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criminal matters within the District. It consists of six judges, appointed by the President.
The Court of Claims.—The Court of Claims holds its sessions in Washington and has the power to decide what claims against the United States shall be paid. It reports to Congress, which, if the claim is found correct, orders it paid.
Consular Courts.- The Consular Courts, held by our consuls in foreign countries, have jurisdiction of trivial cases arising between Americans and foreigners in their business transactions.
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. Privileges of Citizens.—The citizens of each State are entitled to all the privileges of citizens of the other States. The term citizen as here used makes citizenship in the State depend upon citizenship in the United States. the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States, citizenship is defined in the following language: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they
Citizenship and suffrage are often confused. The former is determined by the statement above quoted; the latter is conferred upon certain classes enumerated in the Constitution of each of the several States ; thus, in some States women vote, in others not; and in some, aliens having declared to become citizens, vote, in others not.
Naturalization.—To become a citizen, an alien must declare upon oath, before a United States or a State Court, at least two years before his naturalization, that he intends to become a citizen and to renounce his allegiance
to his own country, and to any title of nobility, should he have one. If he has complied with this requirement and has been a resident within the United States for at least five years, and one year within the State or Territory in which he applies for citizenship, he receives his naturalization papers, provided he has been a person of good moral character while in this country and loyal to the Constitution. A minor who has resided in the United States three years immediately before becoming of age, may, after arriving at his majority and after having been a resident five years, including the three years of his minority, become a citizen, if he makes oath that it has been his intention for two years to become a citizen. The children of persons who have been duly naturalized, being under the age of twenty-one years at the time of the naturalization of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States, be considered as citizens thereof. The children of persons who now are or have been citizens of the United States, are, though born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof. The naturalization of Chinamen is expressly prohibited by a law of 1882.
Requisition.-A person who has committed a crime in one State and fled to another, may, if captured, be given up for trial to officers from the State in which the crime was committed. The demand for the delivery of the criminal for trial, is made by the Governor of the State in which the crime was committed, and is addressed to the Governor of the State in which the criminal is found. This demand is called a requisition.
New States.-When Congress began its work under the Constitution, only eleven States had given their assent to the new form of government. North Carolina and Rhode
Island ratified the Constitution soon after, and other States have been admitted from time to time, until in 1895 there are forty-four in all. It is provided by the Constitution that no new State shall be formed within the jurisdiction of any other State. Notwithstanding this provision, the forty-eight counties in western Virginia that remained loyal during the Rebellion, were organized as the State of West Virginia, in 1863. It was claimed that Virginia having placed itself outside of the Constitution by the act of secession, the only legislative body within the State was that at Wheeling, which consented to the organization of the new State, and that the provision of the Constitution above referred to had therefore been complied with. No new State can be formed from two or more States without the consent of the legislatures of all the States concerned, as well as of Congress.
Method of Admission.—It is usual for Congress to pass an enabling act, authorizing the people of the Territory in question to franie and adopt a constitution, and providing for the admission of the State by proclamation of the President, when the conditions named in the enabling act are complied with.
Territories.--Congress has power to make rules for the government of the Territories. A Territorial government has been provided for each of the Territories, including Alaska. Each Territory has the privilege to elect a delegate to Congress for a term of two years. These delegates receive the same compensation as the regular members, but while they are permitted to take part in debates relating to the Territories they represent, they have no vote.
Congress also has the power to dispose of the public
domain and of such other property as may come into the possession of the government. It exercises control over the District of Columbia, in which Washington, the capital of the United States, is located.
State Government.-Each State is guaranteed a republican form of government by the Constitution, and the United States must protect each of the States against invasion or insurrection.
Amendments.—The Constitution provides two methods for its own amendment. By the first method, Congress by a two-thirds vote of both honses, proposes the amendment to the legislature of each State, or to a convention called in each of the States, for the purpose of ratifying or rejecting the proposed amendment. The assent of three-fourths of all the States is necessary for the adoption of an amendment. By the second method, the amendment may be requested by the legislatures of two-thirds of all the States, and Congress must then submit the amendment the same as in the first instance.
More than seven hundred amendments to the Constitution have been proposed in Congress, but thus far only fifteen have been adopted, all of which have been submitted to the State legislatures for ratification. The first eleven were adopted during Washington's administration, and they secure to the people some of their dearest rights. Among these are religious freedom, freedom of speech and of the press, and the right to petition the government for a redress of grievances. They also provide for the protection of the rights of the people, and for trial by jury in criminal cases. The tenth amendment provides that all powers not delegated to the general government, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, or to the people.
The twelfth amendment changed the manner of electing the President and Vice-President. The thirteenth abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime. The fourteenth defines citizenship, and forbids the States to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, or to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the full protection of the law.
The fifteenth amendment asserts that the right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
ANALYTICAL REVIEW.-What was the first bond of the Union ? What was the second step taken towards the formation of our government? The third step? Wherein were The Articles of Confederation defective? What led to the call for the Constitutional convention ? How did the Constitution become binding? Why should a Senator have been a citizen longer than a Representative? Why should a President be a native-born citizen, while other offi. cers are not? Why should the Vice-President not preside when a President is impeached? How are vacancies in the Senate filled ? in the House? in the White House? Why should a Senator's term be three times as long as a Representative's? Why was it provided that the House can impeach but not try civil officers? Explain “ratio of apportionment,” and “Congressman-at-large.” Why has the Vice-President no vote? What makes the speaker of the House the second officer in power? Why is there a difference in filling vacancies in the Senate and in the House? Why should the House alone originate revenue bills ? Define direct tax. Why is indirect taxation preferred ? Explain internal revenue. How does the President inform the people of the condition of the country? Why has the Senate power to reject or approve the President's appointments? What advantages and disadvantages are in re-electing a President ? Explain Electoral College. Give entire number in it, and the number in Pennsylvania. Why are office holders prohibited from serving as Presidential electors ? Explain how a man votes for President and Vice-President. What is a divided Electoral College? State how the electors proceed to elect a President,