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exhortations from the pulpit, be a conspiring cause? Our divines seldom stoop to their mean capacities; and they who want instruction most, finds least in our religious assemblies.
Whatever may become of the higher orders of mankind, who are generally possessed of collateral motives to virtue, the vulgar should be particularly regarded, whose behaviour in civil life is totally hinged upon their hopes and fears. Those who constitute the basis of the great fabric of society, should be particularly regarded ; for, in policy, as architecture, ruin is most fatal when it begins from the bottom.
Men of real sense and understanding prefer a prudent mediocrity to a precarious popularity; and, fearing to outdo their duty, leave it half done. Their discourses from the pulpit are generally dry, methodical, and unaffecting; delivered with the most insipid calmness; insomuch, that should the peaceful preacher lift his bead over the cushion, which alone he seems to address, he might discover his audience, instead of heing awakened to remorse, actually sleeping over his methodical and laboured composition.
This method of preaching is, however, by some called an address to reason, and not to the passions; this is styled the making of converts from conviction : but such are indifferently acquainted with human nature, who are not sensible, that men seldom reason about their debaucheries till they are committed. Reason is but a weak antagonist when headlong passion dictates ; in all such cases we should arm one passion against another: it is with the human mind as in nature ; from the mixture of two opposites, the result is most frequently neutral tranquillity. Those who attempt to reason us ou
of our follies, begin at the wrong end, since the attempt naturally presupposes -us capable of reason; but to-be made capable of this, is one great point of the cure.
There are but few talents requisite to become a popular preacher ; for the people are easily pleased, if they perceive any endeavours in the orator to please them ; the meanest qualifications will work this effect, if the preacber sincerely sets about it. Perhaps little, indeed very little more is required, than sincerity and assurance; and a becoming sincerity is always certain of prodncing a becoming assurance *Si vis me flere, dolendum est primùm tibi ipsi,' is so trite a quotation, that it almost de. mands an apology to repeat it; yet, though all allow the justness of the remark, how few do we find put it in practice! Our orators, with the most faulty bashfulness, seem impressed rather with an awe of their audience, than with a just respect for the truths they are about to deliver ; they, of all professions, seem the most bashful, who have the greatest right to glory in their commission.
The French preachers generally assume all that dignity which becomes men who are ambassadors from Christ; the English divines, like erroneous envoys, seem more solicitous not to offend the court to which they are sent, than to drive home the interests of their employer. The bishop of Massilon, in the first sermon he ever preached, found the whole audience, upon his getting into the pulpit, in a disposition no way favourable to his inten. tions; their nods, whispers, or drowsy behaviour, showed him that there was no great profit to be expected from his sowing in a soil so improper ; however, he soon changed the disposition of his audience by his manner of beginning. If,' says he, a cause, the most important that could be conceived, were to be tried at the bar before quaiified judges; if this cause interested ourselves in particular; if the eyes of the whole kingdom were fixed upon the event ; if the most eminent counsel were employed on both sides; and if we had heard from our infancy of this yet-undetermined trial; would you not all sit with due attention, and warm expectation, to the pleadings on each side? Would not all your hopes and fears be hinged upon the final decision? And yet, let me tell you, you have this moment a cause of much greater importance before you; a cause where not one nation, but all the world, are spectators : tried not before a falli. ble tribunal, but the awful throne of Heaven; where not your temporal and transitory interests are the subject of debate, but your eternal happiness or mi. sery, where the cause is still undetermined; but, perhaps, the very moment I am speaking may fix the irrevocable decree that shall last for ever: and yet, notwithstanding all this, you can hardly sit with patience to hear the tidings of your own salvation ; I plead the cause of Heaven, and yet I am scarcely attended to,' &c.
The style, the abruptness of a beginning like this, in the closet would appear absurd; but in the pulpit it is attended with the most lasting impressions : that style which, in the closet, might justly be called Aimsy, seems the true mode of eloquence here. I never read a 'fine composition under the title of sermon, that I do not think the author has miscalled his piece; for the talents to be used in writing well entirely differ from those of speak. ing well. The qualifications for speaking, as bas been already observed, are easily acquired; they are accomplishments which may be taken up by every candidate who will be at the pains of stoop. ing. Impressed with a sense of the truths he is about to deliver, a preacher disregards the applause or the contempt of his audience, and he insensibly assumes a just and manly sincerity. With this ta. lent alone we see what crowds are drawn around enthusiasts, even destitute of common sense ; what numbers converted to Christianity. Folly may sometiines set an example for wisdom to practise ; and our regular divines may borrow instruction from even methodists, who go their circuits, and preach prizes among the populace. Even Whitfield may be placed as a model to some of our young divines; let them join to their own good sense his earnest manner of delivery.
It will be perhaps objected, that, by confining the excellences of a preacher to proper assurance, ear. nestness, and openness of style, I make the qualifications too trifling for estimation: there will be something called oratory brought up on this occasion; action, attitude, grace, elocution, may be repeated as absolutely necessary to complete the character : but let us not be deceived; common sense is seldom swayed by fine tones, musical periods, jnst attitudes, or the display of a white handker. chief; oratorial behaviour, except in very able hands indeed, generally sinks into awkward and paltry affectation,
It must be observed, however, that these rules are calculated only for him who would instruct the vulgar, who stand in most need of instruction ; to address philosophers, and to obtain the character of a polite preacher among the polite-a much more nseless, though more sought for character requires a different method of proceeding. All I shall observe on this head is, to entreat the polemic
divine, in his controversy with the deist, to act rather offensively tkan to defend ; to push home the grounds of his belief, and the impracticability, of theirs, rather than to spend time in solving the objections of every opponent. ' It is ten to one,' says a late writer on the art of war,' but that the assailant who attacks the enemy in his trenches is always victorious.'
Yet, upon the whole, our clergy might employ themselves more to the benefit of society, by declining all controversy, than by exhibiting even the profoundest skill in polemic disputes: their contests with cach other often turn on speculative tri. fles ; and their disputes with the deists are almost at an end, since they can have no more than yictory; and that they are already possessed of, as their antagonists have been driven into a confession of the necessity of revelation, or
an open avowal of atheism. To continue the dispute longer would only endanger it; the sceptic is ever expert at pazzling a debate which he finds himself unable to continue, ' and, like an Olympic boxer, generally fights best when undermost.'
ON THE ADVANTAGES TO BE DERIVED
HAVE frequently been amazed at the ignorance
of almost all the European travellers, who have penetrated any considerable way eastward into Asia. They have been influenced either by mo