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and salary are like those of the district attorney, but he receives his appointment from the county commissioners.

The Coroner.-When a person's death is sudden and mysterious, or when it is a case of suicide or murder, it is the coroner's duty to investigate it. He also holds inquests over the bodies of persons who die in prison. He calls a jury of six citizens to assist him. If the jury finds anyone guilty of killing a person, the accused is committed to jail by the coroner, there to await trial. No inquest of persons known to be dead can be held unless the body has been found.

The coroner is paid by fees and he can succeed himself. In his absence, a justice of the peace may hold an inquest. If a vacancy occurs in the sheriff's office, the coroner acts until the Governor makes an appointment.

The County Surveyor.—This office was very useful when the State still owned large tracts of land within its bounds. Whenever it sold a tract, it was the duty of the county surveyor to make a survey of it. As all the public land is now sold, he has little to do except to make surveys for roads, bridges, and disputed claims. His pay, which consists of fees, is trifling; but there is something in the name of the office that adds to a surveyor's reputation. He can succeed himself.

The Directors of the Poor.—The directors of the poor have the care of the paupers in counties which have an almshouse and no township overseers of the poor. They hold monthly meetings at the almshouse and see that it is properly conducted. They admit inmates on an order from two justices cf the peace. Children between two and sixteen years of age must be supported outside of the almshouse. For special reasons, adults are sometimes

supported outside; but no person who refuses to go to the almshouse can be so supported.

The directors of the poor are elected, one each year, to serve for three years. Their salary is $100 per annum except in counties having special legislation.

The Jury Commissioners.—It is the duty of the jury commissioners, in connection with the judge of the court, to meet once a year at the county seat and select a number of persons to serve as jurors in the several courts during the year. The names of those chosen are written on slipe of paper, also their occupation and residence. These slips are folded and placed in the jury wheel, which is then locked by the sheriff and secured by sealing wax. Whenever the sheriff receives an order from the court to draw a certain number of jurors for the next court, he and the two commissioners draw from the wheel, after having turned it sufficiently to intermix the slips, the number called for.

At the election of jury commissioners, no person is allowed to vote for more than one candidate, in order that each political party may be represented in the election of jurors. Their compensation is $2.50 a day while engaged in the county's service, except in large counties, where it is $500 a year.

The County Auditors.--These officers examine, compare, and settle the reports of the commissioners, the treasurer, the sheriff, the coroner, and the directors of the

poor, and make a report to the court of common pleas. They see that the taxes, fines, and licenses are collected and properly accounted for, and they examine very carefully all bills paid, in order that no illegal payments are made.

In the election of auditors the same rule must be observed as in the case of the commissioners. There are

three, and two only should be of one party. They get $3 for each day's service.

In counties having 150,000 inhabitants and over, a county controller is elected to perform the duties of the auditors.

The Mercantile Appraiser.-His duty is to furnish to the county treasurer a list of all merchants in the county, classified according to the amount of their annual business done. Upon this valuation a State tax is laid.

The fees are fifty cents for each place of business visited and a mileage of six cents. The appointment is made by the county commissioners.

The County Superintendent.-The official head of all the public schools in the county is the county superintendent. His duties are to hold annual examinations in all or most of the school districts for the purpose of giving certificates to persons who are qualified to teach, to visit all the public schools, if possible, once a year, to hold an annual institute for all the teachers of the county, and to make out an annual as well as a monthly report, for the State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

The certificates granted by a county superintendent are of two kinds-provisional and professional. The former is good for one year; the latter for as much of the term of the superintendent as remains unexpired when it is granted and for one year thereafter. It is granted only to experienced teachers.

He has power also to recommend teachers to the State Superintendent as worthy of a permanent certificate, which is granted by the State School Department to holders of professional certificates upon passing a satisfactory examination before a committee appointed by the State Superintendent. The county superintendent is

elected by a convention of the school directors of the county. His salary is fixed by the convention, the law fixing the minimum and the maximum at $1,000 and $2,000 respectively, according to the size of the county, the number of the schools, and its average length of school term. Any amount above the maximum may be agreed on; but the excess is not paid by the State, but is deducted from the county's share of the State appropriation. The county superintendent can succeed himself.

ANALYTICAL REVIEW.-What is the general character of a county office? Explain president judge and associate judges. In what court is a civil case tried ? a murder case ? an assault and battery case? are legacies recovered ? What is the chief duty of a judge learned in the law? of one not learned in the law? Salary and term of judges? History of the jury? What is an indictment? When do costs enter into a verdict? Explain when a verdict is “For the Plaintiff.” How does a posse comitatus come into existence? Who has charge of the county jail? What is a writ of execution? How is a vacancy in the sheriff's office filled ? In what office would you look for the record of a manslaughter case ? for the returns of a congressional election? Why does the prothonotary send the record of the fall elections to the Seeretary of the Commonwealth? Who probates wills? How are estates settled when there is no will? Explain collateral inheritance. What kinds of papers must be recorded? What offices are combined into one in small counties? If you wanted to sue a county, against whom would you proceed? What officials are in the employ of the commissioners? What must be the politics of the board of Commissioners? If a county bridge needed repairs, to whom would you report? How is the treasurer paid for his services? What is meant by “representing the Commonwealth ?” What advavtage in the office of district attorney? What is the solicitor's duty in a county ? the coroner's? the surveyor's? Why are children at certain ages not allowed in the almshouse? How are jurors selected? By whom are the county's accounts examined? Why should not all the auditors be of the same party? Duty of mercantile appraiser? State the difference between a provisional and a professional certificate? How is a permanent cer tificate obtained? How is the county superintendent paid?



The State, like the National government, has three departments—the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. The necessity of this tripartite form of government, which is common to all the States in the Union, is self-evident. We cannot conceive of a government by the people that does not have a power to make laws, a power to carry them out, and a power to explain what they mean. After a law has been made, it must be carried out or it will be a dead letter, commanding neither respect nor obedience. But a law is necessarily not always understood alike. One person takes this meaning out of it, another that. Then again, a law may not be based on the Constitution ; in that case there must be a power higher than the legislative and the executive, to declare it unconstitutional. To settle disputes about the meaning and constitutionality of laws, is the highest function of the judicial department and it is finally vested in the Supreme Court.


The Nature of the General Assembly.-The legislative power is vested in the General Assembly,-commonly called the Legislature,--which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The members of the two bodies are chosen in the same way and by the same persons. There is a difference however in age and in term of office, and the number of senators is about one.

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