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Austria Can't; Germany Won't........ 199 Taking Part in a Stern Chase ........... 199 The Last Chanoe : Going, Going—...... 199 Automatic Guns and Automatic Savings 200 The Government's Plan for Automatic
Saving ........... .................., Hoarding Hides.....
200 Mr. Burleson's Reappointment.......... 201 Mayor Hylan and Mr. Bugher.......... At the Twenty-Seventh Conference at Tuskegee......................
201 The Sanctuaries of Palestine Dolls and Models ..... Hope for New Jersey....
202 Cartoons of the Week.. The Service Flag Again ... The President, the Congress, and the Country ...................
204 The War Department..
205 The High Cost of Editing...
206 A Farmer on Food. ............
By W. W. Reynolds The War Machine : How Much Power is Reaching the Rear Wheels ? A Review of Senator Chamberlain's Speech, and of the Testimony of Surgeon-General Gorgas and Secretary Baker .......... 207 Staking American Lives on a Machine Gun!.
.......... 209 Special Correspondence by Joseph H. Odell A Plea for a War Cabinet.............. 210
By an American Journalist
By Henry Wilson Bridges
of Arnold Adair-1. The Swiss Spy
By Laurence La Tourette Driggs
By George A. Barton, Ph.D., LL.D.
By Harold Trowbridge Pulsifer Weekly Outline Study of Current History 220
By J. Madison Gathany, A.M. The New Books........
221 The Old Lady Talks on Hardships...... 223
By Edith Barnard Delano, of the Vigilantes A Query..
By W. C. J. “ The Captain of the Men of Death ”.. 226 By the Way........................... 227
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FEBRUARY 6, 1918.
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
AUSTRIA CAN'T; GERMANY WON'T
try there may be some value in attempting to give equally wide The replies of the German Chancellor and the Austrian currency to the denial of the truth of these rumors. The purPremier to President Wilson's statement of fourteen conditions suit of a slander is always a stern chase, and stern chases are essential to peace afford no indications of a desire on Germany's always proverbially long. part to concede anything, nor of a possibility on Austria's part General Pershing's latest testimony concerning the moral of escaping German domination. In other words, Germany will welfare of our troops was made public in a letter from Secrenot now talk of peace otherwise than as a victor; Austria can- tary of War Baker to Governor Capper, of Kansas. Governor not and dare not act independently.
Capper wrote to Secretary Baker concerning the “persistent It means nothing for Austria to express a willingness to dis reports" as to the immoderate sale of liquor among our forces cuss at a peace conference matters which do not concern her in France, and in reply received a letter from the Secretary of own Empire directly, for Count Czernin adds that Austria will War, from which we quote as follows: remain a faithful German ally--that is, of course, that Austria You will be glad to know that I have just received the followwill support German claims as to Alsace-Lorraine, the African ing from the commander of the American expeditionary forces : colonies, and the German designs on parts of western Russia.
“ There has never been a similar body of men to lead as clean Neither does it mean anything for Germany to announce her
lives as our American soldiers in France. They have entered adhesion to President Wilson's first four points, for each of
this war with the highest devotion to duty, and with no other
idea than to perform those duties in the most efficient manner these deals with general principles, and each may be defined
possible. They fully realize their obligation to their own people, diversely. What Germany would regard as open diplomacy, their friends, and the country. freedom of the seas, trade equality, and reduction of arma “A rigid programme of instruction is carried out daily with ments no one now knows. In Germany's dealings with Russia traditional American enthusiasm. Engaged in healthy, interestshe has accepted the principle of “no annexations and no ing exercises in the open air, with simple diets, officers and men, indemnities," and then quickly unmasked her intention of like trained athletes, are ready for their task. Forbidden the use holding a vast amount of Russian territory. As to the other of strong drink and protected by stringent regulations against and concrete points in Mr. Wilson's programme, Germany's
sexual evils, and supported by their own moral courage, their Chancellor is either evasive or scornfully defiant.
good behavior is the subject of most favorable comments, espeA single sentence saying that Belgium would be restored with
cially by our allies.
“ American mothers may rest assured that their sons are a due reparation would be a better basis for possible discussion of
credit to them and to the Nation, and they may well look forward peace than all of Count von Hertling's elaborate subtleties. to the proud day when on the battlefield these splendid men will One almost welcomes the flat-footed declaration that Germany shed a new luster on American manhood.” will never give up Alsace-Lorraine, because it is the one manly, straightforward statement in the Chancellor's speech. Even It is not a pleasant fact to contemplate, but it is the truth, the acceptance of President Wilson's freedom of the seas idea that the most persistent of the rumors to which Governor Capis coupled with the insulting and non-apropos demand that Eng- per referred were given the public support and sanction of the land should give up Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Hongkong, and Board of Temperance, Prohibition, and Public Morals of the the Falkland Islands! And Count von Hertling's reply to the Methodist Episcopal Church. The statement issued by this demand for justice to Belgium is cryptic; what does the state Board in regard to the moral conditions of our troops in France ment that “ Germany has never demanded the incorporation of supplied an excellent example of the kind of criticism of the Belgian territory” mean? It may be literally true as to the management of war in which no loyal American should indulge. past; it promises nothing as to the present or future.
This criticism was of a destructive and not of a constructive kind. One cannot help pitying Austria. Her subservience to Ger
However justly Secretary Baker may be criticised for some of many has led to degradation and danger. Strikes, food riots, the deficiencies of his Department, few informed people will threats of revolution, beset her. No doubt Austria might like be found to question the splendid work of the War Departto make a separate peace with Russia, but even the Bolsheviki ment in its efforts to provide clean living conditions for the would hardly consent to such a peace if Austria were to be left soldiers intrusted to its care by the American democracy. free to turn all her armies against Italy (to say nothing of the other allies), and Germany would never consent to a peace which
THE LAST CHANCE: GOING, GOINGwould take Austria out of the war altogether. What internal Austrian conditions are may be judged when a Moderate Socialist
The Government has made unprecedented provisions for an gay in the Anstrian Chamber as Victor Adler said the other the protection of its soldiers and sailors, and the families of its day: “The monarchy... must become a federal state of soldiers and sailors, by the enactment of a law whereby every nationalities, for which the people are enthusiastic and ready to man in the service is entitled to take out as much as $10,000 fight."
insurance within one hundred and twenty days after he enlists. This law was described in The Outlook for December 12 last.
One million men were in the service of the United States TAKING PART IN A STERN CHASE
when the provisions of this law went into effect in October, and The sweeping charges of intemperance among our soldiers for these men the opportunity to take out Governmental insurin France, which recently occupied so large a place in the news ance expires on February 12. Up to that time every man in papers of the country, have again been denied by General the service, no matter when he enlisted, can take out a $10,000 Pershing in no uncertain terms. It may seem bardly worth policy for about $6.50 a month. Compared with the cost of while to dignify these charges by continued discussion, but as ordinary commercial insurance, this war insurance represents a hysterical rumors have been so widely scattered over the coun- most tempting offer, and the soldier or sailor who fails to take
advantage of this opportunity will be neglectful of his own interests and the interest of his family.
It cannot be too strongly urged that families and dependents of every man in the Army and Navy do their utmost to encourage the men in the service to take advantage of this offer of the Government. Relatives may wisely offer to help pay the premiums when such aid seems advisable or possible, in order that their fathers, sons, and brothers may not lose this opportunity. Not only will Governmental insurance protect families and dependents of men in the Army and Navy in case of death, but such insurance will also protect the men who are insured in case of permanent and total disability. In case of total disability a $10,000 policy will result in the payment of $57.50 per month for life to any holder. On January 26, 551,849 men had already accepted this offer and filed applications for insurance aggregating $4,663,420,500 and averaging $8,451 per man. There remain, however, at least a million more men who have not taken advantage of this offer. The time is short. Application blanks can be obtained by writing to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C., or from any Army and Navy station. An application for insurance may be made on any ordinary sheet of paper, provided that it gives the applicant's full name, rank, organization, and station, the amount of insurance wanted, and the authorization to deduct the premium from the soldier's or sailor's pay. Such an application must be duly witnessed, preferably by the applicant's commanding officer, and the name and address of the witness must also be given.
February 12 is the last date on which this application can be filed by thousands of men in the service. For thera the opportunity is like a tempting bargain at an auction sale. The Government the auctioneer, has already started to call, “Going, going—' When the hammer falls, we trust that these thousands of men will have signed on the dotted line."
Government in the printing of the bonds of the last two loans may also have worked to discourage co-operation of the right kind, for those who bought Liberty bonds on the installment plan were left for a time with nothing but a hole in their weekly pay envelopes and without anything more tangible than a receipt for their money.
Mr. Fell believes that these objections arising from conditions under which the Liberty Loans were financed can be largely met by applying the automatic savings idea to the sale of War Savings Stamps and Certificates. He suggests that business houses offer to their employees a chance to receive part of their wages or salaries in the form of War Savings Stamps. He suggests that to make this plan of selling War Savings Stamps attractive employers agree to pay the odd cents which are necessary when War Savings Stamps are exchanged for War Savings Certificates. Such a plan, Mr. Fell believes, would prove the patriotic disinterestedness of employers, and would also encourage thrift and help win the war. One War Savings Stamp in the hands of each citizen of our country means more than four hundred million dollars for the war. That is a sum pot to be despised. Mr. Fell believes that this suggestion, if carried into effect, would draw out a great deal of money not now in circulation. Its special appeal to the wage-earner he pictures in the following words:
With $4 in Thrift Stamps he could buy a War Savings Certificate which other persons outside the sphere of the worker would have to pay $4.12, or $4.13, or $4 and something in odd cents to obtain. He would see, not 342 per cent as in the first Liberty Loan as his reward, or 4 per cent as in the second, but 5 per cent compound interest. And with the 5 per cent he would have the additional impulse of patriotism.
The suggestion sounds discussible. How far is it practicable to carry it into effect ?
THE GOVERNMENT'S PLAN FOR AUTOMATIC SAVING AUTOMATIC GUNS AND AUTOMATIC SAVINGS Mr. Herbert N. Fell, whose article on “ Automatic Sav
Apparently the need of automatic saving is one which has ing" appeared in The Outlook for January 10, 1917, now comes
not been lost sight of by the Government. The National War
Savings Committee has its own method of encouraging regular forward with the statement that the same reasons which made
economy and thrift. It hopes to accomplish this by the formaautomatic saving desirable in time of peace make it doubly desirable in time of war. He writes us :
tion of War Savings Societies. According to the plan of the
National War Savings Committee, ten or more persons, memIf we need automatic guns to whip the Kaiser, we need auto
bers of the same church, lodge, club, association, school, commatic saving to support our automatic guns. ... Money, men,
munity, or employees in the same office, shop, factory, or mill, and munitions are so interrelated in a war of such colossal mag
may form a War Savings Society by holding a meeting at which nitude as that in which we are engaged in Europe that lack of one cripples the other. The longer the war lasts, the greater the
officers are elected and simple by-laws are adopted. Each memdependence of the Allies on all three. We wouldn't think of arm ber of such a group signs a pledge that he or she willing our men with the old muzzle-loading musket, yet we are using
1. Purchase War Savings Stamps and Thrift Stamps amountmuzzle-loading methods in our finance. It is time we awakened. ing to $— or more weekly (monthly). It is time we applied methods of automatic saving to co-ordi
2. Aid the Government by buying only what he needs and only nate with our automatic guns.
when he needs it.
3. By example encourage economy and thrift among his friends Mr. Fell believes that the Liberty Loan campaigns have not and associates, and secure as many members as he can for the brought out some of the resources which can be tapped by using society. the principle of automatic saving in the present emergency. Each of these groups is to be known as a War Savings Soci. He says that in each of the first two Liberty Loans we created a ety, and upon reporting to the State director becomes affiliated great machine for the raising of money which upon the conclu with the National War Savings Committee. It is expected that sion of each campaign was permitted to disintegrate. What we regular meetings of these societies will be held, and that compeneed, Mr. Fell believes, is some method by which a permanent tition between societies will have an important effect upon the and continuous campaign for the raising of loans can be waged. regular sale of stamps. These societies, it is hoped, will prove
Of course the best field for such a campaign lies in the dis- an effective vehicle for discussion and the readjustment of pertribution of Thrift Stamps and War Savings Certificates, but sonal and family budgets to war conditions, and that they will it is not enough continually to urge the purchase of these stamps heip to cut down extravagance and promote the investment of and certificates. They must be sold in a way to encourage their money in Government securities of all kinds. automatic purchase by millions of our citizens to whom the There is nothing in Mr. Fell's suggestion, reported above, buying of a Liberty Bond would be a financial impossibility. which is antagonistic to the principle involved in the organization
During the great Liberty Bond campaigns many business of the War. Savings Societies. Perhaps both plans could be houses did their best to encourage their employees to purchase effectively combined as a means of aiding the Government. these Governmental securities. In the majoriiy of instances cooperation between employers and employees was whole-hearted
HOARDING HIDES and disinterested, but there were perhaps some instances where unfortunate pressure was applied, with the result that ill-feeling It appears that the meat-packers have been hoarding hides. was aroused and sympathy for the bond campaigns lost. Amer Yet shoe prices have been climbing upward, and with excessive icans have a wholesome dislike for anything which looks like profits to the packers, who practically control the hide market. the thrusting of benefits upon them. Most of us would rather be During the past five years the slaughtering of cattle has kicked in a democratic and neighborly fashion than kissed by increased some thirty per cent. Such a record ought not at the charity or paternalism, Perhaps, too, the unavoidable delay of the same time to mean that the country should be forced to pay abnormally high prices for leather products made from the our principal port of departure for munitions and army supplies, correspondingly increased take-off of hides—at least this is the the New York City police force is vital to the National as well opinion of members of the Federal Trade Commission. Accord- as the municipal welfare. If it is inefficient, the Governor of ing to the figures collected by them, the quantity of hides stored the State has the authority to remove both Mayor and Police by the largest packers increased forty-five per cent during 1916 Commissioner. If he should not do this when conditions call and the first half of 1917, and—to show that this is not a for it, then the Federal Government should and doubtless will “ corner" made by a few big men—the stocks held by the act. smaller packers increased no less than eighty-three per cent. Arthur Woods, the outgoing Commissioner, had brought
Imports of hides were also found to have increased. In 1917 about an unprecedentedly efficient morale in the police force. they were seventy per cent more than in 1912. Our imports Many citizens felt that Judge Hylan, the incoming Mayor, had no are chiefly from the Argentine, Uruguay, and Brazil, countries more important appointment than the Police Commissionership. in which the great Chicago packers are prominent factors in They were deeply gratified wben he appointed a non-partisan, the hide business.
a man who had had successful experience as a Deputy ComMoreover, the increase of value placed by the packers on missioner. But those best informed as to the Police Departtheir hides in 1916-17, thirty-five per cent, was seen to be ment's inner workings prophesied that Mr. Bugher would fail twice as much as the increase in prices paid by them for cattle. unless assured of two things : first, the Mayor's support; and,
The result was that the net profits of the larger tanning com- second, the right sort of Deputy Commissioners. panies were said to be from two to five times as great as in 1915. For three weeks all seemed to be going well, so far as the
Finally, exports of men's shoes were found to have dropped public knew. Mr. Bugher had been persuaded to accept the from the high level of 13,000,000 pairs in 1916 to slightly over commissionership upon assurances that he would be absolutely 6,000,000 in 1917—the lessened exports being largely offset, we unrettered and allowed to select his five deputies in his own suppose, by our own Army demand.
way. But, after painstaking investigation of dozens of appliThese facts are a pertinent illustration of the all too painful cants, Mr. Bugher's very first appointment of a deputy met truth that social, industrial, and economic injustices and ills with the Mayor's disapproval because the candidate was not cannot be left to the unsatisfactory cure afforded by the laws “ of the people.” This means that “he happens to be a man of supply and demand.
of good family and of unquestionable antecedents,” according to Mr. Bugher. At the same time the Mayor pressed the
appointment as Deputy of a man who had unfavorably imMR. BURLESON'S REAPPOINTMENT
pressed the Commissioner. Finally, when the Mayor notified The United States Senate has just unanimously confirmed the Commissioner not to fill the most unimportant positions, the renomination of Albert Sidney Burleson, of Texas, to be which would include clerks and stenographers, without first Postmaster-General for the ensuing four years.
consulting him, Mr. Bugher saw no other way out of the diffiThe question will doubtless arise, Why should the Post culty than to demand to be permitted to “ assume or surrender” master-General be renominated and none of the other Cabinet the entire task. members ? Curiously enough, “ the powers that be” have only On this Mayor Hylan, under a paltry subterfuge, asked for just discovered that, by law, the Postmaster-General does not Mr. Bugher's resignation, and appointed instead Lieutenant hold his office over from one term to another. The statute pro Richard Enright, who has had long experience in the uniformed vides that he shall hold office only during the term of the Presi- police force, but who had been unable to obtain promotion under dent by whom he was appointed and for one month longer. As a the Woods administration. matter of fact, the country, ever since April 4, 1917, has been, The whole affair indicates that the only proper way to run it is said, legally without a Postmaster-General, and, so far as a Police Department is under a Commissioner who is given full the law goes, the position of head of one of the Government's power and responsibility by the Mayor. In his final report to greatest executive departments has been unfilled.
Mayor Mitchel Commissioner Arthur Woods said: Hence it was with some irony that Mr. Hardwick, of Geor Whatever success has attended the Police Administration gia, arose in the United States Senate the other day and called would not have been possible without your unfailing underattention to the above, which has now been followed by Presi standing and support. Police conditions in New York are of dent Wilson's transmittal of the Postmaster-General's renomi such a character that a Police Commissioner cannot be successnation. Mr. Hardwick congratulated the country“ on the fact
ful unless he is master of his job, and unless at the same time he that the President has at last found out what the law is and has
has no doubt as to the backing and confidence of the Mayor. int last complied with it." .
You have given me an entirely free hand to run the DepartIt will be interesting to see whether the New York " Call,"
ment, yet I have always found that when I needed advice or the “ Irish World," and other papers which have been denied
support you were ready with it in large measure. second-class mailing privileges by Postmaster-General Burleson Lieutenant Enright's appointment is looked on with anxiety will ask to have his orders declared void on the ground that by those who remember the days of a political police force under he had acted without legal authority.
former Tammany administrations, Mr. Hardwick added that he would still further congratulate the country and the President if the President would comply with the spirit of the Constitution about all these things. Mr.
AT THE TWENTY-SEVENTH CONFERENCE AT TUSKEGEE
A Hardwick declared that in times like these, when we are granting The war has served to concentrate the attention of both all sorts of unusual, large, extraordinary, and in some cases North and South in a greater degree than ever upon the probautocratic powers to the present Chief Executive, it is especially lem of the relations between white and colored American citiincumbent upon the Executive to comply with the spirit of the zens. The war created, first of all, an abnormal condition in the Constitution. For many years, Senator Hardwick affirmed, and industries of the North and an abnormal condition in the cottonin many Administrations, every President of the United States fields of the South. In addition to the economic and labor who was re-elected has, at the beginning of his second term, problems which followed in the wake of these phenomena, there sent to the Senate his Cabinet nominations, and the Senate has been the problem of adapting both Negroes and whites to has always, except in one or two rare instances, promptly con- the conditions forced upon the country by the raising of the firmed these nominations without question.
National Army. It is encouraging to record here some of the Query: Would the Senate have confirmed all of the Cabinet conclusions of Dr. Moton, the successor of Booker T. Washington nominations had they been sent in on March 4, 1917 ?
as the Principal of Tuskegee Institute, concerning the place of the Negro in the fight for democracy. Dr. Moton is a profound
believer in the theory that increased privileges bring increased MAYOR AYLAN AND MR. BUGHER
responsibilities. Addressing an audience of Negro farmers at The resignation of Frederick H. Bugher as Police Com- the Twenty-seventh Annual Tuskegee Conference, he said : missioner of New York City is an event of more than mere We can approach the future with renewed hope that right and municipal significance. We are at war, and, as New York is justice will inevitably prevail. This triumph of democracy can.