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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company
THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY,
bank or from anyone else, you've
AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK POST-OFFICE
Jerusalem and lowa City ...
therefore turn to the institu Cartoons of the Week...
Special Correspondence by William B. Munro
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The famous Paragon Shorthand Course complete in seven lessons can now be purchased for only
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Try This Lesson Now Take the ordinary longband letter d Elim. Inate everything but the long downstroke and there will remain This is the Paragon symbol for D. It is always written downward.
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Write this circle at the beginning of l and
By letting the circle remain open it will be a hook, ment and increased earning power.
and this hook stands for A. Thus, will be But like thousands of others you dreaded the
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D-tbus 7 and you will have Med. Now add exercises are divided into seven lessons, each of the large circle for 0, and you will have a which you can grasp in one evening. Speed will (medo), which is Meadow, with the silent A and W develop pleasantly as you make daily use of your
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Outlook 12-18 MUTTATHIMAHULUMTIMMMM
JANUARY 2, 1918
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of .os
THE PEACE OF VASSALAGE
RESTORATION, REPARATION, AND It is increasingly evident that if peace between Germany WORLD SECURITY and Russia comes from the conference at Brest-Litovsk, it will The British Prime Minister, in a plain, frank statement be a peace of serfdom. Russia, which more than a generation before the House of Commons on December 20, relaxed in no ago abolished serfdom among its own people, must not become particular his fornier declarations as to England's war aims. the serf of a foreign autocracy. If it is to escape this fate, it is Now, as before, our great ally stands for restoration of Gerequally imperative that the Russian people throw off the yoke many's plunder, reparation for ravaged and devastated countries, of anarchism under which, so far as Petrograd and Moscow are and a world security based on the extinction of Prussia's aim of concerned, it now rests.
forceful world domination. There is hope of this—and strong hope—as will be seen Specific declarations that brought out immense enthusiasm from an article elsewhere in this issue of The Outlook by were that England did not seek to acquire more territory; that a Russian writer. Just what is developing behind the scenes, the German colonies might be disposed of by the peace congress, so to speak, we cannot tell positively, because our news comes but that Jerusalem never would be restored to the Turks. almost entirely through the Lenine faction. There are, Mr. Lloyd George recognized fully the injurious effect of the however, indications from day to day that the “anti-counter- Russian collapse, and expressed the opinion that if the Russian revolution" is gaining force. General Kaledines and other armies had held firm “by this time the pride of the German Russian officers are certainly at the head of troops oppposed to military power would have been completely humbled.” The the Bolsheviki. The great country of the Ukraine, with its twenty need to help Italy called for renewed effort to increase the million inhabitants and its great cities of Odessa and Kiev, has British armies. As for peace by negotiation, said the Prime declared its independence. This, of course, is precisely what Minister, it should always be remembered that a league of the Bolshevik Government theoretically approves, but evi- nations in which Germany was represented by triumphant milidently it regards with great distrust the probability that the tarism would be a hollow farce. Ships were urgently needed. Ukraine may join forces with the enemies of Lenine.
On the other hand, he said, German soldiers and workmen were The peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, now going on, are deteriorating in quality, British permanent losses were only oneattended by delegates from Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and fourth or one-fifth of German losses, the losses from submarines Turkey, as well as from Russia and Germany. A peculiarly had decreased, and ship-building was increasing. He acknowlpro-German rule has been made under which the delegates are edged that General Byng's splendid dash toward Cambrai had to speak on any given subject in the alphabetical order of the been only a temporary victory, and that there the Germans had names of their countries. Thus Austria, Bulgaria, and Germany their one and only success by surprise; yet the Germans had will all be heard before Russia has a chance to speak. The pro- lost this year on the western line 100,000 prisoners, valuable ceedings were opened by a long speech from the German For positions, and hundreds of guns. eign Minister, Dr. von Kühlmann. He talked long, but said There was no note of despondency in Mr. Lloyd George's nothing. Up to December 26 no agreement was reached between address. He said that while one great Power (Russia) had gone the irreconcilable proposals made before the conference met by out, and another (America) had not fully come in, America's Russia and Germany. Trotsky, the so-called Russian Foreign advent would loom large in the future. Until then, he said, Minister, before the conference spoke very boldly of his deter- England and France can and will stand squarely facing the foe. mination not to bow the knee (he used that phrase) to the Kaiser. This was after Germany indicated its intention to hold the Russian territory it now occupies, to establish a Lithuania
THE SUGAR SITUATION and a Poland which should be nominally free but really Ger. Mr. Hoover, the head of the Food Administration, bas man, to take Russia's wheat, and to establish free trade for been criticised by witnesses before a Congressional committee German goods for fifteen years. No wonder that Trotsky for his handling of the sugar situation. The Outlook reported balked! He seems now to be again under Germany's influence. this fact in its issue of December 26, but voiced the hope that If he expects that Germany will adopt, approve, or tolerate the its readers would withhold their decision as to the justification anarchistic absurdities advocated by him, his eyes will soon be for this criticism until Mr. Hoover himself had had an opporopened.
tunity to present his own defense. Meanwhile the much-talked-of German “ proposals for The Congressional committee investigating the sugar situapeace” have not appeared. Probably no careful etudent of the tion is headed by Senator Reed, of Missouri. Mr. Hoover's situation expected that they would. It is not the first time that chief critic has been Mr. Spreckels, a sugar refiner of considerGerman agents have put forth loose talk about forthcoming able prominence. Mr. Spreckels has charged that the sugar peace proposals, while official Germany has kept quiet and situation has been dominated to the detriment of the public hoped to profit by such talk. The so-called basis for possible interests by men representing the American Sugar Refining peace reported in despatches, but not emanating from any offi- Company who were closely co-operating with the Food Admincial source or made over any responsible name, was cleverly istration. Mr. Spreckels stated that the price fixed by the Food worded so as to leave for consideration later everything of vital Administration for unrefined Cuban sugar would necessitate a importance to Germany, and in all other points to give Ger- price to the consumer of ten cents a pound for granulated sugar, many the advantage. Every one will agree with the official a price entirely unjustified by the condition of the sugar market. statement of our Secretary of War, Mr. Baker, that “the On more than one occasion during the progress of Mr. various reports of immediate peace proposals by the Germans Spreckels's testimony the Food Administration requested an on seemingly favorable terms should not for a moment induce opportunity of presenting its own view of the situation. In us to slacken our preparations for war."
each instance the request was denied, on the ground that the Food Administration could not be beard until the testimony of actually employed in sea service, and the necessary sole directing the opposition was completed. A representative of the Food head of necessary agricultural or industrial enterprises. Administration was also denied the privilege of cross-examining Class five includes the legislative, executive, or judicial officers Mr. Spreckels. During the prvgi'ess of the investigation Mr.' of the United States, the individual States, the Territories, and Hoover transmitted to Senator Reed's committee a statement the District of Columbia. It includes ordained ministers, certain covering his side of the case. The committee refused even to divinity students, those already in the military or naval service make this statementa:part of its record or to authorize its pub- of the United States, and men permanently unfit for military lication.
service because of mental or physical disabilities. It also includes This hostility.to the Food Administration so obviously mani. licensed pilots actively employed and members of a well-recogfested by: Seirator Reed resulted in the publication, on Decem nized religious sector organization whose creed forbids its ber 26, of an official statement by Mr. Hoover, with the sanction members to participate in any way in war. of the President himself, embodying the facts which the Chair This fifth class is obviously intended to include all those inan of the Senate Committee, Senator Reed, refused to publish whom the Government desires absolutely to exempt from the after its submission to his committee.
provisions of the Draft Law, even though the fifth class is not It seems to us that Mr. Hoover's statement proves clearly that classified as exempt, but merely in the class whose call will be the shortage of sugar in this country is due, not to any manip longest deferred. The curious juxtaposition of ministers and ulation for the benefit of any private interest, but to the over those morally or mentally unfit for military service affords an whelming demand on this country by its allies for every interesting commentary on the legal provision which practically ounce of sugar at our disposal. Mr. Hoover gives the figures exempts clergymen from all kinds of military service. It would concerning the shipments abroad, and clearly indicates that the perhaps have been wiser if the Government had treated ministers country must prepare to limit its consumption of sugar more as it has treated doctors and medical students, that is, provided stringently in the future if it desires to support its allies in a that their talents might be used in a way to help the Goveruway in which every obligation of necessity and honor demands. ment to the best possible advantage. Many young ministers Mr. Hoover stated that “there are no sugar stocks in this coun would make, as many are making, the best kind of workers in try which are not in course of distribution.”
the Y. M. C. A. shacks here and abroad. Why exempt these Under the present circumstances he showed that there is no trained men from all service, while at the same time we require other way to prevent profiteering except by the policy which medical students and doctors either to join the Medical Reserve the Food Administration has pursued, namely, the system of or to serve in the army? voluntary agreement among producers and refiners. The only The individual questious by which the exhaustive classification alternative to limiting our present consumption is to cut down will be determined require the most careful attention on the the meager supplies of our allies or to divert shipping now in part of those who must answer them, but the questions are all our transport service to bringing sugar from the distant Java reasonable, and should provide the Government with exactly the markets. Mr. Hoover stated that if our greed and gluttony information it desires. A typical example of the care with which forced our allies to reduce their rations or to send ships to dis- this questionnaire has been developed is afforded by the group tant Java, we will have damaged seriously the war-making of questions dealing with agricultural labor. These questions powers of the United States.
are expected to indicate whether a farm laborer is necessary Mr. Hoover's statement is a convincing one. It shows up in to the farm where he works, and whether his work itself is useunpleasant relief the manner and methods which Senator Reed ful or merely devoted to the upkeep of some non-productive nd his majority associates have employed in their investigation country estate; and further, in case such an estate is worked as of Mr. Hoover's activities. The conduct of the sugar investi- a farm, whether it represents an agricultural enterprise of gation is in unpleasant contrast with that of the investigation value to the country. into the work done by the Ordnance Bureau and the Quarter- - The operation of the Selective Draft Law under the present master's Department.
regulations will protect the country from the misuse of its skilled labor so far as the draft registrants are concerned. No effort
has been made, so far as we know, however, to prevent skilled THE GREAT QUESTIONNAIRE
laborers, such as shipbuilders and mechanics, from volunteering Nearly ten million men during the current weeks will an for the war in either the Army or the Navy. It is perhaji swer a questionnaire designed to make the Draft Law a real unfortunate that the same tests now being applied to the selected selective service measure.
men could not also have been applied to the volunteers. It is the duty of every registered man, even if he does not receive his copy of the questionnaire, and even if he has been already exempted, to go to his local draft board and find out
THE RED CROSS DRIVE what is expected of him.
When the American Red Cross announced that it would On the basis of this questionnaire the men who have regis- increase its membership from five to ten millions, and hoped to tered under the Draft Law will be divided into five general reach a maximum of fifteen millions, there was some doubt felt classes. The first class will include, roughly, single men without by those who realized the magnitude of the task and did not dependents, dependent married men, married men not usefully realize the zeal of the vast number of volunteer campaigners engaged, skilled laborers, and all not otherwise classified. The l'eady to work for success under ingenious and efficient plans, second class includes married men with wives or children not The effort was even larger than at first appears, because it inwholly dependent upon their labor for support, and married cluled renewals of membership and payment of the annual fee men whose wives are skilled in some special class of work which of one dollar by most of the five million persons already memthey are physically able to perform and in which they are either bers. Thus, to take an actual example, one chapter in a town of employed or in which they can easily obtain employment and 5,04 j people had about 1,100 members before the drive ; when support themselves without suffering or hardship. Necessary on Christmas Day it had recorded 2,900 members, the statement skilled farm laborers and skilled industrial laborers are also meant that 2,900 people (new members and old) had paid pach included in this class, provided they are engaged in necessar; a clollar or more for a year's membership, beginning at once. enterprises.
And the “ drive” was to continue until New Year's. The third class includes those upon whom rests the responsi- As with the small town, su with the city and the country. On bility of caring for helpless dependents, such as chillren, infirm Christmas Day it was estimated that about 9,000,000 new memparents, or helpless brothers and sisters, highly trained firenien bers and 4,000,000 renewals had been registered. With this or policemen, certain necessary employees of the Federal Gov- total of 13,000,000 it would seem probable that the mark of ernment, managers or assistant managers of necessary agricul- 15,000,000 would be reached by New Year's Day, and certain tural or industrial enterprises, and technical or mechanical that the campaign has been successful in a most gratifying experts whose services are also of vital necessity. .
manner. The barmer region has been the Lakes Division, which, In the fourth class are to be found men whose wives or chil. with a quota of 1,063,000, report an enrollment of 2,000,000. dren are mainly depen('ent on their labor for support, mariners One interesting feature of the campaign has been the number