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fifths and exceeding one-half a ratio ; and no county shall be divided unless entitled to two or more Senators. No city or county shall be entitled to separate representation exceeding one-sixth of the whole number of Senators. No ward, borough, or township shall be divided in the formation of a district. The senatorial ratio shall be ascertained by dividing the whole population of the State by the number fifty.

Sec. 17. The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned among the several counties, on a ratio obtained by dividing the population of the State, as ascertained by the most recent United States census, by two hundred. Every county containing less than five ratios shall have Representative for every full ratio, and an additional Representative when the surplus exceeds half a ratio ; but each county shall have at least one Representative. Every county containing five ratios or more shall have one Representative for every full ratio. Every city containing a population equal to a ratio shall elect separately its proportion of the Representatives allotted to the county in which it is located. Every city entitled to more than four Representatives, and every county having over one hundred thousand inhabitants, shall be divided into districts of compact and contiguous territory, each district to elect its proportion of Representatives according to its population, but no district shall elect more than four Representatives.

SEC. 18. The General Assembly at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, and immediately after each United States decennial census, shall apportion the State into senatorial and representative districts, agreeably to the provisions of the two next preceding sections.

ARTICLE III.

LEGISLATION.

SEC. 1. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or amended, on its passage through either House, as to change its original purpose.

SEC. 2. No bill shall be considered unless referred to a committee, returned therefrom, and printed for the use of the members.

SEC. 3. No bills, except general appropriation bills, shall be passed containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title.

SEC. 4. Every bill shall be read at length on three different days, in each House ; all amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the members before the final vote is taken on the bill, and no bill shall become a law, unless on its final passage the vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the

persons voting for and against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members elected to each House be recorded thereon as voting in its favor.

SEC. 5. No amendments to bills by one House shall be concurred in by the other, except by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against recorded upon the journal thereof; and reports of committees of conference shall be adopted in either House only by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting recorded upon the journals.

SEC. 6. No law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or conferred, by reference to its title only, but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extended, or conferred, shall be re-enacted, and published at length.

SEC. 7. The General Assembly shall not pass any local or special law authorizing the creation, extension, or impairing of liens; regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs, or school districts; changing the names of persons or places; changing the venue in civil or criminal cases ; authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, or maintaining roads, highways, streets, or alleys ; relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge companies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form boundaries between this and any other State ; vacating roads, town plats, streets, or alleys; relating to cemeteries, grave-yards, or public grounds not of the State ; authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children; locating or changing county seats; erecting new counties, or changing county lines; incorporating cities, towns, or villages, or changing their charters; for the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the place of voting ; granting divorces; erecting new townships or boroughs; changing township lines, borough limits, or school districts; creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in counties, cities, boroughs, townships, election, or school districts; changing the law of descent or succession ; regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence in, any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, aldermen, justices of the peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators, auditors, masters in chancery, or other tribunals, or providing or changing methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcing of judgments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate ; regulating the fees, or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, justices of the peace, magistrates, or constables ; regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing of school-houses, and the raising of mon. ey for such purposes; fixing the rate of interest ; affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability, except after due notice to all parties in interest, to be recited in the special enactment; remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding

moneys legally paid into the treasury; exempting property from taxation ; regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing; creating corporations, or amending, renewing, or extending the charters thereof; granting to any corporation, association, or individual, any special or exclusive privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association, or individual, the right to lay down a railroad track ; nor shall the General Assembly indirectly enact such special or local law by the partial repeal of a general law ; but laws repealing local or special acts may be passed ; nor shall any law be passed granting powers or privileges in any case where the granting of such powers and privileges shall have been provided for by general law, nor where the courts have jurisdiction to grant the same or give the relief asked for.

SEC. 8. No local or special bill shall be passed unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or the thing to be effected may be situated, which notice shall be at least thirty days prior to the introduction into the General Assembly of such bill and in the manner to be provided by law ; the evidence of such notice having been published shall be exhibited in the General Assembly before such act shall be passed.

SEC. 9. The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the General Assembly, after their titles have been publicly read immediately before signing; and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.

SEC. 10. The General Assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties and compensation of the officers and employes of each House; and no payment shall be made from the State Treasury, or be in any way authorized, to any person, except to an acting officer or employé elected or appointed in pursuance of law.

SEC. 11. No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, employé, agent or contractor, after services shall have been rendered or contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim against the Commonwealth without previous authority of law.

SEC. 12. . All stationery, printing paper, and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government shall be furnished, and the printing, binding and distributing of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other printing and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meetings of the General Assembly and its committees, shall be performed under contract to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below such maximum price and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts; and all such contracts shall

be subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor General and State Treasurer.

SEC. 13. No law shall extend the term of any public officer, or increase or diminish his salary or emoluments, after his election or appointment.

SEC. 14. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose amendments as in other bills.

SEC. 15. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative and judicial departments of the Commonwealth, interest on the public debt and for public schools; all other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

SEC. 16. No money shall be paid out of the treasury except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof.

SEC. 17. No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution not under the absolute control of the Commonwealth, other than normal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for the public schools of the State, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each House.

SEC. 18. No appropriations, except for pensions or gratuities for military services, shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation, or association.

SEC. 19. The General Assembly may make appropriations of money to institutions wherein the widows of soldiers are supported or assisted, or the orphans of soldiers are maintained and educated; but such appropriations shall be applied exclusively to the support of such widows and orphans.

SEC. 20. The General Assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise, or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any municipal function whatever.

SEC. 21. No act of the General Assembly shall limit the amount to be recovered for injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to persons or property; and in case of death from such injuries, the right of action shall survive, and the General Assembly shall prescribe for whose benefit such actions shall be prosecuted. No act shall prescribe any limitations of time within which suits may be brought against corporations for injuries to persons or property, or for other causes different from those fixed by general laws regulating actions against natural persons, and such acts now existing are avoided.

SEC. 22. No act of the General Assembly shall authorize

the investment of trust funds by executors, administrators, guardians or other trustees, in the bonds or stock of any private corporation, and such acts now existing are avoided, saving investments heretofore made.

SEC. 23. The power to change the venue in civil and criminal cases shall be vested in the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law.

SEC. 24. No obligation or liability of any railroad or other corporation, held or owned by the Commonwealth, shall ever be exchanged, transferred, remitted, postponed, or in any way diminished by the General Assembly, nor shall such liability or obligation be released, except by payment thereof into the State treasury.

SEC. 25. When the General Assembly shall be convened in special session there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session.

SEC. 26. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of both Houses may be necessary, (except on the question of adjournment,) shall be presented to the Governor, and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or, being disapproved, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

SEC. 27. No State office shall be continued or created for the inspection or measuring of any merchandise, manufacture, or commodity, but any county or municipality may appoint such officers when authorized by law.

SEC. 28. No law changing the location of the capital of the State shall be valid, until the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the Commonwealth at a general election, and ratified and approved by them.

SEC. 29. A member of the General Assembly who shall solicit, demand, or receive or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any company, corporation or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, testimonial, reward, thing of value, or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for his vote, or official influence, or for withholding the same, or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote or official action shall be, in any way, influenced thereby, or who shall solicit, or demand any such money, or other advantage, matter, or thing aforesaid for another, as the consideration of his vote or official influence or for withholding the same, or shall give, or withhold his vote or influence, in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter or thing to another, shall be held guilty of bribery within the meaning of this Constitution, and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby for said offense, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.

SEC. 30. Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, give, or promise, any money or thing of value, testimonial,

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