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in which he sets forth the condition of government, regarding its finances, its improvements, and its needed legislation. He calls special meetings of the councils when necessary. He appoints the heads of the various departments with the approval of the select council, meets with them once a month for a discussion of the affairs of the city, and removes them from office if they have not been faithful to duty.

A mayor's greatest responsibility arises from his relation to the police force. As the President or a Governor of a State is the head of the military, so a mayor controls the police. In case of a riot, he is charged with the duty of suppressing it with the police force, if possible; if not, he must call on the sheriff of the county for assistance. As in the case of the burgess, the mayor has also the authority of the justice of the peace. In this capacity he has much to do. In Philadelphia, the only city of the first class, he delegates this duty to two of the magistrates (aldermen in other cities, and justices of the peace in boroughs) elected by the city. These two men alternating hold a magistrate's court every day in the City Hall, and thus relieve the mayor of the duties of a justice of the peace.

The term of a mayor in cities of the second and third class is three years; and in cities of the first class (Philadelphia), four years. He cannot succeed himself. His salary is fixed by the councils.

The Councils. The legislative department of a city is so similar in its powers and duties to that of the borough, that nothing need be said about it here, except that in cities of the first and second class (Allegheny excepted) the appropriations for the schools are made by it.

There are two councils in cities-a select and a com

mon council.

The members of the former are elected, one from each ward, for four years (three years in Philadelphia), one-half of them being elected every two years. The common council has two members from each ward, and more if the ward is very large (in Philadelphia one for every two thousand voters in each ward), who are elected for two years, one-half of them being elected each year. Like those of the borough, the councilmen of cities serve without pay.

The Controller.-This officer performs the duties of the auditors in a borough and in addition countersigns all orders on the treasurer. He is elected by the people (by councils in Allegheny) for two years (three years in cities of the first and second class) and his salary is fixed by the councils.

The City Solicitor. This official is the attorney for the city, representing it at court in civil cases and acting as its legal adviser whenever requested to do so. He is elected by the councils in joint sessions in cities of the 'second and third class; but by the people, in Philadelphia. His term of office in cities of the third class is two years, in others three years; and councils fix his salary.

The City Treasurer. His duties are the same as those of a borough treasurer; but he is elected by the people instead of appointed by the councils. His term of office is three years. Councils fix his salary.

Aldermen and Magistrates.-In cities of the third and second class, justices of the peace are called aldermen, and in Philadelphia, magistrates. The duties and jurisdiction of this office in cities are about the same as they are in boroughs and townships. The work is greater and the office therefore more remunerative and important.

The School Superintendent.-All cities and boroughs of

5000 or more inhabitants can elect their own school superintendent, who has the same powers as the county superintendent. The Philadelphia schools are not under the general school system of the State.

The Fire Marshal.-Cities of the third class may have a fire marshal, who shall be appointed by the mayor for a term of two years. His duty is to ascertain the cause of the fires that occur in the city. He has power to enter any building or premises wherein a fire has occurred, to make an examination into the cause. The chief of police or the chief of the fire department may be made ex-officio fire marshal.

Other Officers. The other city officers perform the same duties as the corresponding officers of the borough, except certain heads of departments in cities of the first and second class. These are (a) the director of public safety, who is the head of the police and fire departments and of the bureau of health; (b) the director of public works, who supervises the streets, sewers, water works and gas works; (c) the board of charities and correction. In Philadelphia these are all appointed by the mayor, while in Pittsburg and Allegheny they are elected by the councils. Philadelphia has a receiver of taxes to whom are paid all taxes and other moneys due the city. He pays them over to the city treasurer. He is elected by the people for three years.

ANALYTICAL REVIEW.-What officer is the peacemaker of a community? What suits may be brought before a justice? In what suits is his decision final? What is the course of procedure before a justice in a criminal case? What is a warrant? What are the minor duties of a justice? The number of justices in a township? term? jurisdiction? salary? What are the duties of a notary public? How is he appointed? term? salary? Who serves writs and warrants? Constable's general duty? What

is a writ? How is it served? How is property assessed? What connection has the assessor with elections? With the compulsory school law? Number of assessors? term? salary? etc.? What various ways of getting roads made and repaired? Through what officials can a township sue or be sued? Can a township have sidewalks at the public expense? Number, term, salary, etc., of assessors? Name all the corporate bodies of a township. How is the tax for school purposes laid? What is the nature of the compulsory school law? Chief duties of school directors? Their term, compensation, etc? What is said of the collector? the overseers of the poor? the township clerk? How does a township learn how its taxes have been expended? Have auditors any other duty than to examine accounts? Number, term, salary, etc., of auditors? Who holds the elections and how are the duties divided among them? How are the returns made? What is a precinct? Salary, etc., of election officers? When and how are boroughs formed? What are the duties of a burgess? How is a vacancy in his office filled? How are the laws of a borough made? What do they relate to? What officials are employed by council? What are wards? Has a borough like officers with a township? What is the difference between a city and a borough? Why do cities have charters? How are cities classified? Why? What difference between the duties of a burgess and a mayor? What ex-officio duties has a burgess or a mayor? Does the school board of Philadelphia lay a school tax? What is the duty of the controller? the solicitor? the treasurer? How are these officials respectively appointed? What is an alderman? a magistrate? Is a State certificate good to teach in Philadelphia? What entitles a town to a school superintendent? What executive departments in cities of the first and second class?



County Offices in General.-To be qualified for a county office, a person must have been a citizen and a resident of the county for at least one year before his election. The term of office, as a rule, is three years. The salary, in counties of less than 150,000 inhabitants, consists of fees fixed by law; and in counties of over 150,000 inhabitants, it is a specified amount, the fees being paid into the treasury—either into that of the county or that of the State, as the law may direct. No salary is to be greater than the amount of the fees.

The Judges and Courts.-There are two kinds of judges -those learned in the law and those not learned in the law. Whenever a county has 40,000 or more inhabitants it has one judge or more learned in the law, the number increasing with the population. Counties of less than 40,000 inhabitants form joint districts of two or more counties in each. The counties of such a district have each two associate judges not learned in the law; and the district elects one judge learned in the law, who is called president judge. He holds court in the counties of his district in turn.

There are also different kinds of courts-Common Pleas, Oyer and Terminer, Quarter Sessions and Orphans' Courts. In counties and districts having but one judge, all these courts are presided over by one judge. The Court of Common Pleas has jurisdiction in all civil cases. The Oyer and Terminer ("to hear and determine") has

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