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second in point of power. As he names all the committees of the House, he shapes the legislation of that body to a great extent.

Vacancies. When vacancies occur by death, resignation or otherwise, they are filled by a special election for that

purpose, ordered by the Governor of the State. Compensation.-A Representative gets $5,000 a year; the Speaker, $8,000 a year. Mileage of twenty cents a mile to and from the Capital, once for each session, is allowed.

Exclusive Powers.-A11 bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments. Revenue is tax. A direct tax, which is either a tax on land or a poll tax, can not be levied upon the States except in proportion to the population as shown by the last census. Direct taxation is resorted to only in times of war, when the expenses of the government are very great. In ordinary times all the revenue is raised by indirect taxation; that is, from certain imported goods and from certain articles manufactured at home.

The House of Representatives has also the sole power of impeachment; and the Senate, the sole power to try impeachments. There have been seven cases of impeachment brought before the Senate by the House; one was not tried for want of jurisdiction, that of a United States Senator (Blount), an office held not to be included in the term “civil officers"; five resulted in acquittal, the most noted of which was President Johnson ; and one resulted in conviction, that of Judge Humphries of the United States district court.

For the powers of Congress, which may be exercised by either House, see Article I., Section 8, of the Consti

tution; and for the powers denied to Congress and to the States, see Sections 9 and 10 of the same Article.

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. Powers and Duties.—The executive power is vested in a President. To him is entrusted the enforcement of the laws of Congress. By means of annual messages to Congress, he informs the people of the condition of the Nation and suggests any legislation that he may deem necessary. On extraordinary occasions he calls Congress together in extra session and fixes the time for their adjournment, in case both houses can not agree upon such time.

He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and of the militia of the several States when called into actual service of the United States. He also has the power to make treaties with other nations, by and with the advice of the Senate, two-thirds of the members present concurring. He appoints ambassadors and other public ministers (and receives those of foreign countries), and consuls, cabinet officers, judges of the federal courts, and others as required by law. All such appointments, except subordinate officers, must be approved by the Senate. It requires about 200,000 persons to do all the executive business of our government at home and in foreign lands.

Term of Office.—The term of office is four years, and there is nothing said in the Constitution about re-election. Eight Presidents have been honored with a second term ; and an effort was made to nominate one-President Grantfor a third term.

Qualifications. No person is eligible to the office of President unless he has attained the age of thirty-five

years. He must be a native-born citizen and must have been a resident of the United States fourteen years.

Salary.—The President's salary is $50,000 a year, payable in monthly installments of $4,166.66 each. Prior to 1873 it was $25,000.

Presidential Electors.—The Presidential electors are the persons who directly elect the President and Vice-President. Each State chooses as many Presidential electors as it has Senators and Representatives in Congress. The whole number constitutes the Electoral College. The Presidential electors of each State are frequently called the Electoral College of that State. The Electoral College of Pennsylvania consists of thirty-two members, at present; and the Electoral College of the United States, of four hundred aud torty-seven members. Members of Congress and persons holding positions of profit or trust under the United States, are prohibited from serving as Presidential electors..

Nomination and Election of Presidential Electors.- Each political party in a State nominates a ticket of Presidential electors, at the State convention. A voter, as a rule, votes for all the candidates on his party's ticket, and, as a consequence, the Presidential electors chosen in a State are generally all of the same political party. Occasionally voters will “scratch" an electoral ticket and thereby elect a divided Electoral College in a State. In 1892 the electoral vote of five States was divided : In California and Ohio because the vote for the Cleveland and Harrison electors was so close ; in Michigan because by act of Legislature each Congressional district voted separately for an elector; in Oregon because one of the four candidates for electors on the Populist ticket was also on the Democratic ticket, the result being three Republicans and

one Populist elected ; in North Dakota because one of the two Populist electors who were elected cast his vote for Cleveland, this causing the electoral vote of the State to be equally divided between Cleveland, Harrison and Weaver.

The election for President and Vice-President, or rather for the Presidential electors, is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, in the year when a President is to be chosen. Usually it is known by the next morning which political party has elected a majority of the Presidential electors; but the last act in the election of a President and Vice-President is still over three months in the future. The Presidential electors meet on the second Monday in January following their election, usually at the Capital of their respective States, and vote by ballot for candidates for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State as themselves. Three lists of the persons voted for for each office are made, each list showing the number of votes each candidate has received. The electors sign, certify, and seal these lists, and deposit one with the judge of the district court of the United States for the district in which the electors meet. The other two are sent to the president of the United States Senate, one by mail, and one by special messenger.

Counting of the Votes.-On the second Wednesday in February following, both houses of Congress meet in joint convention, when the president of the Senate opens the sealed lists and the votes are counted. The persons receiving a majority of all the votes cast for President and Vice-President respectively are declared elected. If no person receives a majority of all the electoral votes cast for President, the choice of that officer devolves upon the

House of Representatives, the selection being made from che three candidates receiving the highest number of electoral votes. Each State has but one vote, and a majority of the Representatives from each State casts the vote of that State. When a vote for President is taken in the House of Representatives, there must be present one or more members from at least two-thirds of all the States, and a majority of all the votes is necessary to a choice. At least one vote is taken every day, but if no choice is made before March 4th, the Vice-President serves as President. Only two Presidents have been chosen by the House of Representatives, Thomas Jefferson, for his first term, and John Quincy Adams.

Presidential Succession.-In case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of both the President and VicePresident, the following line of succession has been provided for by Congress : Secretary of state, secretary of the treasury, secretary of war, attorney-general, postmastergeneral, secretary of the navy, and secretary of the interior.

President's Cabinet.-To aid him in the discharge of his duties, the President appoints a Cabinet, consisting of eight prominent men, to each of whom is entrusted some special department of the work of the President. The Cabinet is not provided for by the Constitution, but by several acts of Congress, giving the President the right to appoint these officers. The different departments have been established as follows: State, treasury and war departments, September, 1789; postoffice department, 1794; navy department, 1798 ; interior department, 1849; department of justice, 1870, although Congress had created the office of Attorney-General in 1789; department of agriculture, 1889. The salary of a Cabinet officer is $8,000 a year.

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