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nables them to distinguish, among the things that they observe, to-day who see its effect not only in easier work, but in results he important from the unimportant. Neither of them is an that have given greater fighting strength to our fighting forces. dvocate of a party or any public man. Neither of them has any A people who withhold criticism from their Government nterest in any merely partisan criticism. And yet the reader withhold that to which their Government has a right. will find that the Administration looks rather different as pictured by the one from the way it does as pictured by the other.
There is a somewhat corresponding difference in the way in JUSTICE TO WAR WORKERS which groups of people in this country at large view our Government at Washington. One group is inclined to say, " The That men at work on the building of ships should have left their Administration has done some things very well indeed, but”. work when, above all things else, ships are needed to overcome the The other group is inclined to say, “The Administration has enemy, has borrified the country. It is not surprising, therefore, of course made some blunders, but—” Thus there is practi that the President should have addressed a Message to the strikally unanimous agreement on two things : one, that our Gov- ers telling them that “no one can strike a deadlier blow at the ernment has to its credit some great achievements; the other, safety of the Nation and of its forces on the other side than by hat our Government is responsible for some serious mistakes. interfering with or obstructing the ship building programme;"
It is humani nature to crave appreciation for work well done and asking them, “ Will you co-operate or will you obstruct ?” And such appreciation has been accorded to the Administration, The words of the President sobered these strikers, as they and has been accorded ungrudgingly.
sobered the country. But now that the men have gone back to It is also human nature to resent criticism ; but in spite of work, the country should not forget that there is another side hat fact there is little resentment of constructive criticism in to this question. he minds of the men at Washington who are doing the hardest What that other side is has been tersely stated. >xecutive work in the prosecution of the war.
“I know of conditions in Newport News," said Mr. Homer Indeed, those who are doing the best work are the very men Ferguson, President of the Newport News Ship-Building Comwho have recognized the value that public criticism has been to pany, in his testimony before the Committee on Commerce of them and to their associates. There is no doubt that since last the United States Senate, “where eighteen people lived in one December, when the investigation of the Senate Committee on room, and in another room a man, his wife, and three children, Military Affairs brought to public notice serious defects in the and two of the children had diphtheria. Imagine such a thing! Government machine and thus aroused public criticism, there We talk about uplift and training-camp activities and demochas been a very great improvement.
racy, and then create a condition like that. I am not much This does not mean that men in authority and responsible of a settlement worker and that sort of thing, but when the office were slothful or indifferent. On the contrary, there has Government goes ahead and creates a condition where men canbeen no harder or more conscientious work done in this country not live decently—an unnecessary condition—I think it is right than has been done by some of the very men whose branches of bad.” the Government have been under fire.
A great army of laborers must live where the GovernThe fact is, men in public office in time of war need the tonic ment's enormous operations are being pushed through. Thirty of criticism-and for a very simple reason.
thousand men are employed in the shipyards in and near New Those who talk with men in khaki, and especially with men York, and thirty thousand more are coming. Forty thousand who have been in training camps or at the front, know that such workmen have flocked to Bridgeport, Connecticut. Twenty-five men talk very little about the war, or about questions of policy thousand are going to the great yards now in development on the or strategy, or about the larger movements of troops, or the big Newark meadows. There are no adequate accommodations near questions of administration. The reason is that the time of by. Most of the men come long distances ; they start early and those men is occupied from early morning till well on into the return late. They do not stay long at their jobs. Other men, night with the intense activities of their own particular duty. hearing of the housing conditions, decline to come. The soldier in the trench has little time to think about the in- The result is, as Mr. Grosvenor Atterbury, the well-known tentions of the Kaiser, for he has to have his mind on the housing expert, has pointed out in writing to The Outlook, that intentions of Fritz. The medical officer is overwhelmed with to-day labor is traveling from one plant to another, leaving in his medical duties, and then has to devote time and energy to its wake only increasing discontent and unsettlement. And in making elaborate reports. The field officer is concerned with order to tempt men to work under these conditions the Governhe care of his men and the receipt and transmission of ment must raise the current wage rate, said Mr. Atterbury, and orders. Now what is true of men in camp and at the front is as long as it permits these hardships in living conditions to peralso true of men immersed in administrative duties. So long as sist, just so long will it practically bid against itself in the labor they are left unmolested they have nothing to impel them to see market. And, it may be added, just so long will a great and anything but the next thing. If, for instance, they are charged unnecessary overhead charge be added to the expense of making with the duty of providing certain supplies, they have to keep our ships and our munitions which our forces need in abunthemselves alert to see that the requisitions for those supplies dance.
ome to them as other requisitions should come and are duly This was a condition that was foreseen. The need of houses recorded and attended to as they have always been recorded was known last spring by several bodies that brought the need und attended to. How can such men take up the question to the attention of the Government. Though recommendations whether there is any need for requisitions at all? They cannot were made according to a plan instituted in the War Departind they do not unless some outside agency, with sufficient press ment, no request was made directly to Congress to provide the
re behind it, impresses upon them the fact that there is some necessary housing. We do not know the reasons for the Govthing more important than the duty of the present routine, and ernment's delay. It was only the more imaginative who were that is the reform of the routine itself.
able to visualize the coming of war to America before it came; This is what has happened at Washington. The old machinery and perhaps the Government did not soon enough visualize the that answered well enough for renewing year by year the sup needs of modern war or the methods to meet those needs. It plies for a stationary army was put to the job of creating a was somewhat so in England. Though the Government there modern army with modern weapons to fight a war three thou- saw early that the great increase in the number of workmen
and miles away. The men who constituted that machinery have building ships and making munitions would require a great worked like slaves in order to keep up. They had no thought increase in the number of houses, it did not see as clearly that or mind of changing the machinery itself. Most fortunately for this increase should be in good houses. It is not enough that the country, there were men who did have mind for just there should be simply shelter, sanitation, and provision for that thing. And through the investigation in the Senate the family life. Men and women need something more than that. pressure was brought to bear for a change in the machinery Attractiveness in environment helps the worker as it helps the itself; and already, in two months' time, the effect in some soldier to do his bit more effectively. branches of the War Department is remarkable. And among As Mr. W'inthrop Hamlin says in his recent study based on those who are most grateful for that criticism are the men the housing collection of the Harvard Social Museum, “ Hap
piness, or the chance for happiness, is still wrongly thought of as a luxury without which one may yet lead a profitable life.” And Mr. Hamlin therefore includes among the elements which must be provided for in proper housing “ æsthetic pleasure.”
On page 364 in this issue Mr. Richard S. Childs, in an article on “ The New Garden Cities of England," tells how England has undertaken to solve this problem which we have been facing for months in this country. He shows how England has not only provided houses for her war workers, but houses of beauty in veritable cities of gardens.
If America does what England has done, she will have her reward not only in the war but in the years that are to come when the war is over.
alive in us the trust that leaves the rest to God that we mad our bit more hopefully and more efficiently?
Such are some of the questions which are being pressed hon upon the hearts and consciences of men and women in ere town and village in the country. The Church should answ them.
A French soldier, writing from the front, says in a ree publication : 1
Religion flourishes whenever men pause and begin to think Because this war is being carried on by people who are not prom fessional soldiers, each one has been uprooted from his normal place and consequently from his routine. It has put each one in such a novel position that even those most limited mentally 2 anxious to understand what it is that is happening to their They are forced to think of their destiny, and, willingly or not. they turn to the God whom they learned to know and pray to : their mothers' knees.
If this war does not impel us to think of our destiny and to to the God whom we learned to know and pray to at mothers' knees, it will be the fault of the churches. The Outlul has defended them from the charge that they have done wid ing ; but are they doing all they can ? No. The Church at the time ought to be an army. It is a series of detachments acti: independently and separately, with little coherence in coue and little co-operation in action. Dr. Reiland has pointed a one way in which they can do more. His message we repeats all the churches we can reach:
“ We should be workers together with God.”
Actions speak louder than words. Dr. Reiland's counse). both illustrated and emphasized by the remarkable dedicatof church headquarters at Camp Upton on February 24dedication in which Protestants, Jews, and Catholics united of a building to be employed by them all in common under the auspices of a voluntary committee representing six differen Protestant communions who provided the cost for the eractit of this building.
But that dedication ought not to be an extraordinary event It ought to be an example to be followed in spirit in every comunity and by all Christian churches, an example of coris co-operation in promoting the religion of faith, hope, and lof which no sect has any monopoly.
WHY NOT? Dr. Karl Reiland, the rector of St. George's Church in New York City, in a recent sermon made an excellent suggestion, which we commend to our readers :
This dynamic of Prussian violation, this world-changing, military murder, this most Godless business of history, has not caused one great ecclesiastical convention, one convocation, one special synod, one Christian communal protest, or clear ringing call among the differing servants of an offended deity, to voice the vigorous denunciation, the outraged conscience of altruistic humanity, the pathetic miseries, which the deep damnation of this degenerate and blasphemous fratricide unqualifiedly demands.
Why not a great wave of Christian unification in every city and town, in every cathedral and building, where, without regard to creed, and with nothing but the Sermon on the Mount, forgetting for the time all theories of ministerial validity and official qualification, remembering only the Divine Servant girding himself with a towel for a servant's task, and his caution that man should seek the true God through a loving brotherhood of menwhy not, I say, come together for the greatest communion service ever held on earth, and find the unification of the fold in a simple, humble, spiritual imitation of the Shepherd? We need no commission to go anywhere else than out into its own dooryard to begin victoriously at home what misguidedly they are seeking vainly abroad. In our own hearts—the realest part of us—we stand close together, for we know best of all that we fundamentally belong to the greatest denomination in the world, which is the communion of the children of one only God.
Why not, in the spirit of this suggestion, hold weekly, or at least monthly, meetings in each village, town, and city-meetings in which all religious organizations should unite in services to strengthen our faith, inspire our courage, and incite and quicken our activities?
The second service in most churches is a task to ministers and a trial to conscientious laymen. They are exhorted to support a service the object of which is to support them. Why not substitute for this generally lame and inefficient service a union of all churches, including Jewish synagogues where they exist, in a service aimed to promote both piety and patriotism? Why inspire loyalty to the country only in halls, and loyalty to God only in churches ?
There are many profoundly religious questions which laymen are asking and to which they have a right to look to the churches for an answer.
Is war ever right?
What is the difference between the righteous indignation that inspired Christ's unparalleled invective against the hypocrites of his time and the unrighteous wrath which the universal conscience either vigorously condemns or feebly excuses ?
Can we maintain a rational faith in the goodness and power of God in view of the awful calamities of the present hour?- If so, what is that faith and how shall we maintain it?
How are we to regard death, and in what spirit are we to meet it when it comes to us and to our dear ones?
How shall we maintain our interest and activity in promoting the cause at stake in this war and avoid the worries and anxieties which depress and discourage us ?
“I do the little I can do,
And leave the rest to God.” How shall we discriminate between the little we can do and the rest that we are to leave to God, and how shall we keep
LENTEN LESSONS II-A TEACHER OF LIFE
A writer of the first century, a disciple of Jesus, and pre ably a contemporary, has defined in the following words the object of the teaching of Jesus :
For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to al men, instructing us, to the intent that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly and righteously and godly s this present world ; looking for the blessed hope and appearin: of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.
This statement, though very brief, is very comprehensir for it covers the four possible relations of man to life. His relation
To the material world through the body.
How did the great Teacher teach his disciples they she live in these four relations? How should they act toward thr. bodies and the material world ; toward their fellow-men society; toward God; toward the future? What did Jed mean by the four words: soberly, righteously, godly, bir fully? What should these words mean to Jesus' disciples?
What should they mean? Then Jesus did teach his disciple what to think.
Yes. Thinking is an important part of living. But with less thinking correctly was incidental, living correctly was essentie Too often in the teaching of the Church thinking correctly .. To
Comrades in Courage. By Lieutenant Antoine Redier. Translated by Philip Duncan Wilson. Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. $L
been essential and living correctly incidental. Living correctly
THE BATH OF BEAUTY is morality; thinking correctly is orthodoxy. And orthodoxy has been treated as more important than morality.
The Happy Eremite laid aside the evening paper with a deep There is more preaching on life in this first quarter of the sigh, rose, and began to walk thoughtfully up and down the twentieth century; there was more preaching on theology in the dim-lit library. The room was very quiet. The Lady Eremite first quarter of the nineteenth century. Nevertheless we won, and the children had long gone to bed and to sleep. Sonny, the der how large a proportion of the time of the theological semi- Airedale, too, had gone to sleep with his nose on the hearth. The naries is spent in teaching men how to live; how many of the green hickory logs had ceased from crackling, and were purring church Bible classes are studying the interpretation which like a drowsy cat. Jesus gave to these four words-soberly, righteously, godly, The Happy Eremite was not altogether happy. The newshopefully.
paper had set his nerves on edge. He was passionately interWe wonder also how many even of our preachers think it more ested in the war. He read each scrap of news as avidly as on in:portant to study themselves and teach their congregations those first strange, tragic, and incomparably exciting days of what Jesus taught his disciples about sobriety, righteousness, late July and early August nearly four years back. He devoured godliness, and hopefulness than what he taught about inspira- the editorials. This man's attack on that man, that man's tion, atonement, and the Trinity.
defense, and a third man's scathing denunciation of both he We venture to suggest four clues to his teaching on these four studied with anxious care. He read reports from the camps, subjects.
and endless articles and books of human stuff from the trenches. Soberly—“ Is not the life more than the food, and the body And morning, noon, and night, he talked and talked of the war. than the raiment?”
And now he was walking up and down his pleasant library, Jesus taught that things are made for folks, not folks for lined with books of exquisite literature almost untouched these things. That to sacrifice one's health of body or spirit to acquire three and a half years, suddenly aware that the war was getting things is always a poor bargain. That the profiteer who spends on his nerves. He found himself suddenly disgusted with the his energies in accumulating and storing wealth is a fool. Things strife of tongues; disgusted with the pitiful inadequacy of his are good servants but bad masters.
own thinking and speculating ; appalled and revolted beyond Righteously—“A new commandment I give unto you, that words by the ceaseless record day by day of maiming and killye love one another; even as I have loved you, that ye also ing by ever-new devices of devilish ingenuity. love one another.”
“The war is too much with us,” he murmured, emending Righteousness is conforming to a standard. If a pupil spells Wordsworth. the word as it is spelled in the dictionary, he has spelled it He strode up and down. “I am losing my sense of values," rightly. If the yardstick is of the same length as the standard he said to himself half aloud. “This war is right. We had to at the City Hall, it is a right yardstick. If a life set alongside get into it to save our soul, our liberty, the liberty of the world. the life of Jesus measures up to his life, it is a right life. If our And we must see it through. Really through. Not half-way love for the poor, the suffering, the sinful is like his love, it is through to an inglorious, indeterminate, ignoble peace. But a right love.
through, clear through. And not the President only, not the Godly—“After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father Government, but we. I must see it through.” which art in heaven.”
He stopped at the broad lamp-lit table and leaned over the We are the children of a Father, not the subjects of a King. newspaper outspread across it, nodding rather solemnly. Then What is the difference? The loyal subject obeys the will of his he folded the paper and slipped it into the scrap-basket. king; the loyal child shares the will of his father. The king “They order these things better in France," he said to himcontrols the conduct of his subjects by law; the father mold's self, with a faint, troubled smile. “There it's forty-eight hours the character of his children by love. The king dwells apart in the trenches and forty-eight hours in billets, with a concert from his subjects, ruling them through subordinates ; the father and a movie or two and a game of baseball and letters home dwells with and in his children, inspiring them by his own for diversion, and a bath-especially a bath. Poor civilian staypresent personality.
at-homes that we are, we over here keep to our trenches too Hopefully—“ And the glory which thou hast given me I much. Our minds become stupefied, mechanical, mud-coated. have given unto them.”
We lose the fighting edge. There are even vermin, of a kind, What is this glory? The glory of the good shepherd laying that get us. We need diversion and a bath—especially a bath.” down his life for the sheep. The glory of the father welcoming He began to pace the floor again. “ The movies and a phonoback without reproach the returning son. The glory of love, graph concert will do the business for the man who fights with service, and sacrifice. The glory which Mrs. Browning has so his hands," he murmured. “But they won't do it for us who beautifully portrayed :
fight with this thing we talk about so much and call our mind. “ Heaven is dull,
And no water that runs from a faucet will cleanse and refresh Mine Ador, to man's earth. The light that burns
that mind. The bath we need is a different kind of bath. A In fluent, refluent motion
bath for the spirit, a bath in the water of life-the running Along the crystal ocean ;
water of life; a bath of beauty." The springing of the golden harps between
He felt the tears rise to his eyes, and swallowed with an effort The bowery wings, in fountains of sweet sound;
the lump in his throat; for he had suddenly become conscious The winding, wandering music that returns
in full measure of his own great need of immersion in some such Upon itself, exultingly self-bound In the great spheric round
restoring fountain of loveliness. “Beauty," he said, softly. “I Of everlasting praises ;
have almost forgotten that there was such a thing as beauty. I The God-thoughts in our midst that intervene,
used to see beauty in every street and along every country road Visibly flashing from the supreme throne
and in the stars. Now I see only war. I used to find beauty Full in seraphic faces
in the grand old stories, in poetry, music. I do not read the Till each astonishes the other, grown
grand old stories nowadays. I do not read poetry. I do not More beautiful with worship and delight
hear music. I read the newspapers and the war books, and when My heaven! my home of heaven! my infinite
I put a record on the phonograph it is not Bach's ' Air for the Heaven-choirs ! what are ye to this dust and death,
G* String,' as it used to be, or the • Liebestod,' or a bit of
Mozart, but Over There,' or 'Good-by, Broadway! Hello,
France!' or ' Pack All Your Troubles in Your Old Kit Bag !'”
He paused. “I must find beauty again somehow. My soul We are not here attempting to answer the question as to what needs a bath-a bath of beauty." it means to live soberly, righteously, godly, and hopefully. We He turned to his bookshelves and stood before the section only suggest clues to help the reader to study the life and teach- where the books of poetry were ranged. His eyes wandered ings of Jesus that he may find for himself what Jesus meant by over the titles. There was beauty there, surely, but to-night it those words.
did not lure him, and he began to wonder whether possibly the old delight in poetry had been choked within him by the luxu- He closed the book on his forefinger with a long sigh and a riant tares of these three years of sensation and endless argu- relaxing of over-tense muscles. For a long time he stood thus ment. His fingers fell on a worn copy of the “Golden Treas with eyes half shut, feeling suddenly cleansed of the dust of ury," and he drew it forth and opened it at random. And petty temporal struggles in the cool, effervescent, healing waters dreamily, half aloud, he began to read :
of beauty. The angry strife of little men seemed remote and “ In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
unreal. Even the war seemed for an instant a matter of small A stately pleasure-dome decree:
moment, a conflict of red ants with black ants, all of whom Where Alph, the sacred river, ran,
together could be trodden out by one firm footfall.
He repeated the last lines softly:
“ Weave a circle round him thrice,
And close your eyes with holy dread,
For he on honey-dew hath fed,
And drunk the milk of Paradise.”
“Dear God, but it is beautiful !” he said.
The hall clock chimed at last, reminding him that the hour He felt his blood run more swiftly, and he drew a long breath
was midnight. Dreamily, he turned to the fireplace and set the
screen before the simmering logs. Dreamily, he turned off the as though he had been suddenly lifted into the clear ether
light and ascended the stairs to his bedroom. about a mountain-top. He read the familiar lines slowly, as
Sleep came slowly from afar off. He seemed to see it coming, though he had never known their magic before:
in a dark-blue ship with a dark-blue sail on a night sea under “ It was a miracle of rare device,
a blue translucent bowl. Blissfully rocking on long, calm swells, A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!
he saw sleep come in his ship. The sky seemed to brighten A damsel with a dulcimer
slowly behind it, and a soft wind arose, blowing out the candle In a vision once I saw ; It was an Abyssinian maid,
of the single low-hanging star; the sea began to wake and to And on her dulcimer she played,
glint and gleam in bronze and crimson and oily purple. The Singing of Mount Abora.
ship came very slowly. He closed his eyes and listened to the Could I revive within me
purling of the water about the prow of the ship of sleep as it Her symphony and song,
came out of the golden quarter of Atlantis-listened with arms To such a deep delight 'twould win me
outstretched, floating, floating, floating in golden, liquid beautyThat, with music loud and long,
“ Could I revive within me
Her symphony and song-
Could I revive within me,
Could I revive within me-
Her symphony-and song—”
He woke, deeply refreshed.
“I wonder," he said to himself, irrelevantly, “ I wonder For he on honey-dew bath fed,
whether history doesn't show that wars are won by people who And drunk the milk of Paradise.”
take baths ?”
SOME WASHINGTON IMPRESSIONS
Criticism directed to the strengthening of this country in the prosecution of the war has been one of the chief duties of the press at this time. In it we have had to take our part. It has been a duty which has had to be performed in spite of the fact that it invited misinterpretation on the part of readers. In performing this duty we have also sought to emphasize impartially the side of accomplishment, and we have not been unconscious that critical interpretation of the leadership of the President and his closest advisers ought to be tempered with sympathy and a sense of the vast public burdens which they are called upon to carry. We have asked Mr. Davenport to make this human and sympathetic interpretation. We have not asked him to present his own views, but to interpret for our readers what seem to him to be the point of view and the nature and purpose of the President in his conduct of the war, as understood by his intimate counselors and confidential advisers. Mr. Davenport is Professor of Law and Civil Polity at Hamilton College, Clinton, New York. He was a Republican State Senator in the New York Legislature in 1909 and 1910, and nominee of the Progressive party for LieutenantGovernor of New York State in 1912 and for Governor in 1914. His acquaintance with political forces and political personages throughout
the United States is intimate and authoritative.—THE EDITORS. M H AT was a very human touch of Clemenceau in his speech preceding week had been one of unusual fatality among the
the other day in the Chamber of Deputies on the occasion young American airmen in training who were learning to exe 1 of the debate over the calling to the colors of the class of cute similar maneuvers. And Lee said that nevertheless all 1919. He spoke of a peasant whom he had met on a recent visit these startling stunts of the sky are of the highest value, and, to his old home in the province of the Vendée, who had four despite much peril, must be learned to the last light turn of the sons killed in the war, the fifth was a prisoner, and the sixth at wrist until they become second nature and proficiency of high the front. The old peasant looked up into the Premier's face degree becomes a possession. It is the only way to conquer in and said: “Messieur Clemenceau, will all this end well ?” And the air. In that realm the slightest inefficiency is disaster. Clemenceau said, “ Yes.” “Good," said the old peasant; “then On the sea and in the sky the natural daring and initiative we will give all.”
of America are coming through. The fates have only to give us As the more thoughtful and serious portion of the plain a little time and a chance. It is about the mental leadership American people have pondered the recent revelations of gov- and organization of the vast industrial and military resources ernmental incompetence, and have realized how characteristic of the country which are vital to victory that the heart flutters, it all is of the public side of the American democracy, there has and the inarticulate murmur of the millions rises into the interbegun to creep over the mind of a nation the disquieting ques. rogatory of the peasant-“Will all this end well ?” tion of the old French peasant-“ Will all this end well?” Yesterday I watched Lieutenant-Colonel Lee, reckoned the
MUDDLING THROUGH second greatest British flier, with a record of forty-two Ger When you get a look into the inside of certain processes of man planes, circling over the White House and the great gray the Administration at Washington or at certain of the processes Executive Department buildings on either side, doing the “spin- of the mind of the country at war, you wonder if there is anything ning nose” dive and the “falling leaf,” and performing the more tragic than a democracy trying to extricate itself from a most astonishing feats with the skill and ease of a master. The deadly danger. At first all its speeded-up activities seem to be
circling in chaos. The grossest forms of selfishness come to the archives of the chancelleries some day all this will come to light! top side by side with the sublimest manifestations of selflessness. The country has never known Woodrow Wilson, and never will Great numbers of strong men who will give up their sons without know him in terms of these whispering tales ! complaint wince and falter if there is likelihood of their business Wilson's parley with Czernin has an interpretation as simple being interfered with or if the right to private property and and natural as the morning. He has not been playing for a initiative seems temporarily to be put in jeopardy. Profiteering negotiated peace in despair of a military decision. There is not appears in a hateful and menacing guise. In spots labor is a sign in Washington that there is the slightest let-up in all the resentful and suspicious and slackingly unpatriotic
activities of physical and military power. Every department is All at once our slovenly democratic ways disclose themselves preparing for five years or longer, and is continually, even if in all their folly and senselessness. For forty years we have tol- slowly, increasing the circle of efficiency. What the President erated National and State Governments far below the standard is doing with the intrigues of international politics is precisely of the needs of free democracies. We have neglected human the thing, so his intimate counselors declare, which has proved acquaintance with the working class, and now we pay the penalty. effective for the public good in the intrigues of National poliLet us be honest. I hold no brief for the Democratic party in tics—that is, he is bringing intrigue into the open. Intrigue Washington. It is quite likely true that the country is getting disports itself with difficulty in the light of day. In all previous ready for a change. But nevertheless many of the faults of the wars there have undoubtedly been these preliminary parleys in Government at Washington are at the root faults of American advance of peace, but they have been in secret. President Wildemocracy. The little Spanish War exposed to view, in a Repub- son is striving to make them adjuncts of force. He is seeking to lican Administration, the fringes of disorganization and disinte- stir the dormant psychology of the peoples of the world and gration in the National fabric.
start deep currents towards peace which shall be complements Let us tell the worst of it first. It is right to speak up for to armed power. It is a new and simple and human method in some of the men who are bearing the real burden in Wasb- international conflict. It is doubtful how far it has yet availed. ington. But it is not necessary to lose any time speaking up for But certainly the military and naval authorities in Washington the Democratic party in Congress. It has in the House and the understand that it is not intended for one moment to ease them Senate its full quota of stupidity and reaction. If you should off in preparation for a real decision in the gigantic struggle. take the servile and surly elements out of the Democratic party If it does nothing else, this open parley with whole peoples is in Congress, there would be a great gap in the line. His party educating the mind of the world in the principles of permanent has given President Wilson and his most intimate helpers many peace and justice which are to form material for discussion at. a bad quarter of an hour in the last three years. We might the green council table. Under such international preparation have had a great shipping programme and shipyards in process as this you can never slip reactionism over on the world as it three years ago if it had not been for the opposition both in the was slipped over on the Congress of Vienna following the Nacountry and in Congress to the somewhat misunderstood plans poleonic wars. lesigned with leadership and foresight by Secretary McĀdoo. The President probably does not expect to satisfy the bitterAnd when the beneficent policy of the selective draft must have enders. He probably does not expect to satisfy those who would
sponsor in the House, President Wilson had need to go to exact the full measure of retributive penalty from Germany for Republican Representative Julius Kahn, of California, for the her brutal aad unspeakable horrors. But neither will he satisfy Pourageous voicing and handling of this measure vital to the the pacifist weaklings at the other extreme. What he is seeking, safety of our country.
no doubt, to satisfy is the great body of people in America who And the leadership of the Executive Administration group abhor war, but who will hear of nothing else than a genuine tself has reflected, at points which have now. been sufficiently and complete moral victory-no matter what it costs. His eye emphasized, the narrowness of view and incompetence of democ- is on the moralities. He would have a soundly converted Gerracy. Up to date this has been rather too much of a war of the many and a world safe for coming generations, and then not Democratic party, fought by the Democratic party for the Demo one day more of war. And just because he does not see any
ratic party. There has been none too much generosity towards sign of German conversion or any hope of a moral victory party opponents and none too much instinct for patriotic com except through the triumph of arms, there is, under his order operation with them.
or suggestion in the National preparation, neither variableness The shipping is muddled, the guns have been muddled, the nor shadow of turning from the hard and narrow militant path railways have been muddled, the health of the camps has been to the final goal. muddled. There has been slow initiative and there has been no The question whether we shall hold on against every obstacle single group with detachment and time to think and to plan until the right triumphs must be answered in the last analysis with foresight the clarification of the muddle. But in consider by determining what is the real nature of the President. Some able measure this is American democracy, and in a democracy of his critics believe him to be a weak opportunist in internat seems that it is only out of the chaos of inefficiency that effi tional affairs. There is no doubt that the President has in his iency at last begins to emerge.
public career developed a strong strain of opportunism. But
those who know him best look upon this strain as quite an PUT YOURSELF IN HIS PLACE
acquired characteristic-albeit a valuable one for a world statesI mean the President's place. More than anybody else in the man. But I go back to the strain of heredity which lies deeper Country, perhaps now in the world, he is carrying the burden of than anything else in the nature of Woodrow Wilson, that he war. I heard to-day of a well-known lady in Washington stubborn Scotch-Irish strain which shows in his jaw and his eye, vho the night before at dinner chatteringly assailed the Presi- and sometimes in his manner. That is the deepest thing in Wilson. lent because he plays golf every morning, and seems measur. And with it is an unalterable stubborn opportunism which will bly care-free, in so grave a.time. What pitiful shallows a mind under no circumstances brook moral defeat, but which will not, ike this woman's must navigate! If the President loses his on the other hand, dash its brains out against a stone wall hysical and mental poise, the jig is up, perhaps, for the democ when there is a way around into what are coming to be thought acies of the world.
of by all the world as the Elysian Fields of justice and peace. How subject to misunderstanding the President is in a That sort of a nature in a place of supreme power, preserved ime like this! There are not a few people in Washington who strong and thoughtful through the fiery trial, is, of course, worth tre fearful lest he may be perhaps even now flirting with the more than any other one asset to the cause of democracy and Pope and the Emperor Charles for an early peace! These fear- freedom. It is upon the belief that the President has such a 'ul souls seem not to realize that this suspicion attributes to the nature of stubborn opportunism that the mass of people in the l’resident the qualities of both a knave and a fool-a knave United States, who love righteousness and peace even if they because it assumes that, while professing to be employing a pro have to die for it, posit their profound conviction that the foundly new and open diplomacy, he is also engaged in secret President will see it through. ntrigue beneath the surface; and a fool because out of the Washington, February 22, 1918. FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT. This will be followed next week by another Washington letter from Professor Darenport
entitled " Some Washington Portraits”