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Pittsburg, Erie and Harrisburg. Beside these, some sixty volunteer observers make monthly reports of temperature, pressure, deposits, etc. One or more of them is located in nearly every county. Those in charge of the regular stations are trained and intelligent observers; they telegraph their observations to Washington two and three times a day. There the Bureau studies the reports and makes up the forecast of the weather for the next twenty-four hours. This is wired to every portion of the country and posted up in the railroad stations and post offices in cities, towns and villages. The indications of the Weather Bureau have become almost as indispensable to agriculture, shipping and other interests as the market and stock quotations are to the merchant and speculator.

ANALYTICAL REVIEW.-What is a direct tax? Who collects U. S. taxes? When is a draft made? When is a community under martial law? Give examples of U. S. laws in operation in every township. What U. S. courts have direct jurisdiction in a State? What officials are connected with the U. S. courts in a State? What local officials may act as U. S. officials? What reason for this provision? How are the jurors selected for the U. S. courts? In what court is a patent right case tried ? a mail robbery? murder on the high seas? assault and battery on Lake Erie at Erie? Have mails always been carried by governments? What is the history of our own Post Office Department? Name the most common violations of the postal laws. Give classification of mail matter. What is the postage on a newspaper weighing 4 ounces, sent by a friend to another friend? On a book weighing five pounds ? On a package of dry goods weighing a half pound? What does your postmaster get a year? How much business does your post office do? Who gets the box rent in a ist class office? in a 4th class office? Who appoints your postmaster? How does the government raise its revenue? What is internal revenue? On what is internal revenue levied at the present time? How is it collected? What is a “moonshiner”? a gauger? a storekeeper? Explain the phrase "in bond.” Give history of the Weather Bureau. Its extent. How many stations in Pennsylvania? How are the reports made ?

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CHAPTER VIII.

THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

HISTORY OF THE GOVERNMENT.

The Continental Congress.—The first great bond of the American Union was formed in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, September 5, 1774. This bond was the Continental Congress. As all the colonies but Georgia were represented at its first session, the Continental Congress at once became a general form of government.

The Declaration of Independence.-On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress took the next great step in the formation of our present government. It adopted the Declaration of Independence and gave the colonies the title of a nation; namely, " The United States of America." Each State was independent, but not sovereign, for all acknowledged that they must stand by the general government vested in the Continental Congress; but there was no organic union.

The Articles of Confederation.—Just before the Declaration of Independence, plans for a union were presented to Congress, by Dr. Franklin. But nothing was done before April, 1777. From that time the subject of union was debated two or three times a week, until November 15th following, when thirteen Articles of Confederation were adopted. These Articles of Confederation were the basis of our Republic for nearly twelve years.

The Constitution. After the close of the Revolution, The Articles of Confederation were no longer sufficient for the government of the United States. Congress was powerless to collect taxes for the payment of the immense war debt; even the States themselves had difficulty in collecting their own taxes, as Shay's Rebellion showed. All that Congress had power to do under The Articles of Confederation was to recommend measures to the States; · it could not demand anything of them. A trade convention met at Annapolis, September, 1786, to consider a better system of commercial regulations for the States. This convention, composed of delegates from only six States, did a great thing for the United States; for, besides attending to the business stated in the call, it suggested that another convention meet for the purpose of revising The Articles of Confederation. Accordingly, in May, 1787, all the States but Rhode Island sent delegates to Philadelphia, where the convention assembled in Independence Hall, with George Washington as president. It soon appeared that a revision of The Articles of Confederation was out of the question; and so the convention framed the present Constitution, which was finally adopted September 17, 1787. By July 26, 1788, eleven States had ratified it, two more than necessary to make it binding-and it went into effect. March 4, 1789. North Carolina and Rhode Island followed respectively November 21, 1789, and May 29, 1790.

THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.

THE SENATE. Number of Members.—There are at present ninety Senators, two being chosen from each State by the Legislature thereof, for a term of six years.

Qualifications of a Senator.-A Senator must be at least thirty years old; he must have been a citizen of the United States for nine years; when elected he must be an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen.

Classes of Senators.—Senators are divided into three classes as nearly equal as possible. The terms of onethird of them expire on March 4th of each odd year. In order that their terms may expire at different times, Senators of the same State are assigned to separate classes.

Presiding Officers.—The Vice-President of the United States is the regular presiding officer of the Senate. He has no voice in its deliberations, except in case of a tie vote. A president pro tempore is chosen to preside during the absence of the Vice-President. Being a member of the Senate, he may vote on all questions while presiding.

Trial on Impeachment.—The Senate has the sole power to try impeachments. To convict, two-thirds of the members present must favor conviction. If the President of the United States is on trial, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presides.

Vacancies.—Vacancies in the Senate are filled by the State Legislature when in session, or by the Governor of the State when the Legislature is not in session.

Compensation.—The salary of a Senator is $5,000 a year. The president pro tempore is paid at the rate of the Vice-President's salary—$8,000 per year—if he takes the latter's place any length of time.

THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

Number of Members.—There are now three hundred and fifty-seven Representatives. They are chosen every second

year. The qualifications required to vote for a Representative in Congress are the same as those required to vote for a member of the more numerous branch of the State Legislature. The term of the Representatives begins March 4th of each odd year. The sessions of Congress are held at least once a year—beginning on the first Monday of December.

Qualifications of a Representative.-A Representative must be at least twenty-five years old. He must have been a citizen of the United States seven years, and must, at the time of his election, be an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen.

Apportionment.--Representatives and direct taxes are apportioned among the States according to their population. For convenience, the States are divided into congressional districts each having one Representative. The ratio of representation is one Representative for every 173,901 people in the United States, as shown by the census of 1890. It is sometimes found inconvenient to adjust the boundaries of Representative districts in a State when its number of Representatives has been increased. Pennsylvania had twenty-eight Representatives for the ten years preceding 1893. The census of 1890 gave the State thirty Representatives, but instead of changing the number of Representative districts, the additional members are chosen from the State as a whole. The Representatives chosen in this way are known as the Representatives-at-large.

The Officers.—The House of Representatives chooses its Speaker from its own members, and appoints other necessary officers. The Speaker has a vote on all questions because he is a member of the House. He is the third officer of the Government in point of rank, and the

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