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also how the votes are counted and how Congress elects in case the electors fail to do so. Is the Cabinet a Constitutional provision ? Which is the most important portfolio in the Cabinet? Which departments were originally one? Which does the most business? Which controls the weather bureau? The light house service? The Indian affairs? The pension bureau? The Congressional proceedings? The pardon of convicts? How is a Vice-President clected, if the electors fail to elect? Why should Supreme Court judges hold office during good behavior and not for a term of years? Under what circumstances can a case under a State law be appealed to the United States Supreme Court? What cases are tried in the District Courts? How many of these courts are there? How many in Pennsylvania ? Where is a citizen tried if he commits an offense in the District of Columbia ? In Alaska? In Germany ? What is a citizen ? Can States naturalize foreigners? How do children of foreigners become naturalized ? Can a foreigner votc before he is naturalized ? What is a requisition? How was it claimed that the Constitution had been complied with, when West Virginia was formed in Virginia ? Why cannot a Territory be finally admitted as a State before it has adopted a Constitution? How are the Territories governed ? How is an amendment to the Constitution made? Which are the “war amendments?"

CHAPTER IX.

COMMON THINGS NOT COMMONLY UNDERSTOOD.

Acknowledgment is the declaration, before a competent officer, by one who has executed any instrument in writing, which by the laws of Pennsylvania may be recorded, that the instrument so executed is his act and deed, and that he desires it to be recorded as such. Deeds of conveyance, by which the title to real estate is transferred, and mortgages are the most common instruments acknowledged, but all written instruments which are designed to be recorded must be acknowledged, except in cases in which another method of proof is provided by law. Acknowledgments may be taken by the judges of the Supreme Court, the judges of the courts of common pleas, justices of the peace, notaries public, and other officers designated by law. Deeds of conveyance made jointly by husband and wife must be acknowledged by the wife separate and apart from the husband.

Administrator is a person appointed by the register of wills of the proper county to settle the estate of one who has died intestate, or of one who has died testate, but who has failed to appoint an executor, or who has appointed an executor who has died, or declined to act, or has been removed by the court.

Attainder is the stain or corruption of blood of a criminal capitally condemned. It is the immediate and inseparable consequence, by the common law, of sentence of death, or of outlawry for a capital offence. Its conse

quences are forfeiture of property and corruption of blood. The Constitution forbids bills of attainder to be passed, and limits the effect of attainder resulting from judicial sentence so that it cannot work corruption of blood, nor, except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the Commonwealth. Attainder is not now a part of the punishment of any crime in Pennsylvania.

Bail, in criminal cases, is the delivery of a person charged with the commission of a crime or misdemeanor to his sureties, upon their giving, together with himself, sufficient security for his appearance to answer the charges against him, or to comply with the orders of the court; he being supposed to continue in their friendly custody instead of going to jail. In Pennsylvania all prisoners are bailable, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident or the presumption great.

Bailiwick is the district over which a sheriff has jurisdiction.

Bond is a sealed obligation to pay money, either absolutely or conditionally.

Caucus is the meeting of the members of a political party to make nominations or to consider party measures.

Chancery is a court that tries cases for which the common law does not provide a remedy, but which must be settled in equity. In Pennsylvania the courts of law are also the courts of chancery or equity. Cases of trust and confidence are tried in this court.

Charter is a grant made by the State either to the whole people or to a portion of them, giving them certain rights.

Citizen is a person, native or naturalized, male or female, who is entitled to full protection in the so-called private rights, as expressed in the “Declaration of Rights" in the Constitution of our State.

Civil Officers are the public officers, except those of the army and navy. The term civil is opposed to military, in this connection.

Civil Rights are the natural rights of men, women and children; for example, the right to personal security.

Contempt of court is a violation of its rules and orders.

Contract is an agreement, upon a sufficient consideration, to do or not to do a particular thing.

Corporation is an artificial person, consisting of one or more natural persons, acting in many respects as an individual, created by law for certain specific purposes, with the capacity of succession, either limited or perpetual, and with other special privileges not possessed by individuals.

Court Martial is a court of criminal jurisdiction organized to try and punish offenders against the rules and regulations of the army and navy. It may consist of any number of officers from five to thirteen, inclusive, but shall not consist of less than thirteen when that number can be convened without manifest injury to the service.

Cryer is an officer in a court whose duty it is to make the proclamations ordered by the court.

Declaration of Rights is Article I. of the Constitution of Pennsylvania. As expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the principal rights are “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

Deed is a writing sealed and delivered by the parties.

De facto, i. e., in deed; a term denoting a thing actually done. An officer de facto is one actually holding a position, whether he is entitled to it or not.

De jure, i. e., by right; a term denoting the right of anything to be or to be done. An officer de jure is one having the right to a position, whether he holds it or not.

Defaulter is one who is deficient in his accounts.

Deposition is the testimony of a witness reduced to writing. It cannot be taken in criminal cases without the consent of the defendant.

Docket is a formal record of judicial proceedings, kept by the officers of the courts.

Dower is the right of a woman in a third part of all the real estate of her deceased husband.

Duress is constraint, either by imprisonmentor by threats of violence, which induces a well grounded fear of loss of life or limb, whereby a person is compelled to execute a deed, sign a contract, or the like, or commit an offense. A deed or contract executed under duress cannot be enforced, and many offenses are excused if committed under duress.

Electors are the voting citizens.

Embezzlement is the fraudulent appropriation to one's own use of the money or goods of another, intrusted to his care.

Eminent Domain is the right of the sovereign power in a state, or of a corporation to which that right has been delegated, to take private property for any public purpose, upon just compensation to the owner.

Ex Post Facto Law is a law which makes an act done before the passing of the law, and which was innocent when done, criminal, which aggravates the crime or makes it greater than when it was committed, which changes the punishment and inflicts a greater punishment than the law annexed to the offense when committed, which alters the legal rules of evidence or receives less or different testimony than the law required, at the time of the commission of the offense, to convict the offender.

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