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be formed into convenient single districts, or, if necessary, may be attached to contiguous districts as the General Assembly may provide. The office of associate judge, not learned in law, is abolished in counties forming separate districts; but the several associate judges in office when this Constitution shall be adopted shall serve for their unexpired terms.

SEC. 6. In the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in the district courts of common pleas, subject to such changes as may be made by this Constitution or by law, shall be, in Philadelphia, vested in four and in Allegheny in two, distinct and separate courts of equal and coördinate jurisdiction, composed of three judges each; the said courts in Philadelphia shall be designated respectively as the court of common pleas number one, number two, number three, and number four, and in Allegheny as the court of common pleas number one and number two, but the number of said courts may be by law increased, from time to time, and shall be in like manner designated by successive numbers; the number of judges in any of said courts, or in any county where the establishment of an additional court may be authorized by law, may be increased from time to time, and whenever such increase shall amount in the whole to three, such three judges shall compose a distinct and separate court as aforesaid, which shall be numbered as aforesaid. In Philadelphia, all suits shall be instituted in the said courts of common pleas without designating the number of said court, and the several courts shall distribute and apportion the business among them in such manner as shall be provided by rules of court; and each court to which any suit shall be thus assigned, shall have exclusive jurisdiction thereof, subject to change of venue, as shall be provided by law. In Allegheny each court shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all proceedings at law and in equity, commenced therein, subject to change of venue, as may be provided by law.

SEC. 7. For Philadelphia there shall be one prothonotary's office and one prothonotary for all said courts, to be appointed by the judges of said courts, and to hold office for three years, subject to removal by a majority of the said judges; the said prothonotary shall appoint such assistants as may be necessary and authorized by said courts; and he and his assistants shall receive fixed salaries, to be determined by law and paid by said county; all fees collected in said office, except such as may be by law due toʻthe Commonwealth, shall be paid by the prothonotary into the county treasury. Each court shall have its separate dockets, except the judgment docket, which shall contain the judgments and liens of all the said courts, as is or may be directed by law.

SEC. 8. The said courts in the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny, respectively, shall, from time to time, in turn, detail one or more of their judges to hold the courts of oyer and

terminer and the courts of quarter sessions of the peace of said counties, in such manner as may be directed by law.

SEC. 9. Judges of the courts of common pleas learned in the law shall be judges of the courts of oyer and terminer, quarter sessions of the peace and general jail delivery, and of the orphan's court, and within their respective districts, shall be justices of the peace as to criminal matters.

SEC. 10. The judges of the courts of common pleas, within their respective counties, shall have power to issue writs of certiorari to justices of the peace, and other inferior courts not of record, and to cause their proceedings to be brought before them, and right and justice to be done.

SEC. 11. Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, justices of the peace or aldermen, shall be elected in the several wards, districts, boroughs and townships at the time of the election of constables by the qualified electors thereof, in such manner as shall be directed by law, and shall be commissioned by the Governor for a term of five years. No township, ward, district or borough shall elect more than two justices of the peace or aldermen, without the consent of a majority of the qualified electors within such township, ward or borough ; no person shall be elected to such office unless he shall have resided within the township, borough, ward or district, for one year next preceding his election. În cities containing over fifty thousand inhabitants not more than one alderman shall be elected in each ward or district.

SEC. 12. In Philadelphia there shall be established, for each thirty thousand inhabitants, one court, not of record, of police and civil causes, with jurisdiction not exceeding one hundred dollars; such courts shall be held by magistrates whose term of office shall be five years, and they shall be elected on general ticket by the qualified voters at large; and in the election of the said magistrates no voter shall vote for more than two-thirds of the number of persons to be elected when more than one are to be chosen; they shall be compensated only by fixed salaries, to be paid by said county; and shall exercise such jurisdiction, civil and criminal, except as herein provided, as is now exercised by aldermen, subject to such changes, not involving an increase of civil jurisdiction or conferring political duties, as may be made by law. In Philadelphia the office of aldermen is abolished.

SEC. 13. All fees, fines and penalties in said courts shall be paid into the county treasury.

SEC. 14. In all cases of summary conviction in this Commonwealth, or of judgment in suit for a penalty before a magistrate or court not of record, either party may appeal to such court of record, as may be prescribed by law, upon allowance of the appellate court, or judge thereof, upon cause shown.

SEC. 15. All judges required to be learned in the law, except the judges of the Supreme Court, shall be elected by the quali

fied electors of the respective districts over which they are to preside, and shall hold their offices for the period of ten years, if they shall so long behave themselves well; but for any reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the Governor may remove any of them on the address of two-thirds of each House of the General Assembly.

SEC. 16. Whenever two judges of the Supreme Court are to be chosen for the same term of service, each voter shall vote for one only, and when three are to be chosen he shall vote for no more than two; candidates highest in vote shall be declared elected.

SEC. 17. Should any two or more judges of the Supreme Court, or any two or more judges of the court of common pleas for the same district, be elected at the same time, they shall, as soon after the election as convenient, cast lots for priority of commission, and certify the result to the Governor, who shall issue their commissions in accordance therewith.

Sec. 18. The judges of the Supreme Court and the judges of the several courts of common pleas, and all other judges requi red to be learned in the law, shall, at stated times, receive for their services an adequate compensation, which shall be fixed by law, and paid by the State. They shall receive no other compensation, fees or perquisites of office, for their services from any source, nor hold any other office of profit under the United States, this State, or any other State.

SEC. 19. The judges of the Supreme Court, during their continuance in office, shall reside within this Commonwealth; and the other judges during their continuance in office shall reside within the districts for which they shall be respectively elected.

SEC. 20. The several courts of common pleas, besides the powers herein conferred, shall have and exercise within their respective districts, subject to such changes as may be made by law, such chancery powers as are now vested by law in the several courts of common pleas of this Commonwealth, or as may hereafter be conferred upon them by law..

SEC. 21. No duties shall be imposed by law upon the Supreme Court or any of the judges thereof except such as are judicial; nor shall any of the judges exercise any power of appointment except as herein provided. The court of nisi prius is hereby abolished, and no court of original jurisdiction to be presided over by any one or more of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be established.

SEC. 22. In every county wherein the population shall exceed one hundred and fifty thousand, the General Assembly shall, and in any other county may, establish a separate orlearned in the law, which court shall exercise all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in or which may hereafter be conferred upon the orphans' courts, and thereupon the jurisdiction of the judges of the court of common pleas within such county,

in orphans' court proceedings, shall cease and determine. In any county in which a separate orphans' court shall be established, the register of wills shall be clerk of such court and subject to its directions, in all matters pertaining to his office; he may appoint assistant clerks, but only with the consent and approval of said court. All accounts filed with him as register or as clerk of the said separate orphans' court, shall be audited by the court without expense to parties, except where all parties in interest in a pending proceeding shall nominate an auditor whom the court may, in its discretion, appoint. In every county orphans' courts shall possess all the powers and jurisdiction of a registers' court, and separate registers' courts are hereby abolished.

SEC. 23. The style of all process shall be “The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania." All prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and conclude "against the peace and dignity of the same."

SEC. 24. In all cases of felonious homicide, and in such other criminal cases as may be provided for by law, the accused, after conviction and sentence, may remove the indictment, record, and all proceedings to the Supreme Court for review.

SEC. 25. Any vacancy happening by death, resignation, or otherwise, in any court of record, shall be filled by appointment by the Governor, to continue till the first Monday of January next succeeding the first general election, which shall occur three or more months after the happening of such vacancy.

SEC. 26. All laws relating to courts shall be general, and of uniform operations, and the organization, jurisdiction, and powers of all courts of the same class or grade, so far as regufated by law, and the force and effect of the process and judgments of such courts shall be uniform; and the General Agsembly is hereby prohibited from creating other courts to exercise the

powers vested by this Constitution in the judges of the courts of common pleas and orphans' courts.

SEC. 27. The parties by agreement filed, may in any civil case dispense with trial by jury, and submit the decision of such case to the court having jurisdiction thereof, and such court shall hear and determine the same; and the judgment thereon shall be subject to writ of error, as in other cases.

ARTICLE VI.

IMPEACHMENT AND REMOVAL FROM OFFICE.

SEC. 1. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment.

SEC. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be upon oath

or affirmation. No person shall be convicted without the con. currence of two-thirds of the members present.

SEC. 3. The Governor, and all other civil officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of trust or profit under this Commonwealth; the person accused, whether convicted or acquitted, shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

SEC. 4. All officers shall hold their offices on the condition that they behave themselves well while in office, and shall be removed on conviction of misbehavior in office, or of any infamous crime. Appointed officers, other than judges of the courts of record and the Superintendent of Public Instruction, may be removed at the pleasure of the power by which they shall have been appointed. All officers elected by the people, except Governor, Lieutenant Governor, members of the General Assembly, and judges of the courts of record learned in the law, shall be removed by the Governor for reasonable cause, after due notice and full hearing, on the address of two-thirds of the Senate.

ARTICLE VII.

OATH OF OFFICE.

SEC. 1. Senators and Representatives, and all judicial State, and county officers, shall, before entering on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation :

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, obey, and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this Commonwealth, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity; that I have not paid or contributed, or promised to pay or contribute, either directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing, to procure my nomination or election (or appointment), except for necessary and proper expenses expressly authorized by law; that I have not knowingly violated any election law of this Commonwealth, or procured it to be done by others in my behalf ; that I will not knowingly receive, directly or indirectly, any moneys or other valuable thing for the performance or non-performance of any act or duty pertaining to my office, other than the compensation allowed by law."

The foregoing oath shall be administered by some person authorized to administer oaths, and in the case of State officers and judges of the Supreme Court, shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and in the case of other judicial and county officers, in the office of the prothonotary of the county in which the same is taken; any person refusing to

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