and forward to that which is advancing, by the examples which they have left us, and by the we may, at once, indulge in grateful exultation, and blessings which we have enjoyed, as the fruits of their in cheering hope. From the experience of the past, labors, to transmit the same, unimpaired, to the suc-we derive instructive lessons for the future. Of the ceeding generation. two great political parties which have divided the opinions and feelings of our country, the candid and the just will now admit, that both have contributed splendid talents, spotless integrity, ardent patriotism and disinterested sacrifices, to the formation and administration of this government; and that both have

In the compass of thirty-six years, since this great national covenant was instituted, a body of laws enacted under its authority, and in conformity with its provisions, has unfolded its powers, and carried into practical operation its effective energies. Surbordinate departments have distributed the executive functions in required a liberal indulgence for a portion of human their various relations, to foreign affairs, to the re-infirmity and error. The revolutionary wars of Euvenue and expenditures, and to the military force of rope, commencing precisely at the moment when the the union, by land and sea. A co-ordinate depart-government of the United States first went into opement of the judiciary has expounded the constitution ration under this constitution, excited a collision of and the laws; settling, in harmonious coincidence sentiments and of sympathies, which kindled all the with the legislative will, numerous weighty questions passions, and embittered the conflict of parties, till of construction which the imperfection of human lan- the nation was involved in war, and the union was guage had rendered unavoidable. The year of jubi-shaken to its centre. This time of trial embraced a lee since the first formation of our union has just period of five-and-twenty years, during which, the elapsed; that of the declaration of our independence policy of the union, in its relations with Europe, conis at hand. The consummation of both was effected stituted the principal basis of our political divisions, by this constitution. Since that period, a population and the most arduous part of the action of our fedeof four millions has multiplied to twelve. A territory, ral government. With the catastrophe in which the bounded by the Mississippi, has been extended from wars of the French revolution terminated, and our sea to sea. New states have been admitted to the own subsequent peace with Great Britain, this baneful union, in numbers nearly equal to those of the first weed of party strife was uprooted. From that time, confederation. Treaties of peace, amity and com- no difference of principle, connected either with the merce, have been concluded with the principal do- theory of government, or with our intercourse with minions of the earth. The people of other nations, foreign nations, has existed, or been called forth, in inhabitants of regions acquired, not by conquest, but force sufficient to sustain a continued combination by compact, have been united with us in the partici- of parties, or give more than wholesome animation pation of our rights and duties, of our burdens and to public sentiment, or legislative debate. Our poliblessings. The forest has fallen by the axe of our tical creed is, without a dissenting voice that can be woodsmen-the soil has been made to teem by the heard, that the will of the people is the source, and tillage of our farmers; our commerce has whitened the happiness of the people the end, of all legitimate every ocean. The dominion of man over physical government upon earth-That the best security for nature has been extended by the invention of our the beneficence, and the best guaranty against the artists. Liberty and law have marched, hand in hand. abuse of power, consists in the freedom, the purity, All the purposes of human association have been ac- and the frequency of popular elections-That the complished as effectively as under any other govern- general government of the union, and the separate ment on the globe; and at a cost, little exceeding, in governments of the states, are all sovereignties of lia whole generation, the expenditures of other nations mited powers; fellow servants of the same masters, uncontroled within their respective spheres, unconin a single year. trolable by encroachments upon each other-That the firmest security of peace, is the preparation, during peace, of the defences of war-That a rigorous economy, and accountability of public expenditures, should guard against the aggravation, and alleviate, when possible, the burden of taxation-That the mili tary should be kept in strict subordination to the civil power-That the freedom of the press and of religious opinion should be inviolate-That the policy of our country is peace, and the ark of our salvation,

Such is the unexaggerated picture of our condition, under a constitution founded upon the republican principle of equal rights. To admit that this picture has its shades, is but to say that it is still the condition of men upon earth. From evil, physical, moral and political, it is not our claim to be exempt. We have suffered, sometimes by the visitation of Heaven, through disease; often by the wrongs and injustice of ether nations, even to the extremities of war; and, lastly, by dissentions among ourselves-dissentions, union, are articles of faith upon which we are all perhaps, inseparable from the enjoyment of freedom, agreed. If there have been those who doubted whebut which have more than once appeared to threaten ther a confederated representative democracy were a the dissolution of the union, and, with it, the over-government competent to the wise and orderly ma throw of all the enjoyments of our present lot, and all nagement of the common concerns of a mighty nation, our earthly hopes of the future. The causes of these those doubts have been dispelled. If there have dissentions have been various, founded upon dif- been projects of partial confederacies, to be erected ferences of speculation in the theory of republican go- upon the ruins of the union, they have been scatvernment; upon conflicting views of policy, in our tered to the winds. If there have been dangerous relations with foreign nations; upon jealousies of attachments to one foreign nation, and antipathies partial and sectional interests, aggravated by preju- against another, they have been extinguished.dices and prepossessions, which strangers to each Ten years of peace, at home and abroad, have asother are ever apt to entertain, suaged the animosities of political contention, and blended into harmony the most discordant elements

It is a source of gratification and of encouragement to

scientific re

In this brief outline of the promise and perform

of public opinion. There still remains one effort of by that eminent citizen, at the time of his first inducmagnanimity, one sacrifice of prejudice and passion, tion to this office, in his career of eight years, the into be made by the individuals throughout the nation, ternal taxes have been repealed; sixty millions of the who have heretofore followed the standards of poli-public debt have been discharged; provision has been tical party. It is that of discarding every remnant of made for the comfort and relief of the aged and indirancor against each other; of embracing, as country-gent, among the surviving warriors of the revolution; men and friends; and of yielding to talents and virtue the regular armed force has been reduced, and its alone, that confidence which, in times of contention constitution revised and perfected; the accountability for principle, was bestowed only upon those who bore for the expenditures of public moneys has been made the badge of party communion. more effective; the Floridas have been peaceably ac The collisions of party spirit, which originate inquired, and our boundary has been extended to the speculative opinions, or in different views of admi-Pacific ocean; the independence of the southern na nistrative policy, are, in their nature, transitory.tions of this hemisphere has been recognised, and reThose which are founded on geographical divisions, commended, by example and by council, to the poadverse interests of soil, climate, and modes of do- tentates of Europe; progress has been made in the mestic life, are more permanent, and, therefore, per- defence of the country, by fortifications and the inhaps, more dangerous. It is this which gives inesti-crease of the navy-towards the effectual suppression mable value to the character of our government, at of the African traffic in slaves-in alluring the abo once federal and national. It holds out to us a per-riginal hunters of our land to the cultivation of the petual admonition to preserve, alike and with equal soil and of the mind-in exploring the interior reanxiety, the rights of each individual state in its own gions of the union, and in preparing, government, and the rights of the whole nation, in searches and surveys, for the further application of that of the union. Whatever is of domestic con- our national resources to the internal improvement cernment, unconnected with the other members of of our country. the union, or with foreign lands, belongs exclusively to the administration of the state governments.ance of my immediate predecessor, the line of duty, Whatsoever directly involves the rights and interests for his successor, is clearly delineated. To pursue of the federative fraternity, or of foreign powers, is, to their consummation those purposes of improveof the resort of this general government. The du- ment in our common condition, instituted or recomties of both are obvious in the general principle, mended by him, will embrace the whole sphere of though sometimes perplexed with difficulties in the my obligations. To the topic of internal improvedetail. To respect the rights of the state government, emphatically urged by him at his inauguraments is the inviolable duty of that of the union: tion, I recur with peculiar satisfaction. It is that the government of every state will feel its own obli- from which I am convinced that the unborn millions gation to respect and preserve the rights of the whole. of our posterity, who are in future ages to people this The prejudices every where too commonly entertain-continent, will derive their most fervent gratitude to ed against distant strangers, are worn away, and the the founders of the union; that in which the benefijealousies of jarring interests are allayed by the com-cent action of its government will be most deeply position and functions of the great national councils, felt and acknowledged. The magnificence and annually assembled from all quarters of the union, at splendor of their public works are among the imthis place. Here the distinguished men from every perishable glories of the ancient republics. The section of our country, while meeting to deliberate roads and aqueducts of Rome have been the admiraupon the great interests of those by whom they are tion of all after ages, and have survived, thousands deputed, learn to estimate the talents, and do justice of years, after all her conquests have been swallow. to the virtues of each other. The harmony of the ed up in despotism, or become the spoil of barbarination is promoted, and the whole union is knit to ans. Some diversity of opinion has prevailed with gether by the sentiments of mutual respect, the ha- regard to the powers of congress for legislation upon bits of social intercourse, and the ties of personal objects of this nature. The most respectful deferfriendship, formed between the representatives of ence is due to doubts, originating in pure patriotism, its several parts, in the performance of their service and sustained by venerated authority. But nearly at this metropolis. twenty years have passed since the construction of the first national road was commenced. The authority for its construction was then unquestioned. To how many thousands of our countrymen has it proved a benefit? To what single individual has it ever proved an injury? Repeated liberal and candid discussions in the legislature have conciliated the sentiments, and approximated the opinions of enlightened minds, upon the question of constitutional power. I cannot but hope that, by the same process of friendly, patient and persevering deliberation, all constitutional objections will ultimately be removed. The extent and limitation of the powers of the general government, in relation to this transcendently important interest, will be settled and acknowledged, to the common satisfaction of all; and every speculative scruple will be solved by a practical public blessing.

Passing from this general review of the purposes and injunctions of the federal constitution, and their results, as indicating the first traces of the path of duty, in the discharge of my public trust, I turn to the administration of my immediate predecessor, as the second. It has passed away in a period of profound peace; how much to the satisfaction of our country, and to the honour of our country's name, is known to you all. The great features of its policy, in general concurrence with the will of the legislature, have been-To cherish peace while preparing for defensive war-To yield exact justice to other nations, and maintain the rights of our own-To cherish the principles of freedom and of equal rights, wherever they were proclaimed-To discharge, with all possible promptitude, the national debt-To reduce, within the narrowest limits of efficiency, the military force-To improve the orga- Fellow-citizens, you are acquainted with the pecu nization and discipline of the army-To provide and liar circumstances of the recent election, which sustain a school of military science-To extend equal have resulted in affording me the opportunity of adprotection to all the great interests of the nation-To dressing you at this time. You have heard the expopromote the civilization of the Indian tribes; and-Tosition of the principles which will direct me in the proceed in the great system of internal improvements fulfilment of the high and solemn trust imposed within the limits of the constitutional power of th upon me in this station. Less possessed of your conunion. Under the pledge of these promises, mad fidence, in advance, than any of my predecessors, I

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