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performing the marriage ceremony, issuing search-warrants, etc. In the absence of the coroner, a justice may hold inquests.

The number of justices in a township is two, and the term of office is five years. They must be commissioned by the Governor; frequently in townships with little business, only one takes out his commission. The jurisdiction of a justice extends over the whole county, but he cannot go about the county holding court. He is paid in fees.

The Notary Public. This officer protests notes, bills of exchange, etc., administers oaths, and takes depositions and affidavits. He also takes proofs and acknowledgments of instruments intended to be recorded. To give his acts authenticity, he places his seal upon them, which is judicially recognized all over the world.

The notary public is appointed by the Governor for a term of four years. His salary consists of fees fixed by law. There may be a notary public appointed in every place having a bank or savings institution. Before he can receive his commission, he must pay $25 to the State Treasurer. Strictly speaking, this is a State office.

The Constable.-The constable is to preserve the peace of the community. If unable to suppress a disturbance himself, he may call upon the citizens to help him. He must make a full report to the court as to whether the laws have been faithfully carried out in his jurisdiction.

A common duty of a constable is to serve writs of summons and warrants as directed by a justice. A writ of summons is a notice in a civil case to a defendant to appear before a justice to answer a complaint. It must be served by reading it to the defendant or by leaving a copy with some adult member of the family, at his place of residence, at least four days before the hearing.

A warrant is an order for the arrest of one accused of a crime. When a warrant is placed in a constable's hands, he must arrest the accused and take him before a justice; and if the accused is committed to jail, the constable must take him there.

Notices and subpoenas, also, issued by a justice of the peace, and such as are issused by the court, may be served by the constable. He must put up posters of the township elections. With a search warrant he can search premises for stolen goods. He can sell a debtor's goods after judgment has been obtained before a justice of the peace. He can arrest vagrants. As a peace officer, he has the right to arrest without a warrant if he himself sees an offender breaking the law. Constables are also exofficio fire, game and fish wardens in their townships.

The term of office is three years. He is paid by fees.

The Assessors.-Every three years a valuation must be put on all taxable property in the township. This is called the "triennial assessment." In the other two years, changes in the valuation must be made to include new buildings, additions, and other improvements in the value. Money on interest or invested in stocks, bonds, etc., must also be reported yearly. Voters owning no property must be assessed for their profession or occupation.

Other duties pertaining to this office are to prepare an annual list of all the voters of the township for the use of the election officers, to be present at all elections for the purpose of giving information regarding the right of any person to vote, and to report annually to the clerk of the orphans' court the births and deaths in the township.

Another duty of the assessors is to make a list of all children between the ages of six and twenty-one within the district, and to forward the same to the county com

missioners, who shall send them to the secretaries of the school districts. Ten days' pay is allowed to make this list, which may be made by the attendance officer before February 1, by order of the school board and paid by them; but another list of all children between six and sixteen must be made biennially by the assessors.

The number of assessors is one principal, and as many assistants as there are election precincts in the township. The former is elected for three years; the latter are elected for one year. The chief duty of the principal is to make the assessment of all the taxable property, while that of the assistants relates to elections and the school enrollment. Assessors receive $2.00 a day from the county, when actually engaged in their duties.

The Supervisors.-The making and repairing of the public roads and bridges is done by the supervisors. To meet the expense, they lay a road tax, and collect it or appoint some one to collect it. A common practice is to work out this tax; and a fourth of it may be paid by planting shade trees, $1.00 being allowed for every four trees planted. As supervisors can sue and be sued, they represent the township in a corporate capacity.

Among the minor duties is to erect and keep in repair guide posts at the intersection of roads, and wateringtroughs along the roadside, and a town-house in which to hold elections, store road machinery, hold meetings of township officers, etc. Upon the request of a land-owner whose land fronts upon a public highway, the supervisors may establish a sidewalk, provided the land-owner pay for and keep the same in repair. In the absence of the constable, the supervisor may perform that official's duties.

The usual number of supervisors is two, but in some counties, special legislation allows more. In some parts

of the State the care of the roads is given to the lowest bidder. The term of office is one year, and the compensation $1.50 a day for actual service on the roads. collection of the tax, five per cent. is allowed.


The School Directors. The public education of a district is committed to the school board. Like the supervisors, it is a corporate body. It determines the amount of money to be expended for school purposes and fixes the tax rate accordingly, which can not exceed 26 mills on the dollar-13 for school purposes and 13 for building purposes. One mill may also be levied for a free public library. For the erection of school buildings and for the purchase of ground therefor, the board may borrow money and pay the debt in annual instalments out of money received through the building tax. School facilities must be provided for all persons between the ages of six and twenty-one who desire to go to school; kindergartens for children between three and six years may be established; and all children between eight and sixteen years old must attend school—either a public or a private one-for at least seventy per centum of the school term in the district, provided between the ages of thirteen and sixteen the children are not regularly employed If deemed necessary, the directors may-in cities. they shall-appoint attendance officers.

The support for the public schools is partly derived from the State, which makes at this time (1898) an annual appropriation of $5,500,000 to them. The State appropriation is distributed directly to the districts on the following basis: One-third on the number of teachers, not including substitutes; one-third on the number of children between six and sixteen; and one-third on the number of taxables.

The chief duties relating to the actual management of the schools, are the election of teachers and fixing their salaries, determining the length of term (at not less than seven months), selecting the text-books and furnishing them, directing what branches shall be taught outside of those that must be taught (Reading, Writing, Spelling, Arithmetic, Geography, Grammar, and Physiology), enforcing compulsory attendance, and visiting the schools.

Once every three years the school directors of the county convene to elect a county superintendent. They also have the powers of a board of health, and may appoint a sanitary agent.

The number of directors in each district is six, two of whom are elected annually for a term of three years. Women are eligible to this office. There is no compensation. One dollar and mileage is allowed for attending the election of the superintendent. The officers are a president, secretary and treasurer. School Directors have to take an oath, which they can administer among themselves.

The Collector. This officer does not have uniform duties throughout the State. In some townships he collects all the taxes both county and township; in others, the road tax is collected by the supervisors or by a collector appointed by them; so, too, school directors in some places have their own tax collectors; and again, the State and county taxes are collected in some townships by the county treasurer or by his own collectors.

The term of office is three years. His salary consists of a commission, varing from two to five per cent. with the amount and the difficulty of collecting.

The Overseers of the Poor.-In some counties there are no poorhouses; where this is the case, the township elects overseers of the poor. Their duty is the support of the

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