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of " hundred-per-cent" offices, factories, and corporations--that the activities, writings, and speeches of the Senator from is, those which have every man and woman in the place enrolled Wisconsin is apparently languishing. Senator Pomerene, Chairas a Red Cross member. We have heard also of one hundred- man of the Committee on Privileges and Elections, informs us per-cent college-Blue Mountain College, in Mississippi. that the Committee on Privileges and Elections will meet on
The army of Red Cross meinbers (a considerable number of Tuesday, January 8, to determine whether the sub-committee of whom are also active workers, and these mostly women) is now this Committee shall continue investigations under the limited approximately ten times as large as our new military army. authority given it or whether the hearings shall be before the
There are many Americans who think that the Senate is no PROHIBITION IN CANADA AND TEMPERANCE IN
place for Robert M. La Follette at the present time, even though OUR EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
their voices have not lately been raised in protest against his Canada, by the vote of the provinces, has been very largely continuance in office. It can be said without much fear of condry territory for some months. Premier Borden has now an tradiction that the country at large looks to the Senatorial nounced that this provincial prohibition will be given the power- Committee on Privileges and Elections, as the trustee of the ful support of Dominion law. Beginning on December 24, the Nation's interests and honor, to handle the case of Senator La Canadian Premier has forbidden the importation into Canada Follette without fear or favor or further delay. of intoxicating liquors. In his announcement he defined intoxicating liquors as any beverage containing more than two and one-half per cent of alcohol. The Premier announced that there
NON-PARTISAN SERVICE would also be an investigation into the condition of the liquor Last week The Outlook called attention to President Wilindustry, and that, after a date to be determined by this inves- son's tribute to the senior Senator from Minnesota, a Republi. tigation, the prohibition of the manufacture of intoxicating can, in suggesting to Minnesota Democrats that Knute Nelson liquors would be ordered. In a news despatch from Ontario the be re-elected. The occasion emphasized the growing non-parNew York - Times” reports that the Premier bases this order tisan attitude at Washington. on the “ unmistakable mandate for the employment of all the We have now to refer to another example of non-partisan country's energies and resources necessary to achieve victory” service. The death of Francis Griffith Newlands, Senator from given at the last general election to the present Government. Nevada, forms the occasion. Mr. Newlands was sixty-nie The Premier said:
years old. He was born in Natchez, Mississippi. He studied at It is essential and indeed vital for the efficient conduct of the Yale and Columbia. He went to California to practice law, war that wasteful or unnecessary expenditure should be pro later going to Nevada. In 1893 he was elected to Congress and hibited, and that all articles capable of being used as food should served ten years in the lower house. Then he was electeal be conserved. It is beyond question that the use of liquor affects Senator. At the time of his death he was serving his third term adversely the realization of this purpose.
in the Senate. Associated Press despatches from our expeditionary force He became an authority on lands and transportation, and as state that General Pershing has issued a general order covering such was one of the most influential figures in Congress. lle. the liquor problem among our soldiers abroad. In this order was Chairman of the Committee on Inter-State Commerce, anıl General Pershing announced : “ Soldiers are forbidden either also headed the General Railway Commission established a little to buy or accept as gifts whisky, brandy, champagne, liqueurs, over a year ago for the purpose of investigating the railway or other alcoholic beverages other than light wines or beers.” situation throughout the country. He framed the chief measures
General Pershing's order, however, does not stop with the for the reclamation of the Western lands. He strongly advocated prohibition of heavy liquors. It contains drastic provision the construction of canals to compete with railways in freight for the punishment of men who drink to excess, and also for transportation. Through his efforts a Waterways Commission holding responsible the commanding officer of units in which was finally established by law. He took an intelligent interest in drunkenness occurs. General Pershing's order also wisely links æsthetic matters, and introduced a measure which became the control of the liquor traffic with the control of immorality sur- basis of National countenance of the fine arts. rounding our army camps. All sections of towns frequented In all these things the quality which most characterized Mr. by immoral women are declared to be “ off limits” for Amer- Newlands was his readiness to serve his country without referican soldiers. In this, as in his handling of the liquor problem, ence to party. Though a Democrat and highly regarded by the it is evident that General Pershing is taking every care to present Administration, to which his loss will be severe, Mr. maintain the health and efficiency of his troops. Perhaps it may Newlands rendered equally good service to the Republican be possible to bring the handling of the liquor problem in our Administrations of Presidents Roosevelt and Taft. over-seas forces into even closer harmony with the laws appli(able to forces in this country than has yet been done, but we can rest assured that General Pershing will move as fast as JE
JERUSALEM AND IOWA CITY expediency permits.
The only formal community celebration in America of the It is interesting to record in this connection that Mr. Roose- capture of Jerusalem of which we have heard occurred at Iowa velt, in a recent letter to Dr. Clarence True Wilson, of the City, Iowa, recently. National Temperance Board, states that his sons have written The State University of Iowa is situated in that city, and him “most strongly (just as General Pershing has expressed his some time ago the University Oratorio Society chose for a compublic opinion most strongly) as to the harm done to the men ing performance Gade's oratorio “ The Crusaders." This proved of the army by permitting the sale of liquor to them.” Mr. to be a most happy coincidence, for it was this oratorio that was Roosevelt adds that his sons have come to believe in absolute performed in celebration of the capture by the British of the prohibition for the army in war time. One of them has written city for the recovery of which the Crusaders in former years had that his experience abroad has made a permanent prohibitionist set forth. At this celebration there was a large audience in of him.
which Jew and Gentile, Catholic and Protestant, and patriotic orders had ceremonial representatives. All creels, nationalities,
and orders had been invited to send them. Seated at the front WHY IS LA FOLLETTE STILL IN THE SENATE?
were the Catholic priests, the Protestant pastors, and Jewish Where are the many voices which clamored a few months representatives, and marching in full regalia came the Masons, ago for the expulsion of La Follette from the Senate ? La Follette whose order, so tradition says, dates back to the building of is still in the Senate, though the reasons for expelling him from Solomon's Temple; and after them came the Catholic Knights that body which were good three months ago are just as good of Columbus, the Grand Army of the Republic and their comto-lay. The Outlook was of the opinion three months ago that panion society of the women of the Relief Corps, the Daughters the reasons for expelling La Follette from the Senate were very of the American Revolution, and the Odd Fellows, all with good indeed. It has not changed its opinion.
standards and banners. In the meantime, however, the Senatorial investigation into The armory in which the oratorio was performed had been
decorated with American flags, with the flags of our allies, and with the Red Cross insignia, while at the center, was displayed a big Union Jack lent by an English family who had four sons at the front, one with the British and three with the American forces.
The oratorio was performed by a chorus of one hundred voices and an orchestra of forty pieces.
At the last strains of the final chorus—“The goal is won, Jerusalem. Up, your flag with hope endows thee. We cry aloud, Hosanna !”—the great service flag of the University, with its six hundred and sixty-six stars for the men who have gone forth, was unfurled and presented, and President Jessup in accepting it asked the community also to accept it in the spirit of service through the Red Cross and conservation. The chorus swung into one verse each of “God Save the King," the “ Marseillaise,” and “ The Star-Spangled Banner,” the audience joining
It was a fine expression of community co-operation and civic spirit.
re-elected. At the third election Mr. Campbell appeared to have won over Governor Hunt by thirty-one votes. Governor Hunt instituted a legal demand for a recount and declined to surrender the office on January 1, 1917. According to the newspapers, he barred the doors and windows of the Capitol, and when Mr. Campbell, accompanied by a crowd of formidable-looking friends from the cowboy districts, arrived and demanded admittance it was refused. To the support of law and order, there had been not only a liberal scattering of armed deputies through the crowd, but there was no liquor to be had in Phenix, the capital. Under these circumstances, it was the easier for Mr. Campbell to restrain his men from violence. He was inaugurated in the open air near the Capitol while Mr. Hunt was inaugurated within the Capitol. Thus there were apparently two Governors of Arizona.
When the Supreme Court issued an order declaring Mr. Camp bell de facto Governor, Governor Hunt vacated, and Governor Campbell has held office since. The recount, however, showed that Mr. Hunt had been re-elected by forty-three votes. The Court's decision was unanimous, but it does not appear why the recount and the proceedings took so long a time. Thus ends one of the most curious election cases in our history, and one which illustrates an essential in successful self-governmentnamely, the acquiescence of the people in the decisions of democratically constituted authority.
of Conteacher at top of churgha, where of the colhe years hen successived to Pitate and religion are not indor Lowell been activeche Trustees as most enthous Phelps Stok
HAMPTON'S NEW HEAD
The appointment of a successor to fill the place held by the late Hollis B. Frissell as head of Hampton Institute is a matter of National importance. The Trustees of Hampton have chosen for this place the Rev. James E. Gregg, pastor of the First Congregational Church of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Mr. Gregg is a native of Connecticut and a graduate of Harvard. For three years he was a teacher at St. George's School, Newport. He was then successively pastor of churches in Pittsfield and Lowell. He returned to Pittsfield in 1912, where for five years he has been active in the civic and religious life of the community. Two of the Trustees of Hampton are quoted in the New York “ Evening Post” as most enthusiastically indorsing the appointment of Mr. Gregg. Dr. Anson Phelps Stokes, Sec retary of Yale University, said:
I have known Mr. Gregg for ten years. ... Hampton Institute is fortunate in having at its head a man of his culture, judicial temperament, and high ideals, and with his deep interest in the work and in the colored people. ... Mr. Gregg has something of the modesty and of the sterling qualities of heart and mind which so marked his distinguished predecessor, Dr. Frissell.
George Foster Peabody, in making the announcement of Mr. Gregg's appointment on behalf of the Trustees, said:
The new principal brings to his task the moral courage which made General Armstrong daring and the spiritual serenity which made Dr. Frissell wise, and the friends of the school look with renewed confidence and hope to the beginning of Hampton's second half-century of National service under the leadership of a man so well equipped as Mr. Gregg.
It is a tremendous task for which Mr. Gregg has been appointed, and it is gratifying to record the unanimity of opinion among the Trustees of the Institute in regard to his qualifications for the post. The head of Hampton must combine in his single person the
the executive ability demanded of the head of a college, together with a sympathetic understanding of that rare philosophy of education of which Hampton Institute was practically the pioneer exponent. He must also have a fundamental appreciation of the social problems of the South, and an ability to secure the cooperation of both South and North in the work of finding a solution to those problems, which are peculiarly trying to one part of our country, but which can never be solved unless approached from the point of view of the Nation as a whole.
It is a tremendous problem which confronts Mr. Gregg. He will take up his task with the profound good wishes of thousands of Hampton's friends, both North and South.
THE SURVIVOR OF COMMODORE PERRY'S
A portrait of William H. Hardy, the sole survivor of Commodore Perry's historic expedition to Japan in 1853, appears on another page. Mr. Hardy recently returned to the scenes of his adventures. He visited the port of Kurihama, where the Perry party landed. It is interesting to note that the entire population was in holiday attire for the visitor, that the streets were decorated with lanterns and the Stars and Stripes, that school-children stood in line along the way, and that all carried American flags which they waved, shouting loud “ Banzais," as Mr. Hardy rode through the crowded thoroughfares. He responded by waving his sailor's cap, and, on arriving at the monument erected to commemorate the expedition, knelt in prayer, and planted an Oregon pine tree which he had brought with him from America. One of the Japanese who welcomed the Perry Expedition was present to welcome this survivor. As reported by the New York“ Japanese-American Commercial Weekly,” Mr. Hardy expressed his astonishment at the splendid progress Japan has made during the sixty-four years which have elapsed since he first landed there, and his satisfaction that now the flags of America and Japan are crossed as a symbol of the friendship existing between the two nations.
When the British Government published a Blacklist-a list of financial and commercial concerns with which the British were forbidden to deal-many Americans said, “ We will never have a Blacklist.”
But now we have. Our Government has published it. We trust that this act will still some of the echoes of those captious criticisms of Great Britaip made in high circles in this country while we were still officially neutral.
The list contains the names of some seventeen hundred firms and corporations in Cuba, Mexico, and South America suspected of having German connections and sympathies. In it are certain great banks, manufactories, and public utlilities representing the largest, most powerful and dangerous connections of German capital in Latin America
Other lists will doubtless follow covering other countries. The British List for all countries now includes some six thousand names.
The work on our list was started last July. More than half the names, however, are duplicates of those given in the British Blacklist. If there are any “ inequalities," they will doubtless be righted, as they were in the British List, by modifications. Meanwhile the business houses of the country, without exeer tion, we believe, will take no chances with any concern mentioned
THE GOVERNORS OF ARIZONA
George W. P. Hunt has been seated as Governor of Ari. zona. This has been done by the Arizona Supreme Court. At the same time it decided that Thomas E. Campbell's tenure of office since January 27, 1917, was not illegal, as he had been made de facto Governor by the same Court.
Mr. Hunt was elected first Governor of Arizona and was
in the list, but will unhesitatingly accept the Government's of his ability as an executive in the construction of the Hudson warnings.
Tunnels, and the operation of trains through them between New
as Secretary of the Treasury, qualified to deal with financial GOVERNMENT OPERATION OF THE problems such as are presented in this new Government venture. RAILWAYS
The actual work of operation will be carried on by those who
have carried on the railways under private management. To EVOLUTIONARY as it may seem, the action of the the ordinary observer there will be little change. In fact, how
President in taking over on December 28 the entire rail ever, the change will be radical. With the overwhelming
I way system has been almost universally accepted as a burden which war has placed upon the railways, the unequal normal and natural act. Even the conservatively-minded distribution of cars and supplies and other elements in transporamong the daily newspapers, and even such natural conserva- tation has threatened the country with very serious trouble. tives as bankers, greet this action in a spirit not only of There has been a Committee of Railway Executives who have acquiescence but of satisfaction. The way in which this pro been patriotically co-operating with the Government; but this found change from private to public management of our rail- Committee has had no power to enforce its decisions, or even ways has been received is an indication, as striking as it to see that railways that lack equipment and other necessary would be possible to find, of the effect on America that has been things should be supplied by roads which had enough and to made by the World War.
spare. Managers cannot do what they will with private property. For it is as a war measure that the President has taken pos. Only the Government has the power and authority commensusession of the entire railway system of the country. This he rate with the task. explains in his Proclamation published on Thursday morning, Though this great change comes as an emergency war measDecember 27. He quotes the resolutions of Congress ure, it is inconceivable that, though it may be modified, it should declaring war on Germany and Austria respectively, in which not be in some form lasting. Just as Government regulation Congress authorizes and directs the President “to employ the has made it impossible to conceive of this country's ever going entire naval and military forces of the United States and the back to the old days when railways were managed with as resources of the Government to carry on war.” And he also much individual freedom as if they were on private estates of quotes from the Army Appropriation Act of August, 1916 : their own; so Government operation will, in our opinion, soon The President, in time of war, is empowered, through the
make it inconceivable that this country will ever go back to Secretary of War, to take possession and assume control of any
purely private operation, even though regulated. The changes system or systems of transportation, or any part thereof, and to which this war is making cannot be ignored or abandoned after utilize the same, to the exclusion as far as may be necessary of this war is over. Government operation has come, in our judgall other traffic thereon, for the transfer or transportation of ment, to stay. troops, war material, and equipment, or for such other purposes Whether this means ultimately Government ownership or not connected with the emergency as may be needful or desirable. is another question. New York City owns its subways, but
This provision was a product of the great war in Europe, does not operate them. The United States Government does although it was adopted more than seven months before the not own the railways, but will hereafter operate them. There United States entered that war; and it gives the President this is no question that the public has a right to own and the right authority to take possession of and operate the railways—and, to operate public utilities. The question in each case should be for that matter, all the transportation lines, including steam- decided simply on this one ground, whether the public can act for ships-as an exercise of the Government's war powers.
itself better than it can hire private enterprise to act for it. The It is, therefore, as an emergency measure, undertaken only railways are public highways. Whether they are managed by because we are at war and only because of authority which private enterprise or by public authority, they should be manCongress has given the President in time of war, that this Proc- aged for the benefit of the public. The time has come when it lamation has been issued; but the terms of the Proclamation is proved that public benefit requires Government operation. are none the less sweeping. The Government has taken posses- And because the evidence of that is unmistakable, it is not in sion of every line of railway and every system of coastwise or the least surprising that the whole country should acquiesce. inland transportation owned or controlled by a railway, including terminals, sleeping and parlor cars, private cars and car lines, elevators, warehouses, telegraph and telephone lines-in
WHICH? fact, the whole equipment of all American railways. The President intimates that even the operation of street-car lines and There is a familiar story of Abraham Lincoln to the effect so-called interurban electric lines may pass under Government that a delegation of clergymen once called on him, one of whom control and operation by a subsequent order.
said, “I hope, Mr. President, that the Lord is on our side," to In taking possession of the railways the President of course whom Lincoln replied, “That does not concern me; what conobserves the limitation placed upon the Government by the cerns me is that we should be on the Lord's side.” Constitution. It would be contrary not only to the Constitution, Christmas morning's papers published a speech delivered by but to the whole spirit of America, for the Government to the Kaiser to his troops containing the following two sentences : seize private property under any emergency unless that private “The year 1917, with its great battles, has proved that the property were either forfeited through violation of law on the part German people has in the Lord of Creation above an unconof the owner and through consequent trial before the courts, or ditional and avowed ally on whcm it can absolutely rely. Withduly bought and paid for at a compensation carefully and judi out him all would have been in vain.” cially determined. In this case the railway property itself does The difference between Abraham Lincoln and the Kaiser is not pass into the ownership of the Government. It is neither the difference between true and false religion, true and false forfeited nor purchased. It is simply placed under the control faith. and management of the Government. But that control, that False religion is the religion of self-will. False faith has its management, is as complete and unqualified as if the railways own plans formed and claims God as a silent partner lending the were the property of the Government itself. At the same time, capital of his almighty power to enable self-will to carry out its as the President makes very clear, for the use of the railways plans. True religion is the religion of consecration. True faith the Government will see that the owners of the railways, their believes that God has plans, and prays the Psalmist's prayer, shareholders, and the owners of railway obligations, will be duly “Show me thy paths, O Lord,” and devotes itself to discovering paid.
God's paths and working with God to accomplish them, For the purpose of carrying out what he has proclaimed, the The Kaiser's faith wants God for his ally. Lincoln's faith President has appointed William G. McAdoo, Director General wants to be the ally of God. of Railroads. Mr. McAdoo does not relinquish his post as Sec- At this beginning of a new year it were well for each one of retary of the Treasury, but assumes his new duties in addition us to ask himself whether his faith is that of the Kaiser or that to those he is now performing. Mr. McAdoo has given evidence of Abraham Lincoln.
of the various peoples of Europe must be taken account of in
determining the boundary lines of Alsace-Lorraine, and, indeed, Among the proposals for peace attributed to the German
of every new boundary line that may be drawn. Government, and undoubtedly emanating from Germany, there
The question of Alsace-Lorraine, like many another question is one that appeals with great force to many believers in self
that has been raised or revived by this war, is a world question ; government. This is " To leave the disposition of Alsace-Lorraine to a plebiscite
and a world question cannot be decided by a local vote. of inhabitants." This proposal recalls a somewhat similar one made by Stephen
WHY HESITATE? A. Douglas in 1854, to leave the question whether slavery should
We Americans have gone into the war with the avowed purbe admitted to or excluded from a Territory to the inhabitants of the Territory themselves. The proposal has passed into Amer
pose of fighting for democracy and liberty. From all kinds of ican history under the title of “Squatter Sovereignty.” Abra
witnesses comes the testimony that our men, disinclined to war, ham Lincoln's characterization of this proposal will be found in
are setting out to fight in this war with high spirit, because they Volume I of his complete works, page 249:
believe they are going to fight for liberty and democracy. And What was Squatter Sovereignty? I suppose, if it had any sig.
what impels us Americans to fight has been the evidence that a nificance at all, it was the right of the people to govern themselves,
despotic, ruthless Power, acknowledging nothing more divine to be sovereign in their own affairs while they were squatted
than Might, has oppressed, crushed, beaten down, and mangled down in a country not their own, while they had squatted on a
people whose only offense has been that they loved liberty and territory that did not belong to them, in the sense that a State dared to stand up against that power in the defense of liberty. belongs to the people who inhabit it-when it belongs to the This is why America admires Belgium and wants to help the Nation-such right to govern themselves was called Squatter Belgians. Sovereignty.
But Belgium is not the only country that has suffered because What Germany proposes to do is to leave the question of it dared to try to be free. Alsace-Lorraine to be determined by its present population, The very first country to bring down upon its head the mailed while the French inhabitants who were dwelling there in peace fist in this war was Serbia. three years ago have been mostly killed off (to say nothing of And Serbia has been terribly punished for her love of the other French inhabitants who have been driven out by the freedom. Pan-Germany has delegated the scourging of Serbia German occupation of the past forty years) and their places to Bulgaria ; and the Bulgarian King and his military group taken by Germans “ who have squatted on a territory that did have taken joy in inflicting misery upon the Serbians. not belong to them.”
And America, who has entered this war to defend democracy It is true that no territory should be disposed of by external and liberty, is at peace with the Bulgarian King. authority without consideration of the rights and interests of At least America is at peace with Bulgaria in form—but not the people who dwell upon it, and generally not without some in truth. If we are at war with Germany because she is makconsultation of their wishes; but it is not true that the people ing the world unsafe for democracy, we are at war with all who who happen to be dwelling upon a territory at any particular aid her in making the world unsafe. time are the only ones whose interests are to be considered, the We should declare war on Bulgaria only ones who have rights to be taken account of, the only ones First, because we should then be recognizing an existing fact. whose wishes and judgment are to be consulted.
Second, because, as the map shows, Bulgaria and Bulgarian The Nationalists in Ireland demand that the destiny of control of Serbia are part of the Pan-Germanic scheme, and Ireland should be determined by the Irish people, without regard by making war on Bulgaria we should threaten Pan-Germany to the rights or the interests of the English; but when the Third, because by making warwe should close up the Bulgarian inhabitants of the north of Ireland desired to apply the same Legation and the Bulgarian consulates in this country. We principle and demanded that Ulster should not be turned have permitted one of Germany's allies to maintain centers of over to the control of the people in the south of Ireland against information, not to say influence and power, in this country. the will of the inhabitants of the north of Ireland, the Nationalists We should no longer allow a Government which is the ally of repudiated their own principle and demanded the right to exer- our enemy and the enemy of democracy to be treated as a friend, cise a controlling authority over the whole of Ireland. This and to keep its agents in this country simple fact illustrates the fallacy of the principle involved in Fourth, because the Bulgarians themselves, who are squatter sovereignty.
naturally admirers of America and American ideals, need the There are immense stores of coal and iron in Alleghany demonstration that America does not stand for the Prussianism County, Pennsylvania. It would be preposterous if those stores to which their King has committed them and their country. It of coal and iron belonged to the three-quarters of a million of is known that when the United States entered the war against people in that county. It was preposterous in the Civil War to Germany many Bulgarians who had been hypnotized by their claim that the people of Louisiana owned the mouth of the petty Czar came to their senses and deserted the service of that Mississippi River because they dwelt upon its banks and the wretched little despot. It is more than likely that a declaration people farther up had no rights or interest in the mouth of of war by the great Republic of the United States upon the that river. It is quite as preposterous to claim that because now Government of Bulgaria would make thousands of other Bula majority of the people living in Alsace and Lorraine and garians realize how they have been duped. transferred there from Germany are or may be Germans, Ger- Fifth, because Serbia asks it. There is in this country a many has a right to take possession of the mineral wealth of Serbian Mission. One of its members has been Professor of Inthose two provinces.
ternational Law in the University of Belgrade. Another has been The question how the ownership of the surface of the earth Serbian Minister for Foreign Affairs. Another is a general, a can be determined, and how the political control of each sec Serbian hero of 1914. This Mission, representing a small countion of the surface of the earth should be determined, is a very try that successfully defied for months the great Austrian difficult one, because so many, so various, and so complex are Empire, that has fought and fought and fought, that has been the rights and interests involved. One thing, however, that is overrun with enemies and subjugated, that has been neglected very certain is that no people have an absolute and exclusive by the Allies, though it was the first to take up the Allied right to control and use for themselves any portion of the earth's cause, and though it lay closest to the heart of Pan-Germanysurface merely because they chance at the time when the ques- this Mission is here to plead Serbia's cause. Though this Mistion of control arises to dwell upon that territory.
sion has not officially asked this country to declare war on BulAs the interest of the whole American Nation was rightly garia, there is no manner of doubt that every Serb in or out of considered in determining the political control of the United Serbia that has Serbia's cause at heart would hail with joy a States, as the rights and interests of the people of all Great declaration of war by the United States against Serbia's nearest Britain ought to be taken into consideration in determining the and most destructive enemy, Bulgaria. That reason alone is political control of Ireland, so, whenever the nations are pre- enough. pared to make the new map of Europe, the rights and interests Why hesitate ?