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Based on The Outlook of January 16, 1918 Each week an Outline Study of Current History based on the preceding number of The Outlook will be printed for the benefit of current events classes, debating clubs, teachers of history and of English, and the like, and for use in the home and by such individual readers as may desire suggestions in the serious study of current history.-THE EDITORS.

[Those who are using the weekly outline should article? 6. What is Marquis Okuma's opinnot attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any ion of China, and of how the other nations one lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected questions, one or two propositions for discussion, and should regard international relations beonly such words as are found in the material assigned. tween China and Japan? 7. What value Or distribute selected questions among different does he place upon the Ishii-Lansing Agreemembers of the class or group and have them report their findings to all when assembled. Then

ment? Tell what you think of it. 8. What have all discuss the questions together.]

is the spirit of Japan? Do you like it? Tell

why or why not. 9. Mr. Mason speaks of 1-INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

Marquis Okuma as “ a force in politics." A. Topic: The President's Address ; The

Discuss the obligation of every individual War Aims of the Nations.

being such a force. Reference: Editorial, page 87 ; pages 90, 91. :


A. Topic: The Government and the Rail1. How has The Outlook characterized

ways. President Wilson's address? Explain and

Reference : Pages 83 ; 89; 102, 106, 107. discuss each characterization. 2. What does

Questions : The Outlook think this address should do

1. What are the “first steps in Governfor America? 3. Make comparisons between

ment operation ” of the railways as outlined the suggestions of peace made by the Bolsh

by The Outlook? 2. What are some of eviki and those made by Germany and

the statements of opinion as to public Turkey ; between those by Lloyd George operation of railways found in The and those by President Wilson ; between

Outlook of January 9, 1918 (pages 48-50) ? those by Lloyd George and President Wil

State what Mr. Gompers thinks of this son and those by Germany and Turkey.

matter (page 89). 3. In the light of these What thoughts impress themselves upon

various statements, tell in your own words you very strongly as you make these com

what you think of public operation of railparisons? 4. Make clear the meaning of

ways. 4. Do you think Mr. Price has drawn * autonomy,” “ political independence,"

a sensible analogy between the circulatory “ sovereignty,” “ economic independence,"

system of the human body and the railway “commercial boycott,” “ evacuation,” “res

system of the United States ? Give your toration,” “damages,” “reparation,” “in

reasons. 5. Has Mr. Price proved the nedemnities,” “ plebiscite," *" international

cessity and the advisability of permanent law," " neutral," " neutralized.” 5. Are you

Government operation of the railways? satisfied as to the arrangement President

6. Discuss what Mr. Price has said about Wilson suggests for Turkey ? Ought she

the probable effect of the change of railway to be made to get entirely out of Europe ?

operation upon the value of railway securiDiscuss at length. 6. Do you think Presi

ties. dent Wilson's terms would in any way interfere with Germany's legitimate interests 111-PROPOSITIONS FOR DISCUSSION and rights? Why or why not? 7. Dis. (These propositions are suggested directly or indicuss : President Wilson has set forth “the

rectly by the subject matter of The Outlook, but

not discussed in it.) indispensable elements of an enduring

1. The study of international relations is peace.” 8. What effect do you think the

a duty of all Americans. 2. The nations of President's address will have upon Russia ?

the world should refuse to have any dealings Upon the liberal elements in Germany ?

with Germany after this war is over, unless Upon the Pan-Germanists? Upon popular responsibility everywhere? 9. Compare the

she reorganizes her Government along truly

democratic lines. 3. Broad-minded patriotmap of Europe as it was in June, 1914, with the map of Europe as it would be

ism is rare in political history. 4. The were President Wilson's suggestions car

excesses of democrats have always been ried out. Why is it that the peace of the

the best aids of reactionaries. 5. Autocworld depends so much upon boundary

racy has produced more great leaders than lines?

democracy. B. Topic: Japan in the War; The Spirit IV-VOCABULARY BUILDING of Japan.

(All of the following words and expressions are Reference : Pages 84; 92-94.

found in The Outlook for January 16, 1918. Both Questions:

before and after looking them up in the dictionary 1. Explain very carefully what Ambas The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which sador Morris said about “international the words may be found.) democracy.” Discuss the significance of Free trade, equal trade, contiguous, this political doctrine. 2. What important human liberty, circumlocution (87); impedifference did he bring out between the rial, autocratic, republican institutions, culobject of the Allies in this war and the pable (84); Marquis, igneous, calorific, object of the Central Powers? 3. From cache, cadaverous, " Yellow Peril” (92); reading Mr. Mason's article, what is Japan's constabulary, propinquity, Bushido, the foreign policy as set forth by Marquis Samurai, profile, silhouette, prognathic, preOkuma ? 4. How has the Marquis vindi. hensile (93); net operating income, divicated that policy ? 5. What historical facts dends, pro rata, category, synthesize, well worth remembering are found in this parity, intrinsic value, fatuous (107).

A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on applicution

Tell the children why they shouldn't eat or drink certain things. And when they ask why they may not drink coffee, tell them the truth — that coffee contains a drug which is harmful to the nerves and heart, especially with children.

If you have become convinced of this truth yourself, the probabilities are that your own table beverage is


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or elsewhere. give their meaning in your own words.

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NE great service that the war is already

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BY KENNETH B. WELLES Winter has lost its worst shiver for Old Lyme. We have ceased to shudder even if the Government should commandeer the next, and the next, and the next coal barge as it did the last. We gave winter the warm shoulder last Thursday when we had our first Community Wood-Chopping Day.

It came about this way. A few fortunate people had coal in their bins and woodpiles by the back door, but the rest of us realized that it was either freeze or “hustle.” Coal was ordered, had been since last April, so the two dealers assured us; but five hundred miles turns coal into a pretty cold proposition. Then we sought the old reliable woodmen. Surely they would not fail us—they never had. But one was icing, one was tired of hauling wood, one had moved into New London, and one had a few cords of promises. Then we put our heads together.

The railway station, where behind his wire grating sits Tommy Haynes, agent and First Selectman of Old Lyme, has been the birthplace of more than one brilliant community idea. There we went.

Tommy was really serious. He cussed the cold. He told how empty his bin was. Then Fred Babcock, our journalist, told how many times he hadn't got wood. We were all agreed on one thing : Lyme, even though for two summers the residence of the President, was left out in the cold, and was likely to stay so.

Then the idea came. Why not have a community wood-chopping day? We have had community everything else, why not invite all the men to a big bee, and cut enough wood to make the town snug for a time? The woods were at hand. If no one else would do it for us, why not go ourselves? We had visions of town chopping days all over the State. Then it would sweep through New England, carry the whole country, and, presto-chango! the National problem of fuel would be solved.

Tommy appointed a whole harness of committees, enough to hold the best town that ever put its neck under the yoke of community effort. He had an enrollment committee to rout out the citizens, a transportation committee, a coffee committee, a publicity committee, an ax-grinding committee, and a general oversight committee.

Fred Babcock put the first notice in the paper something like this :

Mr. Haynes states that he is confident he can cut as much wood in a given time as Captain Hunting ton, and Frank L. Saunders is willing to put up a small side bet that he can outcut Constable James F. Bugbee. John Hoskins is willing to try conclusions with Dr. E. K. Devitt, and George Babcock is confident he can cut more wood than Nat Sheffield. John Sterling, while a little out of practice, is willing to have his pile measured against Captain Voorhees', and Griswold Perkins thinks he can measur up a bigger pile than the Rev. K. B. Welles, and so it goes.

That fetched them all right. George Babcock, the plumber, really did say, “ I'll be darned if they can cut more wood than me.” When you walked up the street, the men would say, “ Well, got your ax sharpened?” “Hey, where's your ax?” Andrew McGaw, the all-around man, set up a grindstone in the library cellar. It traveled about five hundred miles the first day.

Then a fine pair of boots were seen hanging in Bugbee's store—the prize for the fellow who cut the most wood. That was the finishing touch. It lined up all the

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A Community Wood-Chopping Day (Continued) old regulars, so that when the enrollment committee, for form's sake, asked the fellows who only come to town on election day, to every one's surprise, they “ allowed” they would be present. Fifteen “ huskies” from South Lyme calculated to come up to get those boots.

The selectmen were to pay $1 a cord for the standing timber and $2.50 a cord to the men for chopping. They would have it hauled and would sell it to any citizens at just what was paid plus the cartage. The wood should all belong to the town. It was to be a genuine community enterprise.

Then came the day, cold and clearideal for chopping. An early start seemed easy that morning. We met at the town hall, like a lot of kids out for a picnic. There were Clark Voorhees, the landscape painter, and Jack Noyes, the house painter ; there were the Hon. Joseph Huntington and Bob Appleby, farmer, father of two boys in the service. The minister, the storekeeper, the plumber, the carpenter, the woodman, and Tommy Haynes, all were there. It was a town holiday. The stores even had closed to be in the swim.

We got in the woods at Stone House Ledge with shouts of glee, and then the fun began. What music it was to hear the play of axes through the trees! An English cock pheasant, frightened by such unwonted activity, flew over the heads of the line of workers. We shouted and lifted a little prayer of thankfulness that we were alive in the beauty of that morning and sharing in the fellowship and service of the day.

It is marvelous how fast the morning passed, and how happily. Tommy Haynes, accompanied by the State Fuel Commissioner's representative, urged us on to more heroic efforts.

Then came twelve o'clock, and summonses from the cooks. There never was such coffee, we are sure of that. A washboiler full, and milk and sugar!

There we all lay on the ground eating our victuals. Chris Anderson, the farmer from South Lyme, never knew before what a good fellow an artist is apt to be. The artists never imagined before that there are knack and genius in the woodman. We chaffed each other, liked each other, and reveled in the company. We luxuriated around the fire, all except a few whose axes we could still hear ringing in the distance.

Then we went back to our work again to finish up our cords to bear the inspection sticks of the judges, Sam Tooker and Charlie Tompkins. When at three o'clock they told my partner, " That's a good full cord, with some over for good measure,” our hearts swelled with pride, and we patted the pile with the fondness of fathers. Oh, what wood it was-hard yellow oak, thick and solid and sound! There never was such wood, there never was such a dinner, there never were such a crowd of good fellows, there never was such a wonderful idea! We were "it"!

It is not true that greenhorns can't cut wood. We did. It's false that “you will cut your blooming legs off.” We didn't. It is nonsense that we are at the coal situation's mercy. We aren't-not altogether. We believe we have taken the crimp out of winter. We have our wood. We had our fellowship. We had our fun. We are going to try it again. We are trying to be a selfdependent little community. And we will — because we have a great community spirit.

Old Lyme, Connecticut.

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