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The Qualifications of a Voter.—(a.) He must be a male at least twenty-one years of age.

(6.) He must have been a citizen of the United States at least one month.

(c.) He must have resided in Pennsylvania one year immediately before the election, or if, having previously been a qualified voter in the State, he having removed therefrom and returned, then six months.

(d.) He must have resided in the election district where he wants to vote at least two months immediately before the election.

(e.) He must have paid, unless he is voting on age, a State or county tax within two years, which was assessed two months, and paid at least one month, before the election.

(f.) He must be registered by the assessor, which registration must be made at least sixty days before the election. And no man shall be permitted to vote whose name is not on said list, unless he proves by the oath of at least one qualified voter in his district and by his own oath, his right to vote.

ANALYTICAL REVIEW.-What was the original method of electing officers? What gave rise to nominations? Classify conventions. How is the State convention formed ? the county convention? Explain direct nominations. What is the object of the campaign? Give the dates of our elections? State how an election is conducted ? What is the distinguishing feature of our presentelection law? What is the law in regard to independent candidates? What are the qualifications of a voter? Must he be able to read and write? Why should a man have to live two nionths at least in a district before he can vote in it? Why should a man have to pay a State or county tax some time within two years before voting?

CHAPTER VII.

THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AS ADMINISTERED

DIRECTLY IN THE STATE.

ITS LAWS AND Courts. United States Laws in the State. -A11 the people in the State are subject to certain United States laws. If the National government should lay a direct tax, the law would apply to every property owner in Pennsylvania; but the local tax-collectors would not collect the tax ; federal officers would be appointed for that purpose. The National government has no power to compel the State, or the local governments under the States, to collect its taxes. If in time of war more troops are needed than will volunteer, as was the case in 1863, the National government orders a draft; it appoints marshals to make an enrollment of the men subject to the draft, and organizes those drafted into companies and regiments. If a disturbance, such as the railroad riots of '77 and '94, breaks out and the local and State authorities cannot put it down, the President of the United States assists in putting it down; and any locality thus occupied by federal troops, is under martial law of the United States for the time being. Besides these, we have other federal laws; such as, the postal laws, the internal revenue laws, the patent laws and copyright laws—all of which are in force everywhere.

United States Courts in the State.-Cases arising in the

State under the United States laws are tried by courts similar to those of the State. The lowest regular courts of the United States are the district courts, of which there are some sixty throughout the Union. Pennsylvania has two, one for the eastern part of the State and one for the western. The former holds its sessions at Philadelphia; the latter, at Pittsburg. A judge is appointed by the President for each district. The next highest United States courts are the circuit courts, of which there are nine, the entire Union being divided into nine judicial districts. For each of these also, the President appoints two or three judges; besides, the nine justices of the Supreme Court, whose sessions are held at Washington, must distribute the nine circuits among themselves and hold a court at least once in two years in each of them. The circuit whose jurisdiction extends over our State is the Third and comprises Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Deleware. Its sessions for Pennsylvania are held at Philadelphia, Scranton, Williamsport, Erie and Pittsburg.

The Officers of the U. S. Courts Resident in the State.For the district court and for the circuit court, in the State, clerks are appointed by the respective judges. Thus there is a clerk resident in Philadelphia and Pittsburg each for the two district courts in the State and one in each of the four cities in which the circuit court holds its sessions. They have charge of the seal, records and papers of the court.

A district attorney is appointed by the President for each of the two district courts for a term of four years. It is his duty to prosecute in his district, both in the circuit and district court, all criminals and offenders under the authority of the United States, and to represent the United States in all cases where it is a party.

The President also appoints a marshal for a term of four years, whose territorial jurisdiction is identical with that of the district attorney. It is his duty to serve and execute all processes and orders issued by the United States courts in his district. The duties of the marshal are like those of the sheriff in the county, or the constable in the township. He may appoint deputies for permanent or temporary service.

Another important officer of the United States courts is the commissioner. Each circuit judge has power to appoint as many persons of good judgment to this office as he may deem necessary in his district. Their chief duty is to take evidence for the trial of cases and to arrest and hold for trial persons accused of crime against the United States. A justice of the peace or an alderman may act as a commissioner; in which case, though a State officer at the time of making an arrest for the United States government, he is a United States officer and is responsible to the latter government for his acts. This is a very necessary provision ; for if the United States mail, for instance, is robbed, it is important that the nearest justice of the peace should have power to issue a warrant for the arrest of the criminal.

The jurors for the district and circuit courts are selected from the various counties comprising the judicial district. Two commissioners in each district make the selection. The grand jury is composed of not less than sixteen nor more than twenty-three men; the traverse jury, of twelve. A man cannot be summoned oftener than once in two years to act as juror of the federal courts.

The Jurisdiction of the United States Courts.—Most of the crimes and offenses against the United States may be tried in either the district or the circuit court-capital

crimes only in the latter. Suits about patents or inventions and the copyrights of books, must be brought for trial be fore the circuit court, likewise suits between citizens of different States and suits under the revenue and postal laws. Appeals from the district courts are made mostly to the circuit court, in some instances to the Supreme Court. Appeals from the circuit court are made to the Supreme Court.

ITS POSTAL SERVICE.

History of the Service.—The most extensive business of the State and of the United States is the postal service. Before the 17th century, governments did not carry private letters; the business was done by individuals, just as any other business. About the time of the settlement of the American colonies, the government system of carrying mail was introduced in England; but it was not until 1704 that anything was done for the colonies in that direction. In that year, the office of postmaster-general for America was created. It remained however for Benjamin Franklin, who was made deputy postmaster-general in 1753, to make the system worth anything. Under his management it paid all expenses and a surplus and therefore became a fixed and popular thing in the colonies. In 1775 the Continental Congress organized a system independent of the British and appointed Franklin postmaster-general; and when the Constitution had been adopted, Congress recognized the Post Office Department as already existing and no law was passed to create it. Its head however did not become a member of the Cabinet before Jackson's administration.

Offenses Against the Postal Laws.-As the government has undertaken to carry the mail of the people as cheaply

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