« ПретходнаНастави »
obedient, and cheerful military units. Infractions of military or toe nails. Was not all this enough ? No, it was only the begincivil law have been less in quantity among the National Armyning. The recruit could not drink water unless it had been anamen than infractions of civil law alone among an equal number lyzed, he could not eat meals which had not been tested first by of men in civil life. Major-General J. Franklin Bell has made scrupulous official palates, he could not sleep in his bunk unless a clear-cut statement about Camp Upton which is almost incred. it were certified to as being correctly made, he could not buy ible, but which is indubitably true: “We have a democratic anything at the post exchange except what had been allowed army. We have an army'where no man shirks, but every one on sale as pure, he could not even march or drill with his does his utmost to help. Do you know that we have had the mouth open for fear of germs. So the men began to realize troops at Camp Upton—there are thirty thousand of them--for their value; they were worth Uncle Sam's most constant two months, and we have not had a single court martial? We scientific attention. Instead of irritating the men, it gave them have had no court martial because nobody has done wrong. Let a new sense of self-esteem. Possibly they wondered why they me modify that, nobody has done wrong intentionally. We are all had not been worthy of as much solicitude while they were learning, beginners as it were, but all of us are doing our best." mere citizens, but, at any rate, they were now aware that
Colonel M. B. Stewart, the Chief of Staff at Camp Devens, they were valuable assets. The flattery pleased them even could not go as far as General Bell, but he was positively en though they seemed to chafe under its application. thusiastic about conditions in his cantonment: “The temper Naturally and logically there followed the buoyancy of and spirit of the men could not be better ; the situation here is abounding health. The cleanliness, the simple but wholesome excellent in every respect; there is not an officer who is not fare, the regularity of exercise, the open air, brought something highly gratified by the results so far obtained,” he told me. absolutely new to a majority of the men—they felt the surge of But I wanted the opinion of some one who was actually com a rich vitality in their veins. Thousands and thousands who manding. I chose Colonel A. S. Conklin, of the 303d Field had only subsisted hitherto began really to live. They had come Artillery, a Regular Army man, who knows what an army from the gloomy canyons of our big cities, they had been torn means and what it means to make an army. He glowed with from the cubby-holes of industrial offices, they had left forever pleasure as he talked about his men. “ They are simply won the lung-clogging lint of the mill, they had jumped the counter derful; fine, clean, sturdy fellows from Maine, New Hamp- and bade good-by to the effeminacy of the department store ; shire, Vermont, and other parts of New England. They under- yes, I feel certain that a majority of the men in the cantonments stand why they are here and are putting the best of body, mind, had been liberated from haunts or occupations which sapped and heart into their work. There is no surliness, no reluctance; their health, and within a month had felt themselves to be indeed, the very opposite. When an officer has to correct them, reborn. they actually thank him and say, 'It won't occur again, sir. There will doubtless be many National Guard officers who It is going to be comparatively easy to make first-class soldiers will receive my next statement with incredulity. I believe the of men with such a spirit.” But I think General Kennedy, influence of the Reserve officers has been a most potent factor commanding at Camp Dix, was the most enthusiastic officer I in the rapid molding of the drafted men. In the National Guard saw concerning the drafted men. He confessed that he could camps the Reserve officers did not take their places with ease. not get over his sense of amazement that his division was set Plattsburg and Madison had not given them experience in tling down to its work with such an irreproachable spirit. One handling men who had just come back from border service, could see satisfaction and pride in his face and feel it in the and many of the non-coms. were more proficient than the weartimber of his voice. And yet Camp Dix is probably the most erg of brand-new uniforms. But in the National Army cantondifficult of all our units, with an unusual amount of unlikely ments the Reserve officers and the drafted men were beginning and recalcitrant material drawn from the foreign sections of together, and each knew it. There was mutual tolerance; when industrial communities. Officers of various grades and branches the officer muddled his commands and tangled his men in a of the service in Camp Gordon, speaking of their cantonment, hopeless formation, it was received with humor rather than gave me exactly the same impression.
scorn ; hauteur slipped out of the budding officer's bearing. “Barbed wire twenty feet high and ten feet deep to keep the The Regular Army officers in the cantonments spoke much men from deserting !" Never was a prediction wider of the more confidently of the Plattsburg probationer than did the mark; never was a fear more completely wiped out. And yet National Guard officers in the camps. Such a psychological not one of those hundreds of thousands of men went into a can. situation is possible only in a democracy. And the Reserve offitonment on his own initiative; Uncle Sam stretched out his cers are deeply anxious to grow just a little faster than their hand, tore them up by the roots from their familiar and well men. They have a passion for leadership which springs from a loved environment, dropped them into an ugly and comfortless genuinely sacrificial motive. They want their units to overtake place, abrogated the civil liberties which they had been brought the National Guard and stand abreast of the Regular Army as up to look upon as their inalienable rights, put them to work at quickly as possible, that when they lead their men into action rough, unaccustomed, and monotonous tasks, and held before no one will be able to make any invidious distinctions between their eyes, as the culmination of it all, pain, gas suffocation, the types of troops which face the commcn foe. mutilation, and death in a foreign land at the hands of a brutal. Still, not all of these military considerations combined could ized foe. And yet--this is a miracle of democracy-the canton have achieved the happy results so noticeable in the National ments are probably the most contented and cheerful spots in Army ; something more, something different, was needed. EnAmerica, where laughter, cheers, and songs riple or ring forced cleanliness, an accession of health, abundance of wholethrough the air a hundred times a day.
some food, and a consciousness of duty faithfully performed What wrought the miracle? Many things. First and fore cannot assuage the pangs of homesickness or compensate for most I put the solicitude of the authorities for the welfare of the involuntary break in lifelong habits. There was a chasm to the men. Probably forty per cent of those drafted had not been be bridged. Fortunately democracy is the real Pontifex Maxithe objects of care since infancy. But no sooner did they arrive mus. The people of America said: “These boys are ours; we in camp than all kinds of mysteriously inquisitive officers began give them to the great crusade of our own free will; we must to show a persistent interest in them. Were they clean ? Some do everything conceivable and possible to make them feel that were not. Some had never been bathed in their lives, or at least the uniform has not lifted them out of the normal life of the since babyhood. A medical officer at Camp Dix told me of one Nation.” So the people immediately set about to normalize the recruit who was so absolutely filthy that no one would touch environment of the soldiers and thus head off any drift toward him; the hair on his body had grown back into his skin ; he militarism. They fraternized with the men wherever khaki was was alive with vermin. They had to put him on the ground and seen ; they opened their homes on Sundays to total strangers scour him with brooms and soft soap. Following the cleanliness as if the visitors were their own kith and kin ; they hung out inquisitors came the uniformed dentists, who examined every service flags and were as proud of the star which symbolized tooth, extracting some, filling others, and issuing peremptory the drafted man as of the one which represented the Regular commands about tooth-brushes. Then another uniformed under Army officer. study of Providence insisted upon knowing the condition of the This response of the people produced immediate results. Otti. man's feet, showing an incomprehensible concern for ingrowing cers of the Federal service found State and city officials ready
to co-operate in eliminating the grosser temptations from the The first line consists of the positive recreational activities, communities adjacent to the camps. Haunts of vice which had designed to take the place of the influences we are trying to flourished under local political protection for decades were eliminate. effectually closed. Except through the efforts of some degener “I remember standing in the street of Columbus, New Mexico, ate bootleggers and the mistaken generosity of occasional foolish shortly after Villa devastated the village. Five thousand troops friends, liquor was made inaccessible to the soldiers. Clubs, were encamped near by. There was nothing whatever in town lodges, chapters of fraternal organizations, and a multitude of to interest the men in their hours of leisure—no moving-picture benevolent societies held open house for officers and enlisted shows, no reading-rooms, no places to read and smoke, no homes men. Churches suspended their stereotyped activities and con- in which they would be welcome, not even a place to sit down. centrated upon providing entertainnient, comfort, and inspiration In fact, there was nothing at all in town except a few dirty for the army. Everywhere I have found nothing but respect and saloons and a red light district. That these places were liber. affection ; the camps are family affairs upon a National scale. If ally patronized was due to the fact that there was nothing to the Red Cross asked for one hundred million dollars, the people compete with them. insisted upon making it about one hundred and twenty-five “It is not going to do any good merely to set up verboten millions. If the Y. M. C. A. needed thirty-five million dollars, signs along the road. Military regulations against these evils can the people poured out more than fifty millions, and said, “Come be made ad infinitum, but nothing will be accomplished unless again." Every fund projected for the benefit of the Army is over we can positively create wholesome, red-blooded sources of subscribed. The reflex of this upon the men in the camps is in recreation and entertainment for our troops during their leisure calculable. It is not a cold-storage Congress disgorging money hours. Otherwise we are not even going to make a dent in the reluctantly under executive pressure, but a Nation-wide offering twin problem of alcohol and prostitution. of affection-it is largesse de luxe. The spirit of it thrills back “Obviously, therefore, the Commission on Training Camp through the cantonments, and the men say in their hearts,“ We Activities is more interested in its positive recreational pro will be worthy.” That is what makes an army-an instanta gramme, both within and without the camps, than it is in any. neous and an invincible army-in a land where all the traditions thing else. This is our first line of defense. of thought and action have hitherto been set against militarism. “Our second line of defense, in case our first fails, lies in the
While a vast amount of this National service for the National police measures which we are taking to surround the men with Army has been spontaneous and undirected, it is only natural a healthy environment. The powers conferred upon the War that the larger part of it should be organized in order to func- Department by Sections 12 and 13 of the Military Draft Law tion most effectively. Hence the War Department's Commission have been of great assistance in curbing the evils; and the maon Training Camp Activities, Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick, chair. chinery of the Department of Justice, of the Intelligence Departman. The work of the Commission is to co-ordinate every avail- ment of the Army, and of many private organizations, such as able force in American life for the physical, mental, and moral the American Social Hygiene Association, the Committee of benefit of the soldier body. It aims to fill every spare minute of Fourteen of New York, and the Committee of Fifteen of Chicamp life with occupations which meet the appetites of men cago, have been enlisted in the fight. Through its own agents accustomed to free civil life; to eliminate or reduce to a mini in the field the Commission is keeping in constant touch with mum the evils which have always hovered like vampires around the situation surrounding every military camp in the United military establishments; and, finally, by a federated pressure of States. healthy influences, to strengthen and increase the moral health “As concrete examples of what has been accomplished may of the hundreds of thousands of men whom the Nation has be mentioned the closing of red light districts in the following called to specialized citizen service.
cities : Deming, New Mexico; El Paso, Waco, San Antonio, Undoubtedly many parents, wives, sisters, and friends of the Fort Worth, and Houston, Texas; Hattiesburg, Mississippi; men have been seriously disturbed by the wild statements con- Spartanburg, South Carolina ; Norfolk and Petersburg, Vir cerning immorality on the part of the soldiers. For six weeks I ginia ; Jacksonville, Florida ; Alexandria, Louisiana ; Savannah, have made close investigation of such charges, and without the Georgia ; Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville, South Caro slightest hesitation I brand them as infernal lies. Here and lina ; Douglas, Arizona ; Louisville, Kentucky; and Montgomthere, now and then, a soldier transgresses ; any one would ery, Alabama. New Orleans has passed an ordinance which will be a fool and an ignoramus to believe otherwise. But let the wipe out its red light district on or about November 15. reader think out the situation. A camp of forty thousand men Many cities in which no red light districts were formally between the ages of twenty-one and thirty-one implies the most tolerated have, at the instance of the Commission, abolished virile section of a city of more than three hundred thousand their open houses of prostitution. inhabitants. But no camp produces in a month a fraction of the “The third line of defense, in case the first two fail, as far immorality practiced in such a city in a week. Facilities, oppor- as disease is concerned, lies in the very excellent plans for pro tunities, and temptations open to civilians all the while in a phylactic work laid out by the Surgeon-General's department. large civil population are not presented to the soldiers. Only Not only have we an inescapable responsibility to the families the most hardened and desperately insistent can find the few in the communities from which our young men are selected in and weli-hidden runways of vice. The bulk of the men's time is keeping their environment clean, but from the standpoint of pre-empted by rigid military duties; the larger part of the our duty and determination to create an efficient Army we are balance of their time is filled by occupations of the most whole bound as a military necessity to do everything in our power to some nature provided within the camp by the various organiza promote the health and conserve the vitality of the men in the tions working together under Mr. Fosdick's Commission. Occa training camps. This war is going to be won on the basis of sionally the men go to the near-by communities, and there the man power, and we cannot afford to lose a single soldier through vigilance of the Government has practically driven away all any cause with which medical science can successfully grapple. commercialized vice, and has made it next to impossible for a “ These, then, are the three lines of defense which the Govsoldier to obtain a drink of liquor. The communities near the ernment is setting up to protect the character and efficiency of camps are the most vice-free and orderly places I know in its troops. In so far as it is humanly possible to accomplish it, America or in any other land. To assert that our American we are determined that our young men shall come back from moral sanctities are being violated wholesale by the soldiers is this war with no scars except those won in honorable conflict." a vile insult to American womanhood and a form of treason As a result of visits to many camps, searching investigations toward the Government, and every such accuser should be tried in the near-by communities, conversations with scores of officers instantly as a public enemy.
and hundreds of enlisted men, and a careful questioning of vari. I saw Mr. Fosdick on the subject in his Washington office. ous civilians who know the military situation intimately, I He is one of the calmest and keenest men I have ever met, yet believe that Uncle Sam is going to send back to their families he is vibrating with a splendid moral enthusiasm. Here is what and communities hundreds of thousands and possibly millions he said:
of men infinitely better qualified physically, mentally, and “The War Department has three lines of defense against the morally for the duties of citizenship in a democracy than the evils traditionally associated with armies and training camps. were when called to the colors.
(c) CLINEDINST THE BRITISH HIGH COMMISSIONER AND SPECIAL AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, EARL READING, AND LADY READING In 1913 the Attorney-General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Rt. Hon. Rufus Daniel Isaacs, was made Lord Chief Justice, the first Jew to hold that exalted judicial office. In 1914 he was raised to the peerage as the first Baron Reading. Now, as Earl Reading, in his fifty-eighth year (he was born in London, October 10, 1860), he is sent to this country as British Ambassador. He married Alice Edith Cohen, of London, in 1887. They have one son. The official announcement of Earl Reading's appointment says: “Lord Reading as High Commissioner and Special Ambassador will have full authority over the members of all British missions Rant to the United States in connection with the active prosecution of the war and the labore of ench miesione will ha enmnlatalouden bis 2---:- -- -
(c) UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD
A BIG BRITISH GUN ON THE FLANDERS FRONT The size of the guns vow employed in the war may be judged from this photograph, a British official one. This gun is being hauled along a road in Flanders to a more advanced position after a gain. Two trailer trucks carry this huge piece of artillery and a tractor furnishes the motive power. This gun is said to be even bigger
than the German “Busy Bertha "type
COURTESY OF GOLDWYN PICTURES CORPORATION
THE CHECKER-PLAYER'S TRIUMPH Moving-picture producers cannot always find actors who can make up " so effectively as to rival real" types," they state. In the above picture, photographed for a scene in a new play, the producers, we are informed, found these old checker-players in a little Maine fishing village and induced them to have their photograph
taken at a most interesting stage of their favorite game