Слике страница


[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small]

This Department will include descriptive notes, with or without brief comments, about books received by The Outlook. Many of the important books will have more extended and critical treatment later

FICTION Cabin Fever, A Novel. By B. M. Bower. Little,

Brown & Co., Boston, $1.35. Girl Beautiful (The). By Jean K. Baird. The

Penn Publishing Company, Philadelphia. $1. Madame Sand. A Biographical Comedy. By

Philip Moeller. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

$1.25. What Never Happened : “A Novel of the

Revolution." By " Ropshin " (Boris Savinkov). Translated from the Russian by Thomas Seltzer. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. $1.60.

BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS Adventures in Girlhood. By Temple Bailey.

The Penn Publishing Company, Philadelphia.

$1. Letty and Miss Grey. By Helen Sherman Grif

fith. Illustrated. The Penn Publishing Com

pany, Philadelphia. 60c. HISTORY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND POLITICS Great Problems of British Statesmanship

(The). By J. Ellis Barker. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $4.

To discuss the world problems which are to be settled by the Peace Council which may be assumed to end the great war recalls the common proverb, “First catch your hare, then cook him.” What such a council would decide, and even what such a council ought to decide, must depend absolutely on what the result of the war is. The author is finely optimistic and, we believe, is justified in his optimism. He says: “ A new and a greater Britain is arising. The war may not only make the British Empire a reality, but bring about an AngloAmerican reunion. The war, far from being an unmitigated evil, may prove a blessing to the British race.”

Avowedly the book is a special study of war matters and the world future as regards Great Britain and of the attitude which Great Britain should take as to its foreign relations, the future of commerce, the liberty of the sea, and the questions relating to the Near East and the Far East. History of Medieval Europe (The). By Lynn

Thorndike, Ph.D. Houghton Mifflin Company,

Boston. $2.75. League of Nations. A Chapter in the History

of the Movement. By Theodore Marburg. The

Macmillan Company, New York. 50c.
Short History of England (A). By G. K.

Chesterton. The John Lane Company, New
York, $1.50.

Ballad of Ensign Joy (The). By E. W. Hor

nung. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 750. Book of Verse of the Great War (A). Edited

by W. Reginald Wheeler. Foreword by Charlton M. Lewis. The Yale University Press, New

Haven. $2.
English Folk Songs from the Southern

Appalachians. Comprising 122 Songs and
Ballads and 323 Tunes. Collected by Olive
Dame Campbell and Cecil J. Charp. G. P.

Putnam's Sons, New York, $3.50.
Odes and Secular Hymn of Horace (The).

By Warren H. Cudworth. Englished into
Rimed Verse Corresponding to the Original
Meters, Alfred A. Knopf, New York. $1.50.

Land Where the Sunsets Go (The). Sketches

of the American Desert. By Orville H. Leonard. Sherman, French & Co., Boston. $1.35.

There is a spark of genius in this unusual book ; whether that spark can ever be fanned into a flame one may not know. The American Desert is sketched here in prose and verse—both showing crudities and aridities, like the author's theme, but with something of the color, the romance, the atmosphere, the poetry of the desert itself

that desert whose lure ever holds the man who has once felt it. The alternate

Are you satisfied with what you are earn ing? Or are you always dissatisfied-without doing anything to make it more. But may be this isn't your fault. Maybe you don't know how to GO ABOUT making more. Lots of men are that way. Millions of them. Yes, millions! And they're not to blame either. They'd do more, they'd earn more, if they only KNEW HOWright down in their hearts they're willing enough. They're just as anxious and ambitious, and thrifty, and hopeful, and earnest as anybody else. Only they just don't seem to understand the KNACK of making more wages. How-how to do it. It's easy enough to TALK about it, but the thing is—to DO it...

The reason you KNOW it can be done-your proof that YOƯ can do it-is simply the fact that OTHER men are doing it. Did you ever stop to think of that? What right have you to believe YOU can't do what OTHER men do? What right have you to constantly belittle your own ability in your own mind ? Maybe you've been doing this for years, unconsciously. It's just like a fellow deliberately picking his own pocket, day after day.

Now, the whole thing depends upon a man's will power. He may have brains and ability, but if he hasn't the WILL power, he'll never MAKE IT. Your WILL is the secret of it all. Your WILL is your paymaster- not the boss, as you've always supposed. Your WILL is the authority that decides whether you will always eam ORDINARY wages or two, three or ten times that amount.

What is "will"? you ask. What is the thing really? You know what the word means, you've often heard it, you know how the dictionary defines it. But even now maybe you really haven't figured out what will ” really consists of and why it's the real foundation upon which rests every man's destiny.

That thing called your Win is just like one of those dummy engines you've seen hoisting freight to the deck of a steamer. The Will is a little engine in the brain little engine with big power. This engine works snoothly and surely the more it's used. It grows rusty and useless unless working constantly. It's the thing that hoists you as high as you want to go in life. Its lifting power is unlimited ! Once you get the simple knack of its operation, you are a different man, a better money-maker, a stronger personality that soon GIVES orders instead of TAKING them. And then you have a deep inward satisfaction over the results you get from it day after day-the things you see it do, right before your very eyes--this Engine of your Will. Why, you get so you can start it going at any instant, at any place, under any circumstances and IT WILL ALWAYS DO THE WORK. It will always carry you to where you want to go. It will always get for you the things you want to get-you, who always thought a motor car, a fine bome and * good bank balance were things OTHER men had but you NEVER COULD!

"Power of Will" is a miracle book that has shown mon how to double and treble and quadruple their incotoes ordinary men-average, every-day fellows not educated or brilliant people-not geniuses-but plain, ordinary, work day men, who are ambitious, who are Aghting hard to increase their incomes, to lift themselves up, to BE more, to DO more and to HAVE more.

Men in all walks of life—the average man-can make more money through read. ing “ Power of Will.” Clerks, bookkeepers, stenographers, office workers, salesmen, agents, traveling men, plumbers, electricians, mechanics, conductors, motormen, truckmen, men in all the trades, men notdoing-so-well in businesses and professions, doctors, dentists, specialists, lawyers—this is the book for ALL men—the Universal book, for many men of many minds.

No man can read it and not be "a changed man." No man but who will emerge from its magic pages with a stronger grasp on his future-a surer understanding of what he CAN do and has all along been able to do, but didn't THINK he could. You are one of these men-and this book is for yru.

Ordinarily, BOOKS may mean very little to you. You may think success is something that can't be learned out of a book, But you are wrong-wrong as you can be. Abraham Lincoln found success through books-the greatest men that ever lived got their beginnings out of books.

YOU can do the same, and Power of Wiu" in the book you must read. It is full of surprises. It tells you how you can exercise and develop your will power just as you can exercise and develop your arms and legs. The book is clearly written, easily understood by any man no high-sounding mental science talk to puzzle you no theories or empty discussion solid meat all the way through that feeds you the stuff you need practical things you CAN do-practical things you WILL do! It can mak. your will as firin as iron it will give you the determination that will carry you over the top and into the Trenches of Prosperity, better living, a bigger income-nore pleasures for you and your loved ones-more things worth while.

Send for this book today—you can examine it AB60LUTELY FREE. You can prove to yoursell it's #book you should have read long ago— book, the book that means much to you. Fill in the coupon this very minute there's no risk, YOU'RE NOT BUYING ANYTHING until you've thoroughly examined it and are sure you want it. ANY fellow would send in his order under these circumstances don't put it off, do it RIGHT NOW, every day you wait you're cheating yourself, you're missing the thing that's big and vital to you-MORE PAY!


4A Wilcox Block, Meriden, Conn.


4A Wilcox Block, Meriden, Conn. I will errmine a copy of " Power of Will" at your riak. I will remail the book in 5 days or send you $3 in payment for it



[blocks in formation]

By R. L. Alsaker, M.D.
Dear Doctor Alsaker : I have had catarrh since boyhood, and now my two
children have it. During the fall and winter months my wife suffers with
bad colds and the children frequently have a bad cough or sore throat.

We have taken treatment from local physicians, using the medicines pre-
scribed; we have used sprays and salves, but have derived no lasting benefit.

We live well, eating and drinking whatever we want, but we do not dissipate in any way. Our family physician tells us that catarrh is caused by germs. Another doctor told us to blame it on the climate. If germs and the climate are the cause of these annoying troubles of the nose, throat and lungs, I don't see how any of them can be prevented, or even cured. What have you to say on the subject ?

J. B. W.

[ocr errors]

\HIS family is no exception. The ma Catarrh can be conquered quickly, surely

jority have catarrh, either chronic or and permanently. It has been done in thouacutē. Catarrh of the head is annoy sands of cases. If you have catarrh you have

ing—and filthy. In the throat it causes eaten your way to it. You can cure yourirritating cough. When it is seated in the self—you can eat your way out of catarrh chest it is called bronchitis. If allowed to into health, and while you are losing your continue, the bronchitis becomes chronic catarrh you will rid yourself of other physiand robs the individual of refreshing sleep, cal ills : The dirty tongue, that tired feeling, comfort and health. It weakens the lungs the bad taste in the mouth in the morning, and paves the way for pneumonia and the gas in the stomach and bowels, the headconsumption.

ache, and other aches, pains and disabilities Catarrh of the stomach and intestines will clear up and vanish. points toward indigestion. So does catarrh C atarrh is a luxury, not a necessity. of the liver, which produces various ills, Those who get it can keep it indefinsuch as jaundice and gall-stones, often end- itely. They should not complain, for ing in disagreeable and painful liver colic. there is knowledge at hand that will show

Catarrh sometimes causes earache, head- them how to get rid of it and stay rid ache and other forms of pain, and it lays of it. the foundation for many diseases.

It is marvelous what the common foods This gentleman says that he lives well, but do for the sick, when properly combined no one lives well who is ill. That is poor and intelligently eaten. Meat, fish, dairy living. He can continue to eat what he products, eggs, cereal foods, potatoes, vegelikes, and grow healthy, if he will only tables, fruits and nuts contain all the learn how.

“ medicinal ” elements needed to build He thinks that germs and the climate are health or cure disease, if rightly used. to blame, and as germs and climate are Health, barring accidents, is within your everywhere, we are helpless. It is a tragic control. It is your privilege to break fate, or would be, if it were true, for we can't the laws of Nature and be sick, or you escape the omnipresent germs and climate. may observe them and be well. Your duty

But neither germs nor the climate cause to yourself and your country is clear, for catarrh. Catarrh is due to improper eating the Nation needs healthy men and women -so are coughs and colds—and these condi- in this crisis. Health, which is princitions can be prevented and cured through pally the effect of foods rightly used, will right eating. And here is how it happens : win.

When people eat as they should not, they I n my new book Curing Catarrh, get indigestion, which fills the stomach and Coughs and Colds I have explained the bowels with acid, gases and poisons ; a part true cause of these annoying troubles and of these abnormal products are absorbed have outlined a pleasant plan of living that into the blood, which becomes very impure cures these ills and prevents a return. and the whw.e body gets acid. The blood It costs nothing to put this splendid plan tries to purify itself, and a lot of the waste of living into practice. You don't have to attempts to escape by way of the mucous buy medicines or special food You don't membrane. This causes irritation, and the have to pay doctor bills or go to health result is colds and catarrhs.

resorts. Simply follow these commonThe right kind of food, properly eaten, sense instructions regarding the care of makes pure blood and produces health, vigor the body and the correct use of the foods and strength. The right kind of food builds you like. Don't take my word for the a sound body, puts catarrh, coughs and colds splendid results obtained, but prove it in to flight, and paints roses on the cheeks. your own case and in your own home.

The New Books (Continued) pull of “home” and desert is thus suggested in “ Desert Witchcraft :" " They're sleepin' soft in the good ole home an'

a-wishin' fer me there, An' I hone ter see fruit blossoms in May an' ter

hear the crunch of snow, An' I want ter smell the Atlantic an' breathe its

salty air, -.. But the wind o' the desert has wrapped me round and won't never let me go."

RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY Protestantism in Germany. By Kert D.

Macmillan, President of Wells College. Prince-
ton University Press, Princeton. $1.50.
These recent lectures on the L. P. Stone
Foundation at the Princeton Theological
Seminary exhibit a type of Protestantism
peculiar to Germany. Lutheran Protestant-
ism, submissive to the “ divine right” of
princes, has kept the people in perpetual
tutelage under a form of absolute mon-
archy. Calvinist Protestantism, on the other
hand, has been the nurse of democracy, a
political liberator. In sad distinction from
other civilized nations, as Dr. Macmillan
remarks, “however well the Germans have
been trained to perform the functions of
scholars, soldiers, peasants, or what not,
they have never had the training requisite
to their becoming fair-minded, well-bal-
anced, mature men.” To this he attributes
their “ childish ” characteristics to-day as
centuries ago—“the same arrogance and
intolerance, contempt of criticism, and ra-
diant consciousness of righteousness."

Don Hale in the War Zone. By W. Crispin

Sheppard. Illustrated, The Penn Publishing

Company, Philadelphia. 60c.
Foreign Policy of Woodrow Wilson (The)

1813-1917. By Edgar E. Robinson and
Victor J. West. "The Macmillan Company,
New York. $1.75.

This volume should be of practical and
permanent value in the libraries of news.
papers and for all those who wish to study
closely the records and official documents
which preceded or immediately followed
America's entrance into the world war.
The documents themselves are preceded by
an analysis of President Wilson's foreign
policy from 1913 to 1917, with many cross-
references to the documents which follow.
This statement is almost entirely a presen-
tation of facts rather than an argument as
to what our policy was, should have been,
or was not. The work is an admirable piece
of book-making, and its reference value, as
we have already indicated, is great.
History of the World War. By Frank H.

Simonds. Vol. I. Doubleday, Page & Co.,
Now York. $3.50.

Mr. Frank H. Simonds is one of the
ablest of the current military interpreters
of the war. He has, for a civilian, a re-
markable knowledge of military strategy
coupled with the ability of a journalist so
to interpret military movements that the
unexpert reader can understand them. He
possesses a historic background and demo-
cratic sympathies. The former enables him
to interpret military movements by their
analogy to military movements in past
great campaigns, especially the Napoleonic
ones. The latter enables him to forecast
the future with something of a prophetic
vision. His description of the Battle of the
Marne is admirable and is preceded by an
interpretation of the perplexing events
which preceded the battle. It should be
added that while Mr. Simonds's sympa-
thies are wholly with the Allies, he is not
wholly free from some anti-English preju-
Trench Fighting. By Captain F. Haws Elliott.

Illustrated. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bor ton, $1.50.


ANNOUNCEMENT: So much nonsense has been written about health and foods that it is a relief to find a book which shows that the writer knows his subject from the ground up knows it 80 well that he does not need to use a lot of so-called scientific expressions and technical terms to hide any want of knowledge. Dr. Alsaker is a regular medical graduate, a physician in active practice who has proved his knowledge in guiding the sick back to health. In reviewing Dr. Alsaker's works the New York Tribune says: "Written by a competent professional authority, they are titted for the instruction and profit of the laity; being simple, direct and non-technical. They contain no scientific disquisitions ; they exploit no fads; they recommend no impossibilities." Dr. Alsaker is a new type of physician. He specializes in health, not disease. In Curing Catarrh, Coughs and Colds he tells you in plain English how to get rid of Catarrh and how to avoid * catching" coughs and colds. This is a new and browd idea-to teach the sick how to return to health and how to remain healthy. He says: “Health is the result of correct knowledge of living put into practice and it is the physician's duty to supply this knowledge." Send only one dollar for this book of health knowledge, with ten cents additional (coin or stamps) to cover postage and packing-Follow instructions for one month, then if you are not entirely satisfied with the improvement in your health return the book and your money will be refunded. Curing Catarrh, Coughs and Colds teaches the truth and nothing but the truth. It will show you how to live better for less money and how to have better health through better living.FRANK E. MORRISON, PUBLISHER of Educational Health Books (Established 1889), Dept. 114, 1133 Broadway, New York City.







Believing that the advance of business is a subject of vital interest and importance, The Outlook will present in this department each month an article treating some phase of the country's commercial development. These articles will be educational in character and will set forth in a comprehensive way the industrial apbuilding of the Nation. This de partment is designed to be of service to readers of The Outlook, and inquiries in regard to industrial subjects will be answered by letter or in these pages. All letters of inquiry should be addressed to the Industrial Editor of The Outlook, 381 4th Ave., N.Y.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

THE STORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE TIRE NE of the most astounding stories of modern industrial life is that of rubber and the development of the

pneumatic tire. At a recent dinner at the Waldorf in New York a prominent manufacturer made the statement that the three most important things in the industrial world to-day were steel, concrete, and rubber. With the chemists of all companies working to find new uses for rubber, it is very probable that before many years the position will be changed and it will be rubber, steel, and concrete. Whether this be true or not, it is an admitted fact that to-day rubber is one of the most universally used of the world's crude materials.

The enormous increase in the world's consumption of rubber is largely due to the tremendous output of automobile tires by American manufacturers. Some interesting figures on this point are given in a succeeding paragraph.


The chief sources of the world's supply of rubber are the Para and Manaos regions in Brazil, the Congo of Central Africa, Central America, and Ceylon and the Far East. Wild rubber had its origin in the Amazon Valley in Brazil. Para, Brazil, is the seat of the world's raw rubber market. Here are the great rubber warehouses, and every inhabitant is interested in the rubber traffic in some way. From this center the natives go forth into the dense forests and collect as much raw rubber as they can find means to carry. This is done by tapping the trees and allowing the juice to trip out into bowls. This is then stirred with a stick which is slowly turned over a smoky fire, and to which the sticky juice adheres until a ball or “ biscuit " weighing righteen or twenty pounds is formed. Then the rubber is ready to be carried to the nearest shipping point.

Even in the Congo in Africa the natives are now pretty well civilized, and are being organized by the big rubber companies. Now these wholesale companies have their agents out among the natives, and thus deal directly with the men who take the rubber from the forests.

About fifty years ago the Government of India began to experiment on rubber growing and voted a considerable sum of money for that purpose. They finally succeeded in transplanting rubber seedlings, and soon the scientific cultivation of rubber trees was under way in Ceylon and other parts of the Far East. It was soon realized that the trees, if scientifically tapped, would yield for ten months out of the year, and thus a greatly increased output of rubber was made possible. The cultivation of plantation rubber is distinctly a British enter

[ocr errors]

The Story of the Automobile Tire (Continued) prise and was developed largely by British capital.

In 1900 Ceylon exported three and onequarter tons of rubber and the Malay States none. In 1906 their combined exports amounted to 576 tons and in 1915 they exported a total of 101,200 tons. For 1916 the estimate is 135,000 tons, which is almost double the world's supply in 1907, and about seventy per cent of the enire world's output in 1916. London is to-day the big market for rubber because of the plantation companies which are controlled by British capital.

TIRE MAKING—A GIANT INDUSTRY The ability to absorb the vast and rapidly increasing output of rubber is due to the many new and varied uses to which it is put. The war has made tremendous demands upon it. The motor trade has taken an enormous amount, and the increased consumption in the United States will continue to take care of a large percentage of all available crude rubber. The consumption of rubber in America has more than doubled since 1914. In 1916 this country consumed 114,000 tons, or sixty-four per cent of the world's output. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company alone used twelve per cent of the world's output. A large part of this went into automobile tires.

Just as Detroit suggests automobiles, so Akron, Ohio, suggests tires. Here the tire industry has found its fullest development. Every day in the year an average of 50,000 tires are turned out. There are over twenty rubber companies in Akron, and one of the largest of these plans to extend its individual output to 50,000 per day before the end of this year. This company is doing a business of more than $120,000,000 a year, and occupies ninety acres of floor space.

The war has brought a tremendous additional demand for tires of all kinds and sizes. Thousands of motor trucks are in use at the front and must constantly be supplied with fresh tires. In addition, there are motor cars of all types, ambulances, despatch cars, motor cycles, airplane wheels, all of which depend upon American tires for full efficiency. And the tire manufacturers of Akron and other American cities are responding to this demand and are turning out tires at a dizzy rate. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PNEUMATIC TIRE

The pneumatic tire had its origin in England and its birth certificate will be found in the patent registered on December 10, 1845, by R. W. Thomson. The invention was first tried on carriages, and in the “ Mechanics' Magazine” of April, 1847– over seventy years ago we find the following announcement: "“ Messrs. Whitehurst & Co., coach builders, have acquired from Mr. Thomson, the patentee of aerial wheels, the rights for applying them to all kinds of vehicles. These wheels give to carriages a gentleness of motion absolutely impossible to obtain by any sort of spring; they effectually deaden all noise from the wheels; they prevent bumping and shaking, and render traction considerably more easy than with ordinary wheels, especially on bad roads.”

Thomson's invention, however, fell into such complete oblivion that the Irish veterinarian Dunlop might well have thought in 1888 that he was the original discoverer of the pneumatic principle when he first applied his single-tube tire to a bicycle. In 1888 London, as well as the l'nited States, was absorbed by the bicycle craze, but only solid tires were used. John Dunlop, being of an inventive turn of mind, built for him self a pair of pneumatic tires. Everybody




as a Breakfast Food • Tomorrow morning, try a few crisp, appetizing

N. B. C. Graham Crackers with milk or cream, hot or cold. Don't use sugar, as the Graham Crackers are sweet enough without. You will relish this delicious breakfast food. It will refresh you and strengthen you for the day's work.

N. B. C. Graham Crackers contain graham flour made of whole wheat ground on old-fashioned burr stones. They are appetizing, nourishing and satisfying.




marveled at Dunlop and his odd tires, whose frequent explosions in the London streets were a source of much amusement to the bystanders. These tires were very crude. They consisted of strips of rubber cemented together to form a continuous tube, rein forced with linen torn from an old dress. For a valve Mr. Dunlop filched a rubber nipple from the nursery, to which he applied his son's football pump and pumped long and furiously. When the tire had been fully inflated, he squeezed the nipple and tied it firmly with string. Dunlop with this crude contrivance sensed the possibilities in the pneumatic tire and was finally able to start a factory and lay claim to patent rights which enriched him enormously.

But this early pneumatic tire was far from perfect ; its worst fault was that it was not detachable, so that at the first puncture it was done for.

The first practical tire, easily detached on the road by the rider, was put on the market by Michelin, a large rubber goods manufacturer of France, who had been in business since 1832. Thus Michelin earned the title of “ Pere des Démontables." A few years later, in 1894, Michelin's tires reached their definitive and final form, the same as is used to-day on both bicycles and automobiles. Michelin was the pioneer in the application of the pneumatic tire to horse vehicles and automobiles. His first attack was upon the Paris cabs. So great was the success of this venture that by 1903 there were 4,500 cabs in Paris using pneumatic tires. In the Paris-Bordeaux race of 1895 Michelin was represented by a rough sort of motor car made at his own works and equipped with his pneumatic tires. His triumph was complete, and the pneumatic tire became a recognized part




COMPANY Oatmeal Crackers for Breakfast

Variety gives zest to any meal. One soon tires of the same food morning after morning. N.B.C. Oatmeal Crackers offer you a delightful change.

Try them for breakfast with milk-hot or cold. You will find them delightfully good and satisfying.

N. B. C. Oatmeal Crackers are very nutritious. They contain oatmeal in its most delicious form, slightly sweetened so that no additional sugar is required—thus assisting in the national economy of

this article of diet.

Keep a few packages of this wholesome food on hand for breakfast.



quality. A certain proportion of sulphur is always mixed with rubber. It is impossible to use pure rubber alone in tires, because it does not possess the toughness to resist the grind of the road, and if used alone would soon wear out.

The rubber must next be applied to fabric by the process of " calendering." Fabric is to the automobile tire what steel girders are to a building—the frame or body. In it is the strength of the tire. Fabric is made of selected grades of cotton. One large tire company spends over fifty thousand dollars a year for inspection of fabric alone. When fabric is to be “frictioned ” or impregnated with rubber, it is run between the calender rolls with the rubber, which is literally forced into it. Fabric treated in this manner is known to the trade as “ frictioned.”

This rubber-coated fabric then goes through several cutting and building up processes, the tires being built on iron cores which conform to the inside shape of the finished tire. The body, or “ carcass," of the tire is next taken to the covering room, where the side walls and cover are applied and the necessary reinforcements of gum are added. The tire is now complete, but the rubber is still soft and uncured. There has so far been no chemical change. The tire needs application of heat under pressure to bring about the chemical changes which render it serviceable.

The completed tire is therefore placed in a steel mold, which in turn is placed in a “ vulcanizer,” a huge, oven-like steel container. For some time the tire is kept in the vulcanizer under pressure and heated by live steam. This brings about the chemical change in which sulphur plays an important part. The tire comes out of the mold a live, resilient, tough unit-in fact, the automobile tire as you know it. There are other processes of finishing and inspection which we need not describe here. You can now begin to realize what an output of 50,000 tires a day really means. RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN TIRE BUILDING

A recent improvement in tire construction has been the development of the cablecord tire. The Silvertown Cord Tire was devised by John F. Palmer and a Mr. Sloper, of Silvertown, England. The body of this tire is built from cords which cross the tire at right angles to each other and are fastened by heavy wire staples. The cord tire has several advantages over the fabric one. It is speedier, can coast farther, and cuts down the gasoline consumption. The appearance of the cord tire on the American racing arena was marked by the shattering of all speed and endurance records. From sixty and seventy miles an hour cars climbed to ninety and one hundred miles an hour, and there was at the same time a reduction in the number of fatalities because tire “ blow-outs” were fewer.

Development and experiments have brought the automobile tire to a magnificent stage to-day, but there is still room for improvement, as millions are still being spent by the rubber companies in experiment and research. One of the largest rubber companies spends approximately $500,000 a year in maintaining fleets of automobiles which tour about the country with the sole purpose of testing automobile tires under every conceivable condition. These experiments indicate that the evolution of the inflated tire has not yet reached the point where manufacturers can rest and say that it is perfect. For the tire manufacturer is not without his ideal a puncture-proof tire that shall live forever.


of an antomobile's equipment. From that day the progress of the pneumatic tire has been coincident with the development of the motor car itself.


Crude rubber from South America reaches the factory in “ biscuits," as previously described. The plantation rubber from Ceylon and Java comes in sheets, generally yellow in color. Every pound received is first carefully inspected as well as subjected to frequent chemical tests. These tests and inspections are only the beginning, for during and after every process additional inspections are made so as to insure a perfect finished product.

South American rubber, before it is washed, is placed in hot-water vats to soften. The rubber - biscuits " are then put between huge steel rollers, which tear thein

apart and then work them over again and
again while streams of water wash them
thoroughly. The rubber finally comes from
these mills in long ragged sheets, and is
examined by experienced inspectors to
make sure that it is thoroughly clean. These
strips are then hung on horizontal poles
spaced into aisles, so that air can freely cir-
culate all around the rubber. It takes from
four to six weeks properly to dry rubber
by this method. A second method is to
hang the sheets on poles in a room heated
from 90° to 105° F., where they are left
from four to nine days, depending upon the
kind of rubber. This method is adapted to
high-grade rubbers and is used when the
factory is in a hurry for stock.

After the rubber has been thoroughly
dried it is ready to be mixed with the vari
ous ingredients which are used in com-
pouncing rubber to give it the desired

« ПретходнаНастави »