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not but mean for the Negro an equal share with other citizens in very embodiment of the shamefulness of the Christian position. the blessings and privileges that it offers.

He continues : The Negro, however, will only share in proportion to the

It was a hereditary office that went back for centuries. To measure of his merit. He must be prepared to use, in its most

retain such an office would be intolerable under present condiuseful sense, the privileges which democracy will offer.

tions. On the other hand, to abolish it might give the idea that This will mean more conscience, more regularity, more system,

it was the beginning of the end of all Moslem institutions. Genmore reliability, more intelligence, in the work which Negroes ·

eral Allenby, with the greatest tact and a finesse that was almost have to perform.

French, solved the difficulty in this way. He asked the guardian It will mean better homes, with more attractive surroundings,

to retain his position and its emoluments, but no longer as the greater inducement for boys to remain on the farms, better

symbol of an alien supremacy, or with any actual authority, but schools, better churches, better teachers, and more earnest re

in memory of the magnanimity of Omar, and for a perpetual ligious leadership.

remembrance of the way in which long ago, before the evil days It means that if the Negro hopes to share, as undoubtedly he

of Turkish dominion, the authorities of Islam used their power must, in the blessings of democracy, he must measure up in these

not to destroy but to protect the Christian institutions. simple, every-day activities. The Negro must exhibit the very highest citizenship, including intelligent, self-respecting, clean,

Thus from every point of view the British conquest of Pal. moral manhood and womanhood.

estine is an event not only of surpassing romantic interest, but The conference at which Dr. Moton spoke was attended by

of epoch-making political and religious importance. As to many white leaders of education from the South who cordially

religion it may mark the beginning of a new age of tolerance. joined in the discussion of the significant National problems which the present war has brought home to all Americans DOLLS AND MODELS the problems of developing interest in thrift, patriotism, co

The collections of dolls at the Metropolitan Museum of operation, food conservation, and education, as agencies through which we may hope to secure National prosperity and help to

Art, New York City, and at the Toledo Museum of Art call

attention to the value of models in general, whether for enterwin the world war for democracy.

tainment or for instruction. .

The collection at the Metropolitan consists of some thirty THE SANCTUARIES OF PALESTINE

costume dolls and is of note as illustrative of the history of Not in the guise of conquerors did the victorious British Gen

costume throughout the ages. The collection at Toledo is still

more noticeable. It contains eighty dolls, each about two feet eral Allenby with his staff and foreign attachés enter Jerusalem.

high, representing not only the evolution of costume but many They entered almost in the guise of pilgrims. They would not

historical characters as well. The likenesses have been depicted use the new road cut through the walls in 1898 near the Jaffa

with great care from portraits in the Louvre and Luxembourg gate so that the German Emperor might ride in where none

Galleries. Even the jeweled ornaments have been reproduced had ever ridden before. Instead all dismounted outside the gate

in minutest detail. Among the notables represented are Philip and entered through the ancient doorway humbly and on foot.

III, Francis I, Mary Stuart, Catherine de Medicis, Marie So writes Monsignor Barnes, an English Roman Catholic

Antoinette, Madame de Maintenon, Empress Eugénie, and ecclesiastic, in the New York “ Sun," and adds some comment

others. Of course the dolls in these two collections furnish a concerning the various sanctuaries in Palestine. General Allenby's proclamation to the inhabitants of Jerusalem read:

fund of subjects for use in “story hours,” which, we are glad

to say, are now in vogue in many museums for child visitors. Since your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of

In addition, and of greater significance as far as instruction three of the greatest religions of mankind, and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of multitudes of

is concerned, there are the models of men and buildings shown devout people of these three religions for many centuries, there

at various museums. At the Metropolitan, for instance, there fore do I make known to you that every sacred building, monu

are the miniature models of the Church of Santa Sophia at ment, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious

Constantinople and of the Penshurst Castle hall in England. As bequest, or customary place of prayer of whatsoever form be material illustrative of scientific facts we find remarkable minialonging to the great religions of mankind will be maintained and ture groups at the Children's Museum, Brooklyn (in Bedford protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those

Park, Brooklyn Avenue, between Prospect Place and Park to whose faiths they are sacred.

Place, free to the public every day, including Sundays; the · In pursuance of these promises measures were taken to make Metropolitan Museum is free five days a week). sure that no damage should be done to any sanctuary by the The models suggest the climate, physical character, natural adherents of a hostile faith. This but follows the example of resources, flora and fauna, and the characteristics of the people the Saracen conqueror Omar, who (A.D. 636) gave the Chris of each country so described. There are, for instance, at Brooktians fair and honorable terms. For over four centuries, or lyn, models representing Eskimos harpooning the walrus on the until the Turkish conquest, there was no persecution. So now Greenland coast and the natives of the South Sea Islands drawthe Mosque of Omar, standing on the site of Solomon's Tem ing on to the beach their outrigger dugouts. Thus the models ple, is of moment to Jews, Christians, and Mohammedans; bring out the relation between the human element and its geo indeed, the Mohammedans deem it the second holiest place on graphical surroundings. Similar models are also at the Newark earth. In the future, as Monsignor Barnes says, something Museum and at the University of Illinois. All of them were will have to be done to secure to Jews and Christians, who also executed by Mr. Dwight Franklin, formerly of the American clearly have religious interests in this spot, at least the right of Museum of Natural History, New York City. He is a distinfree access; but for the moment the necessary thing was to re- guished pioneer in a new and practically unlimited field. assure the Mohammedan world that a Christian triumph does not mean any insult to their faith, and so Mohammedan guards, drawn from the officers and men of the Indian army, were set

HOPE FOR NEW JERSEY over this place, as over the tomb of Abraham at IIebron, Abra New Jersey has long been reproached with the fact that ham being a revered patriarch and prophet also among Mo with but one single exception (Nebraska), she is the only State hammedans,

in the Union to have no local option law whatever. Lately, As to the suggestion that Palestine be made into a small however, and as one result of last fall's elections, the Legislature Jewish state, under international guaranty, there need be no has shown a disposition to meet the public demand for such a fear, Monsignor Barnes believes, that Jews will ever be allowed law. The Senate lately passed a local option measure by a to dominate Christian or Mohanımedan sanctuaries, “nor is vote of 16 to 5. On January 29 the lower house concurred, there any reason to think they would wish to do so."

and thus a long-standing reproach is removed. 'The most prominent Christian sanctuaries are the Basilica of Another backward aspect of New Jersey law has been as the the Nativity at Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepul gards the treatment and reformation of criminals. Not all its cher at Jerusalem. Every visitor to Jerusalem, writes Monsi- institutions have been bad. Thus the Rahway Reformatory is quor Barnes, will remember the Moslem guard set over the a notable example of wise management, as was seen when the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, whose presence seemed the warden, Dr. Frank Moore, allowed a large number of bars

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go home for the holidays unguarded, as a reward for their good work and interest in road building, and all returned promptly to the Reformatory on the given day.

But there must be something wrong about the New Jersey law as to reforming boys when Judge E. F. Waite, of the Minneapolis District Court, writes to the “Survey” as follows:

When I read in The Outlook of December 19 of a boy who had been sent to a juvenile correctional institution in New Jersey and kept there twenty-two months for (according to the official statement of his offense)" breaking and entering a tailor's shop to find a place to sleep, his father having turned him out of doors,” I could hardly believe my eyes. But the headnote of the article vouched for the experience and reliability of the author, Arthur D. Chandler. Then, on the 26th, came another article by Mr. Chandler, telling, as though it were not an exceptional incident, of a fourteen-year-old boy who had “served time” for several years in the same institution, being sent there by a juvenile court “ because he was a dependent boy.” ....

Is there some mistake, or are children really treated like this by the courts of New Jersey?...

The charges made against the treatment of prisoners at the New Jersey State Prison at Trenton and the agitation over the subject, largely due to the New York“ Evening Post,” led to the appointment by Governor Edge of a Prison Inquiry Commission. Their report does much more than to state the evidence taken. Under the able direction of Mr. Dwight W. Morrow as Chairman, with the full and wise co-operation of Governor Edge, and with the warm approval of so distinguished a penologist as Dr. George W. Kirchwey, the Commission has made a large and broad-minded review of the State's history as to correction, has taken up such questions as that of prison labor and modern reformatory theories, and, in short, has produced an extremely valuable work which we commend to the attention of officers of penal institutions and students of socio logical questions.

By a happy coincidence this report appears just at the time when it is announced that prison contract labor has been finally and completely done away with in New Jersey, as Mr. Morrow's Commission urgently recommended. This was done largely through the efforts of Governor Edge. There has been a struggle for thirty years to make the practice conform to the law, but twice one Legislature undid the work of another, not by repealing a law, but by enacting new provisions that practically nullified it. Now the practice is a thing of the past, and a long step has been taken in penal reform in New Jersey.

then be given to the public outright or used as a means for raising further funds for the Red Cross. Certainly this sugges tion appears to offer one excellent way to remove the present stigma from the Service Flag.

We wish that Mr. Queisser might see fit to accept this sugges tion in the spirit in which it was offered. But with the testimony before us we doubt whether he will. In a letter recently received from Mr. Queisser he states that he would be willing to sell his patent to the Government “at a price, however, for which it is worth.” Mr. Queisser deplores the continued discussion of the ownership of the Service Flag in the following words :

Just now it seems to be working out fine and there is practically no comment because most of the manufacturers are working under license and there is no reason for them to stir it up. The amount of the license fee is so small that individually it practically affects no one who buys a single flag, and I believe the fact is if the fee were reduced by the Government, if they purchased the patent, that it would absolutely bring about no reduction whatever in the sale price of the flags, and the license fee, fifty per cent of which goes to the Red Cross, would be lost, and no one but the manufacturer be the gainer.

On the other hand, if the Nation continues to permit the symbol of its patriotism to be exploited for private profit, the country as a whole will be the loser in self-respect. Which alternative is preferable ?

THE SERVICE FLAG AGAIN

A brief history of the Service Flag published in The Outlook of December 26, 1917, has brought us many letters heartily commending The Outlook's statement that the ownership of the Service Flag should not be left in private hands.

One of the heartiest letters of approval which we have re ceived comes from Mr. George Winant Parks, of Providence, Rhode Island. Mr. Parks says in his letter :

As a reader of The Outlook I wish to subscribe to the stand you have taken regarding the ownership of the Service Flag. . . . While we all appreciate the thought and timely suggestion of Mr. Queisser, who designed and first used the Service Flag, the consensus of opinion of the American people would undoubtedly be against its being owned and controlled by any one individual, and especially opposed to its being a source of money-making to such a one. As an emblem it stands second in patriotism to the Stars and Stripes, and should belong, as the fag does, to the people. In so far as I know, The Outlook is the only publication that has taken such a stand, which is not a surprise to its readers, who have long since realized that the paper always aims to stand for right and justice and true patriotism. Since Mr. Queisser is going to divide the income with the American Red Cross, possibly he would be willing to sell his rights and patent to that organization for an amount to cover his cost, etc., which he says is about $2,000.

Mr. Parks further suggests that a fund be raised by public subscriptions of one dollar each on behalf of the Red Cross to reimburse Mr. Queisser for his expenditures in promoting the use of his Service Flag, and that the patent monopoly, which he at present holds, be given to the Red Cross.

Purchased in such a way, the patent on the Service Flag could

THE PRESIDENT, THE CONGRESS,

AND THE COUNTRY
HE country owes a great debt of gratitude to Senator

Chamberlain. If any member of the Administration is 1 inclined to resent his criticism, we recommend to him the saying of Ralph Waldo Emerson : “Men of character like to hear of their faults.” Happily, democracy has always developed some brave man to meet such a crisis as the present, and such courage never fails to win a response from the American people Senator Chamberlain's speech on the floor of the Senate furnished conclusive evidence that his original address to the National Se curity League was no “ distortion of the truth," and the Presi dent must by this time be satisfied that the public do not find that it is “impossible to attach any importance to his statement."

There is a fundamental fact which the country will not and the President and Congress ought not to ignore: the War Do partment, which has discharged but indifferently well the duties required by an army of 125,000 in time of peace, has broken down in attempting to perform those duties for an army of a million and a half during the greatest war the world has ever seen. It was like an attempt to run a British war tank with a motor built for a Ford runabout. The work of reorganization should have been undertaken at least two years ago. If nothing was then done, at least plans should have been then made. And if the Administration, allowing its wishes to be father to its thoughts, hoped that war might be avoided, certainly on the day on which the Administration became convinced against its will that war was possible, anticipatory preparation for a possible war should have been begun.

It is useless now to inquire who is responsible for the failure. The present problem is how to correct the evil which has shaken the confidence of a too trusting people in their military organization. What those evils have been are, in part at least, clear even to inexpert civilians. There has been a lack of co-ordination, a lack of power, and a lack of frankness. No reorganization will be effectual which does not cure these evils.

It was inexcusable to call men into camp when there was no camp ready to receive them, when there was no adequate supply of overcoats with which to clothe them, of arms with which to drill them, of hospitals, doctors, and nurses to care for them when sick. It is easy to see now-it does not seem that it should have been difficult to see then that the various bureau heads should, on the day war was declared, if not before, have been gathered about the table and kept there until they had determined how rapidly men could be housed, clad, and cared for, and how rapidly, therefore, they should be called to the colors. If overcoats of the traditional weave could not be pro cured in sufficient number, if shoes of the traditional type could not be made within the limited time, tradition should have

stepped aside to make room for necessity. When a house is on racy the executive rules, the people and their representatives fire, we do not wait until we can make a patent sprinkler; we obey; in a democracy the people rule and the executive obeys. do what we can with pails of water until the fire-engine comes. The most fundamental question involved in this war is whether and then we do not scorn its aid because it is of old construc- the Executive shall be the ruler, as in Germany, or the servant tion. If we could not get the ideal rifles and machine guns to of the people, as in England, France, Italy, and the United train the men, we should have taken what rifles and machine States. Congress created the War Department, and if the War guns we could get. Some people have suggested that drill in Department does not function to the satisfaction of Congress, arms with broomsticks is possible. Such people may know it is the duty of Congress to reorganize it. drills, but they do not know human nature. The boys in camp It can do this by creating a War Cabinet. A correspondent are not kindergarten children, to be satisfied with paper caps on another page gives weighty reasons for this course. But what and wooden guns.

is perhaps the most serious objection to that course he does not Where there was knowledge there was not power. Surgeon consider—time. So radical a measure cannot be passed by ConGeneral Gorgas is perhaps the greatest expert on camp sanitary gress without a perplexing debate. It is disapproved by the conditions in the world. He has told us that he urgently re President, and that disapproval can be overcome only by an quested the Department that men should not be called into the insistent public opinion. A War Cabinet would be a novelty in camps until hospitals were provided. This request was disre American history. To create an insistent public opinion de garded, with what tragical results in more than one instance manding it would require a still more protracted debate. Meanthe country now knows. Surgeon-General Gorgas should have while our allies are calling for our action, and every day of delay had power to command; or, if that were impracticable, his costs the lives of hundreds of soldiers in the field and imperils request should have had the effect of a command. If his supe the ultimate victory. But Congress can, without serious delay, rior officer cannot trust the head of the Medical Department create a Minister of Munitions. If it gives him power to act, with authority in bis own medical domain, he should not trust not merely to advise, and if it can secure from the President him at all, and should put another in his place whom he can the appointment to the office of one who enjoys the confidence trust.

both of Congress and the President, the most immediate and Mr. Hoover has taken the country into his confidence. He pressing evil-lack of co-ordination and of personal power has told us what he wants us to plant in our gardens, what to in procuring equipnient for our soldiers—would be at once eat in our homes and hotels, and what to forego and why; and remedied. Congress can then take up at greater leisure addi. the people have responded with general and generous self tional reorganization of the departments of the Government Bacrifice. Mr. McAdoo has told us what money he wants and needed to insure protection from future National disasters, such what is to be done with it, and the people have given him more as our tangled transportation, our lack of shipping, and our than he asked for.

lack of coal. The President can perhaps provide any immediate The War Department has pursued a different policy. It has and temporary remedy by a change of personnel, but only concealed not only from the people, but apparently from the Congress can provide a real and radical remedy like enacting President, the disastrous conditions of some of our camps, else changes in organization. And in such action speed is of greater the President could not have referred to them as mere “partial importance than a perfect plan. miscarriages of plans," and condemned the persistent investiga The President is elected to carry out the will of Congress. tion by Congress on the ground that such investigations "drew Congress is elected to carry out the will of the people. And indispensable officials from their commands and contributed a there can be no doubt what is the will of the people. It is great deal to such delay and confusion as has inevitably arisen." Grant's direction to Sheridan : “ Push things.” If Congress • What the country demands and has a right to demand is fails to push things, the remedy is with the people in the such reorganization of the War Department in method and in election next fall. In that election every voter who wishes to personnel as may be necessary to secure, and secure at once, win the war, and to win it now, should vote for the Representaco-ordination of all its various bureaus, power in the appropri- tive who most eagerly and insistently shares that will, whether ate heads to act, not merely to advise, and frank and open- he be Republican or Democrat or Socialist or Laborite or handed dealing with the people whose war this is and who are Capitalist or Prohibitionist or Woman Suffragist. For to win giving their money, their time, and their sons and their daugh- this war and win it now, and, in winning the right of democracy ters to winning it and winning it now.

to exist, win a lasting world peace, is the supreme duty of this The confidence of the people in their Government has for Nation-President, Congress, and people. some time been disturbed by unverified rumors of inefficiency in the administration of the War Department. It was rudely shaken by the recent coal order of Mr. Garfield. It has been irreparably

THE WAR DEPARTMENT impaired by the speech of Senator Chamberlain, and by the testimony of Surgeon-General Gorgas, Mr. Medill McCormick, and

A certain amount of “ muddling through " seems to be inSecretary Baker himself. It has not been re-established by the evitable in our War Department. Perhaps this is necessary in President's indorsement of his Secretary as “one of the ablest a democracy, where the spirit, the initiative, and the choice of public officials I have ever known.” We do not think it will be

executives must come from the people. A correspondent, whose eestashed by the address of Mr. Baker, admirable as it is in name as a student of American history carries authority, depremany respects, which was made before the Senate Committee cates the present criticism in Congress and the newspapers for on January 28. It is not necessary to consider whether Mr.

consider whether Mr. these reasons : Baker is at fault. It is enough to say that to succeed in his

Our Army is a sort of National fetish. When war comes, its work the Secretary of War must have the confidence of the

officers fail in all they are expected to do because they have vegecountry, and the country no longer has complete confidence in

tated through past years of numbing routine. Newspapers and his ability to reorganize the Department. The President might

public men make the task more difficult by attacking the civilians

who are struggling with failures from which the country has sufwell take a lesson from the life of Abraham Lincoln, whom he

fered at the beginning of every war. so greatly admires, who, when his Secretary of War, Mr. Cam

Our Ordnance Department decided in favor of keeping some eron, lost the confidence of the country, appointed him Minister regiments in flintlocks in the Mexican War, forty years after the to Russia, and put in his place Edwin M. Stanton, a personal percussion lock had been invented; they decided against the and political foe.

breech-loader at the opening of the Civil War; against smokeless Meanwhile Congress has a duty to perform and is performing powder in the Spanish War; and they have made similar blunit. In an autocratic government the Kaiser or Czar rules, the

ders at the opening of this war. heads of departments are his servants, and the Reichstag or the These interesting facts, it seems to us, should not suppress Duma is simply a popularly elected body of advisers, whose but stimulate the spirit of criticism-not captious fault-finding, advice the Kaiser or Czar may accept or disregard as he pleases. but a critical point of inquiry. If we have ordnance officers In a democracy a Parliament or Congress, chosen by the people who, because they have“ vegetated through past years of numband speaking for them, directs what must be done, and a Presi- ing routine," are repeating the flintlock blunders of the Mexident or Prime Minister puts their will into effect. In an autoc- can War, we ought to prod our civilian executives to remove them, not to defend them. It is because the people want and lecting news from all parts of the world under war conditions, have a right to know whether the War Department is making have made it impossible for the daily newspapers to continue blunders similar to those of the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish to sell their copies at one cent. The discrepancy between circuWars that the turmoil is going on in Washington. And it is lation receipts and editorial and publishing expenditures, which in that spirit of constructive inquiry that The Outlook is glad had to be made up by the advertising income, had become too to contribute its share to the questioning.

great to be borne. This has led to the general agreement by We commend to the special attention of our readers this week, which all the papers, including Mr. Villard's exclusive “Eveas bearing upon this work of critical inquiry, Dr. Odell's arti ning Post ” and Mr. Hearst's heterogeneous and inclusive cle on the Lewis Machine Gun ; the review of Secretary Baker's “Evening Journal,” are to be sold hereafter at two cents each. testimony before the Senate Committee; and the article advo About a year ago, under these same general conditions, The cating a War Cabinet by “An American Journalist.” In Outlook found it necessary to raise its price thirty-three and a another column we discuss the principles and authority which third per cent. How severe the stress of war is on the general should govern congressional or parliamentary criticism and periodical and newspaper world is indicated by the fact that administrative reform in a democracy.

the New York dailies have increased their price one hundred per cent.

The most curious and most unlooked for result of the increase THE HIGH COST OF EDITING in price is a strike on the part of the newsdealers who handle

the daily papers. Formerly the newsboys and small dealers made Having endured coalless, meatless, sweetless, and wheatless forty cents on every hundred copies they sold of a one-cent days on account of the war, New York City has been threatened paper. Under the new arrangement, if they sell the same number with another terrible privation, namely, a newspaperless day. of papers they will earn sixty cents a hundred copies. Some of We do not use these words altogether jocosely, for the daily the advantage of the increased price is therefore passed along newspaper has come to be almost as essential a factor in our to them, and it was naturally to be supposed that they would economic and social life as transportation. Newspapers, indeed, welcome the increase. But they so disapproved of the change in constitute a transportation system of intelligence or ideas, and price that they organized at once a strike and refused to sell American business is now based on ideas and news almost as any newspapers at all. And at this writing The Outlook office, much as it is upon material commodities.

which is supplied with files of every English daily in New York What threatened to be a real catastrophe in the field of New City—and dailies from many other cities of the country as York daily journalism happened in this wise. By concerted well-has had great difficulty in getting its usual complement of action all the New York dailies published in the English lan New York morning papers. The reason given by the small news guage agreed week before last to make a uniform price of two dealers for their antagonism to the increased price is, first, that cents a copy. The “ Times,” “Sun," “ Tribune," " Ierald," it requires a greater capital investment on their part. They “ World,” and “ American ” have for a long time been selling a formerly bought a hundred copies of a one-cent daily for sixty one-cent copy in the morning, while in the afternoon the “Eve- cents. They now have to pay $1.40 for a hundred copies. This ning Sun,” « Mail,” “Globe," "Evening World,” and “ Evening makes, of course, the amount they risk in the transaction much Journal” have been selling at the same price. The New York larger. Second, they assert that they will sell fewer copies, and “Evening Post” was the only New York newspaper in English therefore make really less money than they did under the old to command a higher rate. Its price has been three cents a copy. system.

It has, of course, been known to the journalistic trade for Undoubtedly the difficulties will be adjusted, and people will many years that one cent a copy did not pay even for the become accustomed to paying twice as much for their daily news mechanical expenses of getting out a metropolitan newspaper; paper, just as they have become accustomed to paying twice as that is to say, the white paper and presswork alone cost more much for their daily quart of milk. At least this is probably than one cent. The advertising income supplied the necessary true as regards the better class of newspapers. It will be an fund for salaries, wages, articles, and the vast sums spent for interesting sociological study to see whether Mr. Hearst's “ Evetelegraphic news. Profits, if any, came from whatever was left. ning Journal,” which publishes nobody knows exactly how many Not very long ago Mr. Ochs, the brilliant proprietor and pub editions during the day, and which appears to be bought lavishly lisher of the New York “ Times,” stated in his own columns and is littered about the streets, trolley cars, and subways that the “ Times” had to take in and expend over seventy-five equally lavishly, will continue to appeal to the same thoughtless thousand dollars a week, or nearly four million dollars a year, newspaper buyers as strongly at two cents as it did at one cent. for the expenses of conducting the paper before one penny could Whatever changes it may produce in newspaper circulation, the go to the stockholders in the form of dividends.

increase of price is a sound economic change, and may have a The rapidly mounting price of white paper, of printing, of good effect on the quality and character of the newspapers as wages to compositors and pressmen, and of the expense of col well as upon their bank accounts.

A FARMER ON FOOD .

VTE farmers look with dread on the lessened power of the

farms and danger to the world from smaller yields

this year. Every grower is studying and planning for possibilities, but it is hopeless to expect more than a large fraction of the amount last year.

Aged farmers never toiled so hard, but many have become in(apacitated or have died, and there have been 200,000 farın boys taken for the army. “ Class A ”is full of them for future drawing, and before spring work begins very many will be called.

They were the flower among producers—the sound, willing, progressive fellows, working toward successful manhood, waiting for a start before marrying (which puts them in “ Class A "), and they must go, leaving the objectionable fellows to “ support" somebody.

These absentees, with strong muscles and willing minds, we depended on to start things in the morning, to marshal schoolboys and lead hands at work, and their leaving takes fully twenty per cent of the productive power from the farms.

We must win this war, and want it over as soon as possible. The men on the farms will do all they can, and this copy of The Outlook goes to tens of thousands who own farms, many as investments. There should be producers on them, geared to the highest motion.

Other tens of thousands of readers who live in towns and cities know how to farm, and they should give production all the aid and comfort that is possible. There are college and school boys who should get out in the country and also help push this important matter of production.

Too many are ignorant of the danger, but the farmers know it. Crops will not grow and be gathered unless there are workers, and when ours are taken away we need no alarm bell. We farmers have no fear for ourselves, but can see privation for consumers and danger for the world. The preservation of the country depends on munitions and food.

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