« ПретходнаНастави »
not been Kaisered or Krupped or hurried in the least. There is no danger that heaven will be Teutonized.
“ The shouting and the tumult dies
The captains and the kings depart-
An humble and a contrite heart.
Lest we forget-lest we forget."
Lest we forget that our spirit is being purified in the furnace
of war and the shadow of death. Do you remember the protest of those poilus when some unclean plays were sent to the battlefront for their entertainment ?
“ We are not pigs”—that was the message they sent back.
Lest we forget that the spirit of man has been lifted up out of the mud and dust of the battle-lines, out of the body tortured with pain and weariness and vermin, out of the close com panionship of the dead into high association on the bloody altar of liberty and sacrifice.
Lest we forget that the spirit of our own boys shall be thus lifted up, and our duty to put our house in order and make it a fit place for them to live in when they shall have returned to it from battlefields swept, as a soldier has written, by the cleansing winds of God.
The most sublime and beautiful thing the world has ever seen is the common sense of the common men and women of the civilized nations of to-day.
SHOULD AUSTRIA-HUNGARY BE DISSOLVED?
BY PIERRE DE LANUX Millions of the subjects of Austria-Hungary, with which we are at war, are openly our allies. There are thousands of subjects of AustriaHungary in this country who are technically enemy aliens, but who are eager to fight against Austria-Hungary for the liberation of their oppressed compatriots. Are we to tell these people in Austria-Hungary and in our own land that they and their subjugated fellows shall remain under the yoke? This article gives facts that will help to answer that question. The author has traveled, as student, as war correspondent, and as Chief of Section in the French Ambulance Service successively, five times through Austria-Hungary and the Balkans. He is author of a volume on Serbia and the Southern Slavs entitled “ Le Yougoslavie” (published by Payot, Paris, 1916), and ot a volume entitled “Young France and the New America ” (published by the Macmillan Company, New York, December, 1917).- THE EDITORS. TF you ask an Englishman what his nation is he will answer, Empire wants autonomy and works for it. All the forces act;
"England.” A Spaniard will say, “Spain.” A German will ing there are forces of disintegration. I say, “ Germany.” But if you ask a subject of Emperor Carl, How did such an aggregate stand together so long? And how * What is your nationality ?” he will tell you, “ Rumanian,” are those millions of men still fighting for a system that they or “Slovak,” or “ Pole," or something else. And if you ask, reject? There are two main reasons-one interior, the other " Who is your Sovereign ?" he will have to say, " The King of exterior, Hungary.” “ And where does he live ?” “ In Austria.”
What first created Austria-Hungary was the danger of the In such a country there is intense national feeling for the pro- Turks, who were still powerful and conquering in the sixteenth vincial group or the racial family--there is none for the Empire and seventeenth centuries. All Christian forces united against itself. How could there be ? Let me tell of a little typical Austro- the common foe. The Hapsburg dynasty then managed to cenHungarian incident which occurred during a battle. An Austrian tralize all leadership, and for that purpose it divided and excited archduke, surrounded by his staff, which included officers from against each other the various groups; the Government of various provinces, was watching a critical movement of the day. Vienna always knew how to rouse the fears and hostilities in A soldier came running up, and, waving his arm, explained some such a manner that petty struggles and local antagonisms thing which seemed to be of great importance. The archduke, were substituted for the normal evolution of the political parties. who spoke only German, turned to his chief of staff, who was a On the other hand, there were the powerful action of Germany. Magyar, and said : “ I suppose this man is speaking Hungarian. which wanted to keep her influence in the East; the presence of Do translate his words to me.” The chief of staff listened, and Russia, which did not tol-rate the dismemberment of autocracies; said: “I don't get a word, and I understand Croatian also. and the consent of Europe, which was afraid of a general confiaMaybe it is Rumanian dialect.” He turned to an aide-de-camp: gration in case Austria-Hungary should go to pieces. "You are a Latin, and can understand this, can't you?”
These two series of reasons have maintained the Empire until " General, this man is neither Rumanian nor Italian."
the present epoch ; it is like a paradox, an animal from anteA Czech officer was not happier, nor was the Polish doctor diluvian times, in the midst of a modern viety of nations. who accompanied the staff. After trying two or three more What is its condition to-day, and how did the European war nationalities, the archduke had to give up and send the man to affect it? some professional interpreter at the rear to have his message On the eve of the war, in 1914, Austria-Hungary was rapidly translated. Evidently some province of the monarchy was not running toward decomposition, and we have not to look further represented on the staff, and that soldier was disloyal enough to for an immediate cause of the war itself. Here was a large have been been born there-luckily for the enemy, too.
country, indispensable to Germany for her policy in the East, Let us look at a map. This will tell more than a long text. in which the spirit of emancipation had rapidly taken on alarming I mean a map showing the boundaries of language as spoken by proportions. The eight million Czechs in Bohemia and Mora via the majority of the people in a given region. Language there had always been a fighting, indomitable group. The Serbian viccorresponds rather accurately to national traditions, customs, tories in the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 had stimulated the and aspirations. So this is a map of the real nationalities in spirit of independence among the southern Slavs, who all speak Austria-Hungary ; moreover, the term “nationality” is officially the Serbian language and are of Serbian race. Austria sent used.
her ultimatum to Serbia in July, 1914, because she could no But, instead of normal federation with rights equal for all, more resist the separatist tendencies of her own people, and she what we find is a “ dual monarchy" under the scepter of the needed to crush their hopes by crushing the little indepe ident Emperor of Austria, also King of Hungary. These two ruling nation with which they wanted to unite. So many other facicrs groups, the Germans of Austria and the Magyars of Hungary, have interposed since then that one easily forgets that this who together do not represent forty-four per cent of the total was the direct cause of the world war. population, are in control of the whole by a system of hegemony Austria-Hungary suffered heavily from the war; when left which has persisted until our times from the remote epochs of to herself, she was successively invaded by the Russians in GaMiddle-Age feudalism. While Germany (with the exception of licia, by the Serbians in Bosnia, by the Italians in Carniola, by Alsace-Lorraine, the Poles, and the Danes) is German, speaks the Rumanians in Transylvania. But each time the German German, and wants its unity, each fraction of the Austrian help came in time and the defeat was followed by some vic
torious blow at the invader who was bringing freedom to his disgrace and temporary dissolution. Similar incidents occurred brothers inside the monarchy. Today the Austrian territory is in the Eighth, Thirtieth, Eighty-eighth, and One Hundred and practically recovered, at a terrible cost. But what is the inter- Second Regiments, and in the Eleventh Regiment of Landwehr. nal situation of the Empire ?
Decimation has been frequent, and if the number of military
executions ever becomes known it will be found to have reached First, let us try to sum up the claims of the various national an appalling figure. More than one Czech regiment is virtually parties.
interned in Hungary as unreliable, and meanwhile Bohemia The Czechs are a typical example of national resistance. Liv has been garrisoned by Magyar troops.” (From “The New ing in Bohemia (Austria), they want to form, together with the Europe," January 4, 1917.) And if this needs confirmation, we Slovaks of Hungary, an independent state. For a long time find it in the enemy press itself. On October 30, 1917, the Hunthey had disagreements with other Slavic groups on matters of garian paper “ Budapesti Hirlap” said: “ The Czechs must learn political tactics. But now they seem to march hand in hand with that the Entente Allies will never be victorious, for the Czech the Jugoslavs.
policy is founded upon the Entente victory.” In May and June, The Jugoslavs (or southern Slavs) include the Serbs, Croats, 1916, alone, seventy-eight Czech periodicals were suppressed, and and Slovenes, living in the provinces of Bosnia, Dalmatia, Cro the reading of Tolstoy and Emerson, among others, was forbidden. atia, etc. There are seven millions within the limits of the mon In Transylvania the Rumanian subjects of the monarchy, as archy. Their groups had been working separately for a long we said, live under Hungarian oppression (in twenty years over time toward autonomy and unity with Serbia and Montenegro. three hundred and fifty Rumanian intellectuals were condemned Now they have come to a completely common programme, and to over one hundred and fifty years of imprisonment for “intheir claim has been expressed in the Declaration of Corfu citement against the Hungarian nation'). By some clever elec(1916) by their delegates who had escaped from Austria-Hun- toral disposition, only five Deputies represent three and one-hait gary and by the present Serbian Government. One may say million Rumanians at the Hungarian Parliament. In October, that the Declaration of Corfu has created, or rather revealed, a 1917, one of them, Pop Csicso, denounced the dreadful plight large western nation including more than twelve million souls. of his countrymen, prosecuted and interned by the authorities, Count Tisza, when Hungarian Premier, tried to have the Croa- priests, women, and children being deported to the interior. tian Diet disavow this declaration. Not one Deputy was willing The most appalling things happened in southern Slav territo do so.
tory. One of the essential war aims of Germany and Austria The Poles have been the most conciliatory to Vienna. Their was the crushing of the Serbian race, as standing in the way of condition was better than the condition of the Poles in Germany their expansion. (“Serbia and Montenegro should disappear and Russia, because the Austrian Government was using them from the map, because thereby the road to the East would be to maintain the balance against other parties. But they are open,” says the Austrian General R. Gerba in the paper “ Die Poles first. They show more and more distrust of the Goyern- Drau.” Therefore he demands immediate annexation.) In order ment, and protest against the military requisitions imposed upon to remove that obstacle all means were good, and now the fate their country (Galicia), which has had so much to suffer from of the Jugoslavs is equaled in horror only by the fate of the war and invasion.
Armenians. No excesses or atrocities committed on the western The Rumanians who have been oppressed for years by the fronts can be compared to what the Austro-Hungarians did to Hungarians had a moment of great hope when the armies of their own subjects there. For we have to insist again on that Rumania invaded their territory. That hope vanished when point, which seems incredible to our minds : these are no war Rumania had to retreat.
cruelties, these are facts of internal administration. The Ruthenes have claimed unity with the Ukrainians from After the retreat of the Serbian armies the authorities exerted Russia, who belong to the same race.
full vengeance upon the populations which had welcomed their As for the Italians, the“Irredenti” of Trieste and the Trentino, brothers, and large numbers of men were executed or deported. everybody knows the fervor of their desire to be united with “Die Bosnische Post," a semi-official organ, published in 1915, their brothers from Italy.
between February 20 and March 23 only, a list of 5,260 We come now to the two ruling groups, Germans and Mag. families expelled from a few districts in Bosnia. These families, yars. One thing binds them, and one thing only ; it is their whose men are mobilized in the Austrian army, were driven to common enterprise of subjugation over other races. Other Montenegro or other frontiers, and most of them are to-day wise they have only motives for disagreement. Hungarians wandering from place to place, eating the grass on the mourhave fought for their independence against the Austrians. But tains (“Obzor” of Agram, November 11, 1917). For Herzegovina to-day they refuse to the other races, more fiercely than the alone, the military governor, Sarkotic, recently announced two Germans themselves, the freedom that they have been claiming hundred cases of death from starvation. for themselves. There have been during the war some tendencies Wholesale trials, on the ground of high treason, took place, towards federalization in the policy of Austrian rulers. Count like the Banjaluka trial of 1915–16, when sixteen death conTisza, in Budapest, then asked in a tragic tone, “Is everything demnations and eight hundred and fifty-eight years of prison permitted in Austria ?” A source of bitter anxiety also is the were inflicted. Five Deputies to the Bosnian Diet, twenty priests, financial situation. The Empire has been made so absolutely and nineteen schoolmasters were among the condemned. Cases dependent on Germany that should Germany withdraw her of persecution could fill many columns of The Outlook. Mention help there would be immediate disaster. Meanwhile the Austrian of the most typical ones are perhaps to be found in the speech exchange is far below the German one in neutral countries. delivered by Deputy Tresic-Pavicic at the Austrian Parliament
Nevertheless Austrians and Magyars possess hegemony and on October 19, 1917. The Austrian censorship stopped its pubcling to it. And as it became impossible to maintain it in the lication in the Croatian “ Novosti ;” but what we possess of it present crisis, they had to carry on war against their own sub already is sufficient. At Arad and at Doboj alone, where interned jects. This is no exaggeration if we look at the facts:
civilians suffered untold martyrdom, about eleven thousand Among civilians alone, as early as January, 1916, the persons died from starvation, typhus, and other causes. Among “Neues Wiener Tageblatt ” announced a total of 3,463 capital them was my friend R. Radulovitch, a noble figure of a naexecutions of Austro-Hungarian citizens (800 in Bosnia, 720 in tional leader from Bosnia. Deputy Tresic-Pavicic says that one Bohemia). Of course this was only the beginning.
Austrian general (Potiorek) signed thirty-five hundred condemIn Bohemia“ the most notorious case of military disaffection is nations to death. that of the Twenty-eighth Czech Regiment (the ‘Children of Prominent leaders of the various oppressed races of AustriaPrague'), which left for the front singing a famous Panslav hymn Hungary who could escape to France or England have which contains a verse in honor of the Russians and French as taken the lead of separatist movements-namely, Professor T. friends against the Germans. They also carried a banner bearing Masaryk for the Czechs, Dr. A. Trumbic for the Jugoslavs, an inscription to the effect that 'we are marching against the etc. They want each group to unite with its brothers outRussians, but nobody kuows why.' At an early opportunity the side the Hapsburg monarchy. Small nations, when free, are a regiment passed over, officers and men together, to the Russians. guarantee for peace. We have the instance of Switzerland, who On April 17, 1915, an army order was issued proclaiming its made herself free from the same Empire many centuries ago,
UNDERWOOD A UNDERWOOD
BRITISH HELP THE FRENCH TO SAFETY ON THE WESTERN FRONT 'he picture, an official one, taken in the region of the Cambrai offensive, shows the inhabitants of Noyelles seeking shelter behind the British lines after being
subjected to German machine-gun fire in their homes GERMANY, WHILE PRETENDING FRIENDSHIP TO THE PEOPLE ON THE EAST, PERSECUTES THEM ON THE WEST