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than half the time, at the same expense, with the ut- defend a great distance of the seaboard, as it could be inost security, and with a considerable increase to transported to any point in a short period. the receipts of the department.
With such a line of defence, no discreet general The committee are of opinion, that it would result would venture too far into the interior of the country, to the public benefit to make experiments, in this dis- when his retreat would be so easily cut off, and his trict, of a rail road; and of a road, constructed on defeat rendered almost eertain. McAdam's plan, for short distances, and in places In the other extreme of the country, the lakes can where they would be useful, as well as for inspection. be connected with the St. Lawrence and the Missis
On the subject of the inland navigation of the coun- sippi rivers. The falls of Niagara, it is believed, can try, a mass of information is contained in the reports be avoided by a canal of about ten miles, and on such of the secretary of the treasury, of the 4th of April, a scale as to admit ressels which navigate both lakes, ISO8; of the secretary of war, on the 3d of December, and at an expense not exceeding a million of dollars. 1824; of the United States board of engineers; and of Lake Michigan can be connected by a canal with the canal commissioners in the states.
waters of the Illinois river, which empties into the It is believed to be practicable, and by no means at Alississippi. And, to effect this communication, a law an unreasonable expense, compared with the high im- was passed, in 1820, by congress, authorizing the state portance of the subject
, to make an inland water com- of Illinois to open a canal through the public lands. munication from Boston to St. Mary's, and to con Already, steam boats of 450 tons, with full cargoes, nect the waters of the Atlantic with those of the have passed from Buffalo to the southern extremities Gulf of Mexico. In 1808, the secretary of the trea- of lake Michigan, a distance of s00 or 900 miles.-sury indicated a canal to be opened, 550 miles in The whole of this navigation is on the lakes, except length, at an expense of $30,000,000, and ten years the passage through the strait between lakes Michilabor; and, as great as the expense would be, he gan and Huron, of ten miles; the strait between Huthought the advantages of discharging the Mississippi ron and St. Clair, of thirty-five miles; and the strait into the Atlantic ocean, through the territory of the between St. Clair and lake Erie, of twenty-eight state of Georgia, worth it all. But, since the acqui- miles; making, in the whole, seventy-three miles; sition of Florida, a new route presents itself, to com- but through each of these straits there is sufficient mence on the Mississippi, at the mouth of the river depth of water for sloops and steam boats of the burIberville, and terminate at the mouth of St. John's then just mentioned. With improvements of no exriver, on the coast of Florida. The whole distance is traordinary magnitude, there can be a water commu700 miles, but the distance to be canalled would not nication from New Orleans to Quebec; and inland naexceed 120 miles, and would save a distance of na- vigation from the Atlantic, across to this extensive vigation of 1,500 miles. The cost of this undertaking, line, may be effected from various points. In New from the information received, would be about six England, the Penobscot, Kennebec and Connecticut millions of dollars.
rivers approach the waters of the St. Lawrence; anıl By virtue of an appropriation made in March, 1823, a project is said to be in contemplation to connect the obstruction betweco the harbor of Gloucester the waters of lake Memphramagoz with the Conneoand the harbor of Squam, in the state of Massachu-ticut river, through the Barton and Willoughby rivers, setts, has been removed. It consisted of a narrow Willoughby lake and Pasamsick river, to the Connecişthmus of sand, which had been thrown into a pas- ticut river, opposite the town of Lyman, in the state sage that formerly existed there, and, by the constant of New Hampshire. It is also espected that the goaction of the waves, in heavy gales of wind, had been vernment of Canada will undertake to open a water filled up for, perhaps, a hundred years, and had com- communication, for boats, from Memphramagog lake, pletely connected ihe island of Cape Ann with the through Rio St. Francois, to lake si. Peter's, in the main land. By this improvement, which was per- river St. Lawrence, and thence to Quebec: And thus, fected under the auspices of the general government, to give an inland water communication from Quebec the coasting trade, from all parts of Boston bay, en- to Portsmouth, Boston, Hartford and New York. And joys the great advantage, in particular seasons of the it is believed that a direct water communication may year, and circumstances of the weather, but especial- be opened from the state of Vermont, through the inly in winter, of passing through, from the harbor of terior of the state of New Hampshire, to Dover, PortsGloucester, by Squam, into Ipswich bay, and thence mouth and Boston navy yards, which will facilitate to Newburyport, Portsmouth, Portland, &c. and are the transportation of merchandise into the country, saved the difficulty and risk of doubling Cape Ann. and the produce of the country to a market, together
No improvements, of which the country is capable, with timber to the navy yards. This route would would conduce more to internal commerce and mili- also open a free intercourse with Canada and Quetary defencé, than this chain of inland water commu- bec, either hy water to the St. Lawrence river, or nication along the Atlantic, and its extension to the Craig's road, to Quebec. Mississippi.
Companies have been incorporated to connect the As to commerce, the communication by this canal waters of the Connecticut river with the waters of route is, from north to south, about siteen degrees, the Merrimack, and to cut a canal from the Winneand the produce of the south, cotton, rice, tobacco, pisiogee lake to the Piscataqua river, and from Pesugars and the fruits of the climate, could be taken to migwasset river, through Squam ponds, to Winnethe landings and towns, as far as the extreme point pisiogee lake. These, when effected, will connect the of the north, in a short time, and the boats could re-waters of Connecticut river with Portsmouth and turn with the manufactures of the north and mid- Boston harbors. dle states. This canal route, in its course, would In New York, much has already been done by the connect itself with all the valuable streams from the energetic measures and sound policy which that Mississippi to the north, and would save from the state has pursued. The great canal of New York wrecks large amounts of property. It is estimated unites the Atlantic with the regions of the lakes. that, on the keys and shoals of the Florida coast still, many other important objects of improvement alone, 500,000 dollars worth of property is wrecked remain to be effected in the state of New York, as apannually.
pears in the message of the governor, of that state As to military defence, these improvements would lately addressed to the general assembly. be equally valuable, as the extent of our coast gives Another connection may be effected through the to an enemy, possessing a powerful naval force, the states of Jersey and Pennsylvania. A law has been advantage of selecting the place of attack; but, by lately passed by the legislature of the state of New mcaris of such a water conveganer, one umy could! Jersey to construct a canal from the Raritan to the
Delaware. And, in Pennsylvania, the river Schuyl- from there to Pittsburgh 370; making, in the whole kill has been converted into a slack water naviga-470 miles, instead of 790 hy lake Erie. tion, by canals and dams, from tide-water at Phila James river, in the state of Virginia, it is believed, delphia, to Mount Carbon, near ils source, being a can be connected with the Kenhawa, which empties distanco of one hundred and nine miles. The cost into the Ohio. This will afford that valuable section of this work, now finished, was one million eight of the country a water communication to the lakes, hundred thousand dollars. Connected with it, is the through the canal intended to be cut from the Ohio Union canal, which branches off at Reading, fifty- river to lake Erie; on which subject, the canal comtwo miles above Philadelphia, and intersects the missioners, in obedience to an act of the general asSusquehannah at Middletown, ten miles below Har- sembly of the state of Ohio, have recently written a risburgh. This work, now in rapid progress, and very able report. which will be finished in eighteen months, is seventy The sources of the Roanoke rise in the mountains eight miles long, and will cost about eleven hundred of Virginia, and it empties itself into the Albemarle thousand dollars. Both these canals lead to inex. sound, and is navigable to the Great Falls, 70 miles haustible mines of coal, of the very best quality, and from its mouth. Around the Great Falls, locks have complete the water communication between the Sus- been made, and the branches of this river have been quehannah and Philadelphia, the distance being about greatly improved by jetty dams. It is proposed to reone hundred and fifty miles. The majestic river or open the Roanoke Inlet, or to make a new one near Susquehannah, is the only one of the Atlantic rivers its site, and to close up the communication betweet whose sources approach both the western waters Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, by running a dam of and those of the St. Lawrence. Its Tioga branch af- stone, or of wood and earth, across Cronton and Ro fords a communication with the rivers Seneca and anoke sounds, near the south end of Roanoke Island. Gennessee, which empty into Lake Ontario, and its The estimated cost of this improvement, if made of western branch approaches the waters of the Alle- stone, is $2,000,000, and, if made of wood and earth, ghany. The river Susquehannah, it is beliered, af- $1,000,000. This improvement would diminish ths fords two communications to the western waters; distance, from any given point on the sound, nearly one by the western branch, and the other by connect- one half, and would accommodate the country, on ing the Juniatta river with the river Concmaugh, both sides of the sound, and along the rivers empty.. which empties into the Alleghany.
ing into it, which is as fertile a tract of country a3 The canal commissioners of the state of Pennsyl- any in the southern states, and sustains as' great a vania, who examined this last route, partly in con- population. junction with two of the United States' engineers, The head waters of the Great Pedee river, which have lately reported in favor of its practicability. falls into the ocean at Wingan bay, take their rise in
The next communication with the western waters. Blue Ridge, and the Yadkin, a bold stream, with can be effected by the Chesapeake and Ohio canal. only one formidable, but not insurmountable obstruca This object, regarded as the most important and na- tion, is navigable to the foot of these mountains, in tional, was the first to claim the attention of the ex- the state of North Carolina. The distance over them, ecutive in carrying into effect the provisions of the to the navigable waters of the Holstein, a branch of law
of the last session, to procure surveys, &c.; and the Tennessee, is not great. The head waters of the the able board of engineers, who have given the sub- Santee, which has its outlet in the state of South ject a full and careful examination during the last Carolina, are the Catawba, Broad and Saluda rivers; summer, have pronounced it perfectly practicable, at the former takes its rise near the mountains in North an expense, small, compared with the magnitude and Carolina, not far from the head waters of the French importance of the object. This work, whether rc- Broad; the two latter rise within the state of South garded in a military, commercial or political point Carolina; their sources are nearly equal in the of view, is equally important. Passing through the vicinity of the French Broad. The navigation of centre of the republic, from one extreme to the each of these three rivers has been so far improved, other, opening an internal communication of more as to render them fit for the transportation of prothan 2,500 miles; affording, at once, a powerful bond duce to within a few miles of the mountains. The of union, with every commercial facility in time Keowee and Sugatoo rivers, the head waters of the of peace-and, in war, the most efficient means of Sarannah, which form the boundary of the states of national defence. Besides, its immediate connec- South Carolina and Georgia, hare their source in the tion with the seat of the nalional government; its cen. same chain of mountains, and might be rendered tral position; the great extent of inland navigation navigable to within a very short distance of the which it opens; touching, in its course, eleven states head waters of the French Broad. It is to be obe of the union, and furnishing a vent for the produce of served, of all these rivers, that the Blue Ridge preseveral others. The shortness of the canal, by this sents obstacles to a junction, between the eastern route, connecting the Atlantic tides with the steam and western waters, by means of canals. boat navigation of the west, at Pittsburgh, being less
By a memorial from the legislature of Alabama to than 350, and to lake Erie less than 450 miles. congress, it appears that the Tuscaloosa river, a These considerations, together with the general
branch of the Tombecbe, may, at a reasonable cxand diffusive nature of the benefits to result from this pense, be connected with the Tennessee river. The work, offering great advantages to all the states, yet mences and becomes capable of a water transporta
memorial also states, that the Alabama river compeculiar to none, as well as the magnitude of the tion within eight or eleven miles of a stream equally undertaking, poiot it out as a work peculiarly national susceptible of being rendered navigable, and which in its character, and cannot fail to secure for it the empties into the Tennessee river; that the latter reprompt and efficient aid of the general government. ceives the tribute of several other streams, which
Many of the above remarks will likewise apply to take their rise and become navigable in the state of the Pennsylvania canal, which will pass through a Virginia, passing through some of its most produce rich and populous country, and connect the greatest tive lands, and watering, in their course, the whole manufacturing city on the western waters, with one eastern section of the state of Tennessee; that the diof the richest and most manufacturing cities on the viding ground, separating these waters, affords a faAtlantic, at a distance of about 370 miles; and will rorable opportunity of connecting the waters of the bring New York and Pittsburg nearer together than Alabama with those of the Tennessee river; and that hy any other route-as, from New York to Bruns- the distance for the produce of Tennessee to reach a vick, 40 miles; from there to Philadelphia 60, and market on the sea board would be reduced from
aearly two thousand miles, to New Orleans, to six or elevated places,and which was conveyed by aqueducts seres hundred miles, to the Mobile, which may be over rivers and valleys. This canal, although greatly connected with the Pensacola bay.
advantageous to the nation at large, would not have The Cumberland river, in the state of Tennessee, been good property for private proprietors; but it was it is believed, can be connected with the Tennessee the origin of innumerable canals in France and Holriver, which, when connected with the Tombecbe or land, which exhibited, in the clearest light, their mang Alabama rivers, will open a direct water communica- and important public and private advantages; but, tion to Pensacola, in Florida, for a large and im- notwithstanding the enterprising character of the peoportant section of the union.
ple of England, and although they had the examples Some of the Georgia rivers, it is believed, may be of Holland and France so near at hand, still near a connected with the western waters.
century passed before either government or inhabiThe cutting of a canal from lake Pontchartrain, to tants attempted to make any works of the kind in communicate with the Mississippi, at or near the city England. The success of the undertaking of a spiritof New Orleans, is considered of importance, both in ed individual, at length roused the people to ena military and commercial point of view.
thusiasm, and awakened a general ardor, for similar Pearl river, in the state of Mississippi, is also a improvements, among the landholders, farmers, mervaluable stream, and is capable of much improvement chants and manufacturers of the kingdom. 'Since for the public advantage.
then, there has been no cessation in the prosecution Besides the communications already mentioned of public works, and the capacity of the country has with the lakes, it is considered as practicable, at a beon entirely changed; old manufactures were renreasonable expense, to connect the Wabash river with dered more flourishing, and new ones were establishthe Miami of lake Erie.
ed, from time to time, in places where the land before The importance of an early attention to the con- vas of but little value and thinly inhabited. The towns straction of canals, round the falls of Ohio, at Louis- were enabled to supply a much greater extent of inville, and round the Muscle Shoal, in the Tennessce land country with their own manufactures. The conriver, will be readily conceded.
sumers, in the interior of the country, imported at Whenerer the contemplated water communica- lower prices, and, as producers, they exported with tion, between Boston and the river Delaware, sball greater advantages. be completed, it will, it is supposed, leave about The canals united the matcrials for manufactures thirty-eight miles of land, separated by water sources, that lay dispersed, and, by lessening the expense of to Louis river, a branch of the Columbia, which the transportation of bulky articles, they brought emptics into the Pacific ocean; as, from the Talpa- stores of riches from the bowels of the earth. They bockin, a branch of the Schuylkill, to the Quitepa- afforded to the inhabitants of the interior, in cvery hilla, a branch of the Susquehannah, four miles; direction, the advantages of coasts which were safe from Popular run, a branch of the Juniatta, to the Lit- from tempests and wars. England could never have tle Conemaugh, a branch of the Alleghany, fourteen sustained herself in her mighty struggles with the miles; from the Yellow Stone river, å branch of the continent, had it not been for her unremitted attenMissouri, to St. Louis' river, a branch of the Colum- tion to the domestic industry of the country; and bia, twenty miles; making, in the whole, thirty-eight nothing gave as much facility and animation to this inmiles. But what distance of canalling, and water dustry, as her cheap, safe and expeditious modes of improvements, would be necessary to complete this transportation. Prejudices, even as to the practicachain of communication, the committee possess no bility of executing great designs, existed in England means of ascertaining. Parts of it, no doubt, will be for a long time; and when the duke of Bridgewater's accomplished in a reasonable time; yet there can be canal was finished as far as Barton, where the Irweil no expectation that the whole will be effected for a is navigable for large vessels, Brindley, the ongineer, Fery long period.
proposed to carry it over that river by aqueducts; if the survey system, which commenced the last the idea was ridiculed, and another eminent engineer summer, should be persevered in, the union, and the was consulted, who replied, at once, that he had often several states, will be put into the possession of va-heard of castles in the air, but that he bad never luable information on these interesting subjects. been shown before, where any of them werc to be
In vicwing the prospects before us for improve- built. The duke, however, took the advice of bis ments on a large scale, the mind is lost in amazement own engineer, and the work was commenced in Sepat the extensiveness of the scenes which appear for tember, 1760, and boats sailed over it in less than a the permanent benefit and grandeur of the country. year, to the astonishment of those, who, a little be
The inhabitants of the old countries were, for a fore, thought it impossible. The New York works long time, confined to the coasts; but the improve had to encounter prejudices of every description; ments in navigation gave an unlimited expansion to some entertained opinions that the whole scheme commercial enterprise, and the discovery of canalling was romantic in the extreme; that it was totally imis an admirable extension of the benefits of naviga- practicable; and, if practicable, that it was far betion, by which we can sail over the globe by land as yond any conception they had of the ability of the well as by sca.
state to carry it into execution. A short period has, The inestiinable intention of lock navigation was however, dispelled all such apprehensions; and it may entirely unknown to the ancients, who have furnish- be reasonably hoped, that these works will produce ed us with so many astonishing monuments of their similar effects in Anrica, which the Bridgewater greatness; it instructed mankind in the knowledge works did in England, and be the origin of a thouthat water was capable of producing the ascent of sand water communications in different parts of the Veszels to its own level, and that, wherever there is union, water above, vessels can go down and re-ascend by The construction of canals is now reduced to striet water; but the invention, in itself, is not much more rules and methods, and can be contracted for at so wonderful than the prejudices against adopting it in much per mile or lock. Although our minds are now practice, which have existed in many countries. free from the mist of ignorance and prejudices, stili
In the construction of the canal of the two seas in important difficulties, but, it is trusted, not insupera, France, all the science and art appertaining to the ble oncs, remain, as to the course which the United Subject were displayed. Locks, 114 in number, were States ought to pursue on the highly interesting subroristructed, and rocks excavated for great distances; ject of internal improvements. If we do not cherish funnels were cut through mountains, and a reservoir, a spirit of concession, and act with liberal views, for
$95 acres, was filled by water from the adjacent the general benefit, is in the places where publie
works are first to be undertaken, success can scarcely will increase with the growing population of the coun be expected. Whether congress will pledge its faith try; and the governnient, besides, owns about 500 in advance, on any plan, or act merely in specific millions of acres of land, the value of many parts of cases, as they rise, or upon a combination of both, which will be enhanced by the improvements of the according to the design of the annexed bill, or upon country. the principle of an equal proportionment among the But we will suppose the case which is the most unstates, according to the ratio of representation, are favorable: and that is, that the debt, together with grave and important questions, and can only be set the improvements, should go down to posterity; it tied by the experience and wisdom of congress, would only create an obligation on those who would after solemn deliberation; but, when these impor- have the enjoyment of the improvements, to pay tant points are disposed of, there will remain nothing the debt. Would posterity have any cause of comto impede the national councils from conferring on plaint, when so much labor would be performed to their constituents the greatest blessings, and acquir- their hands. They would not murmur; they would ing for themselves imperishable renown. Ultimately, rather bless the authors of their benefaction. these works may be looked upon as the best source As to means, on questions of improvements, ability of revenue, and at all times they will effect a great is the only requisite, if the works, when they are comsaving in the labor and expense of transportation, pleted, will be worth what they cost; the want of which will be diverted to some other employment, money in the treasury should never form an objecand thus increase the wealth of the whole. In a tion to their execution. In such cases it is only netime of war, they would facilitate, beyond descrip- cessary to inquire, whether we have a sufficiency of tion, both in cheapness and expedition, the transpor- credit, labor, and skill; these constitute the means; tation of troops and heavy munitions of war, from and on this enlightened policy, the great improvethe sea-board to the Canada borders, or in the direc- ments in the state of New-York have been made. tion of any other point in the union, where we could The importance of placing this country in the most be assailed.
advantageous condition, to enable it to enter into No opinion can be formed, with accuracy, as to the competition with the countries of Europe in the trade expense of land carriage, thronghout the union. It with the republics of South America, must be obvious is, however, estimated, that 30,000 tons are annually to every enlightened statesman. transported over the mountains to Pittsburg, at the The discovery of a passage round the Cape of Good extraordinary expense, for wagonage, of $600,000 a Hope to the East Indies, was an important era in the year; and this mode of transportation, besides, em- history of Europe; and it may be assumed that the ploys a large capital in wagons, horses, feed and at- independence of South America is not less so to this iendants. A few facts will show the enormous ex- country. No country can offer to us commercial pepse of transportation in times of war. In the late openings more rich, or more within our reach, than war, Aour, in some instances, cost the government the Spanish republics. Our territories touch. The near one hundred dollars per barrel, and pieces of ports of Louisiana and Vera Cruz are connected with artillery, each, near one thousand dollars, and, owing the same sca. Our access to Mexico will be easy. to the delay, were useless when they arrived. As regards the importance of Mexico, it is illustrated
The cost of transportation across the peninsula be- by the circumstance, that it is the richest and most tween the Delaware and Chesapeake bays, a distance extensive of all the Spanish possessions; it exceeds, of only sixteen miles, amounted, in one year, to a lit- in magnitude, Spain, France and Italy, united. All tle!ess than half a million of dollars. The losses in the eastern coast of Mexico, the kingdom of Terra the last war, for want of good roads and canals, were Firma and Paraguay, are nearer to us than the ports very large, and, it is believed, they would be suti- of Europe; here is a wide field opening for the comcient to accomplish many of the important improve-mercial enterprise of the Americans. It would be ments which are contemplated.
presumptuous to attempt to point out the particular It may here be truly observed, that, among the ob- character of the trade, in all its branches; but that jects of a national character, which occasionally en. two great countries, geographically situated as these gage the public spirit and resources of a nation, none are, can remain without an immensity of commerare more beneficial, and none so permanent, as the cial intercourse, is incredible. Nothing can be more internal improvements of the country. These will intimately connected than the interest of commerce remain as lasting as the rivers they connect, while and that of the cultivators of the land; and the manuothers will be effaced even from remembrance by the facturing interest naturally follows as a benefit to flow of time.
both. As to the means possessed by the general govern We can get nothing from abroad, if we hare not ment to perfect the contemplated improvements of something at home to exchange for it, and this somethe country, they are abundant. Bcyond the sums to thing must come from the earth or the sea, but mainbe borrowed by the annexed bill, the redundancy in ly from the land. the treasury, in each year, will meet specific cases The objects of commerce will not grow in the of improvements of the first class, which may be pre-streets or along the margin of the sca; they are to be sented at different periods. And if proper objects obtained in the interior of the country, or from manuare selected in the beginning, a revenue will constant- facturing places. The navigation of the country dely be coming into the treasury, as the improvements pends on the interior prosperity of the country, and are progressing; some canals, it is probable, would must riso or fall with it. Navigation follows, it cannot yield more than six per cent. soon aficr their comple- lead; and the more the objects of commerce are intion. The secretary of the treasury says we shail creased, the more ships will be wanted. have an annual surplus of upwards of three millions, The raw materials, and the various productions of beyond the sinking fund, which will pay the public the soil, in the first instance, belong to the caltivators debt in ten years. This may not all be realized, but of the land; and the trade of the country belongs to it is probable that the surplus will even exceed this the people at large. Its object is to carry to foreign estimate. The public debt will be diminishing, and countries what we have to spare, and to bring back there will be less interest to pay; the appropriations what is necessary or gratifying to us.
And this com for fortifications will not be as large as they have merce of the country will inevitably and daily increase been; the pension fund has diminished more than one with the improvement of the country. Dalf in the last three or four years, and must entirely The grand secret, in the whole order of society, in cease in a short time-from this source alone, up- its relation to political economy, is nothing more than wards of a million will be disengaged; tho customs i to hold out such inducemcuts as are the best calculat
ed to make the people industrious, and to aid this in- have been thrown into it, and encourage the Missisdustry as much as possible by labor-saving machines. sippi to discharge a part of its waters through this A nation, in all its wisdom, cannot effect this end so channel. From the junction of the Iberville with the well by any contrivance as by the simple operation of Amite, there is a safe and convenient inland navigation safe and cheap modes of transportation by good roads to the head of the bay of Bonsecure, an arm of the and canals. Suppose two nations to be adjacent: the bay of Mobile. A cadal, tive miles in length, will conone intersected with canals, and the other only ac- nect the navigable waters of Bonsecure with those of commodated with ordinary roads; how much more the Perdido, and a canal, one half mile in length, will powerful and rich will the one be than the other! connect the Perdido with the Grand Lagoon, which
The age of a nation does not depend on time, but communicates with the bay of Pensacola, making the on its strength, population and character. And a whole distance, to be opened between the Mississippi nation, possessing, as we do, ten millions of people, and Pensacola, thirty-five and a half miles, thirty of connot seriously be destitute of means to accomplish which will be through a natural channel, and may be all the important works, which, on the most ample in completed with inconsiderable expense and labor. formation, and best deliberation that can be bestowed From Pensacola, eastward, there is a safe inland naon the subject, shall appear to be of essential advan-vigation through the sound of St. Rasa and the bay of tage to the different parts of the country. The gene- Choctawhatchy. A canal five miles in length will ral government can adopt no other measure which connect the latter with the bay of St. Andrew's. A will produce so much animation and friendship canal of forty-five yards will connect the St. Andrew's among ler citizens. It will render access easy, by with the bay of St. Joseph's, and a canal of equal subduing the mountains and the floods: and must, by length will connect the latier with the lake Wimeco. the intercourse and interest which it will create in This lake coinmunicates with the river Apalachicola; the different parts, have a powerful tendency to the from thonce to the bay of St. Mark's, the navigation preservation of the whole.
is already open, and secure, being perfectly protectA society of people delights in noble achievements;ed from the waves of the guif, by a chain of islands, and it would have been happy for the world, is the extending along the coast. Pensacola is distant from power of nations had been directed to the establish- St. Mark's about 200 miles, and a canal of little more ment of important public improvements instead of than five miles will open an inland navigation beexhausting itself in the despicable intrigues of states-tween them. To extend this chain of connection men, and the destruction of the human species. Im- from St. Mark's to the Suwannee river, would be atmense sums have been lavished for military glory, tended with the only difficulty in the whole route, while projects which would tend to cherish industry and would require a canal of a bout sisty miles. This, and morality have not been sufficiently cultivated. however, might be dispensed with until the commu
An abhorrence of many of the arbitrary and bloody nication across thc peninsula shall have been comscenes in other countries, has given rise, in the west- pleted. This may be effected by uniting the waters ern hemisphere, to self-government and toleration in of the St. John's with those of the river Suwannee, religion; and the example of the United States may and will require a canal of not more than twenty produce an influence on the rest of the world, when miles in Jength. The river St. John's is one of the she is known to be inclined to reconcile national dif- finest streams of our country; it waters one of the serences, rather than to instigate wars, and is seen most delightful regions of the south, and is navigable preserving a steady devotion to the happiness of the for vessels of 300 tons burthen, for more than 200 people, and constantly directing a portion of their miles above its mouth. The two points intended to resources to such public undertakings as will advance be connected by this route, are separated from each the population and general wealth, and go down to other by a distance of about 800 iniles, near 700 of posterity as the best evidence of sincerity for the per- which are already navigable, and, when completed, manent prosperity of the country. We can never will be nearer, by 1000 miles, than the present cirexpect to see a more propitious period than the pre-cuitous and dangerous route through the channel of sent, to commence the internal improvements of the the Mississippi and the gulf stream. "I need not dwell country, on a scale worthy of the importance of the on the importance of this communication, or on the subject; the prospect of a long peace lies before us, advantages which would result from its completion; and there seems to be nothing else of high interest to they must be apparent to all who have formed a just engage the councils of the union, for these many conception of the danger, the delay and difficulty, Fears.
attendant on the navigation, among the keys and shoals Andered is a letter date: February 24, 1823, and a of Florida, when the annual loss of property by short statement concerning canals:
wrecks is estimated at 500,000 dollars--a sum nearly
February 24, 1825. sufficient to complete the contemplated route. Sır: Allow me to submit to your consideration a I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your plan to connect the Mississippi with the Atlantic, by an obedient servant,
R. K. CALL internal communication extending along the northern Nir. Hemphill, chairman margin of the Gulf of Mexico. The importance of of the committee on roads and canals. this communication, both in a commercial and mili Thirty canals in England yield, on an average, so tary point of view, must long since have attracted the per cent. per annum, and the stock has increased in attention of yourself, and of the committee of which value in come, instances, 600 per cent. you are chairman, and I shall be happy if my sugges Twenty-two canais eross the mountains which setions on the subject should contribute, in the small- parate the waters of the east and west in England. est degree, to its accomplishment.
The route I propose, is intended to commence on the Mississippi, at the mouth of the river Iberville, and James River and Ohio Navigation. to terminate at the mouth of the river St. John's, on Previous to the adjournment of congress, the folthe coast of Florida. Iberville is about 30 miles in lowing letter was addressed to the president of the length, and already forms a communication between United States, by the meinbers from the western states the Mississippi and the Amite, a navigable and tribu- and from Virginia, whose names are signed thereto: tary stream of lake Pontchartrain.
House of representatives, Varch 2, 1825. The Mississippi being elevated many feet above the Sır: The undersigned members of the house of relevel of the lake, it is believed that, in order to ren- presentatives, are aware that numerous efforts are der the Iberville perfectly navigable, littie more will inaking to engage the attention of the engineers of be required than to remove the obstructions which the Child Sutes to: the survey of various routes for