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THE NEW GARDEN CITIES OF ENGLAND

BY RICHARD S. CHILDS

A

making duw garden 16.000

LL over England at the various centers of munitions- other for women. Smoking-room, billiard-room, auditorium, tea

making during the last two years there have been blos- room, dance floor, lockers and showers, and something going on

- soming new garden cities. There is Gretna, for instance, for everybody. the largest of them, with 16,000 inhabitants prettily and cozily There are some hotels and boarding houses, but a few partihoused amid green lawns and winding roads, with water, gas, tions will some day convert them into one-family homes. and sewers, play-fields, churches, schools, and public buildings, Step into one of the snug little houses, part of an irregular, all complete, where two years ago was only vacant moor. rambling building with a broken roof line. A living-roo

There are scores of such magic towns and villages, and more lery, and perhaps a parlor on the ground floor, and three bedto come, and they house several hundred thousand of the work rooms and bath above, heated by coal grates, after the English ers who feed the endless river of shells and guns and war equip- fashion, and all for a rent so shockingly low that it leaves the ment that now so abundantly supplies the armies in France. well-paid munitions worker rolling in ready money. Queensferry, Well Hall, Glengarnock, East Riggs, Lanark, And here we reach the gist of it all. If private landlordism are some of the places that will attract gaping American busi- had supplied these homes, we would have seen the following ness tourists after the war.

sequence of events : 1. Munitions plant located. 2. Influx of Life is worth living in these villages. Workers were with population, local land values boom. 3. Munitions plant cries for drawn for six weeks from one great arsenal to build a dance labor and offers high wages. 4. Builders try to buy land to put hall in the village, and the statesmen of England say it paid in up houses for labor, pay inflated price for land, charge for it in munitions output.

the rent. 5. Labor finds high wages nullified by high rent and The ablest city planners in Great Britain planned these towns fades away. 6. Munitions plant offers higher wages. 7. Landto make them convenient, economical, and pleasant to the eye. lords levy higher rents and owners of empty land announce Instead of a crude gridiron of streets cutting obstinately and higher prices. Net result-high cost of munitions, incessant expensively across the irregular levels, the ingenious planner labor turnover, disorganization, labor troubles, landowners and cons his contour map and lays curving streets to follow the lay speculators making fortunes. That is the American method. of the land, avoiding cuts and fills and steep grades. Instead of The English method is different. The English national Govwasteful broad streets for trifling traffic, there are generous ernment located these towns, built them, and owns every house, thoroughfares here and slender lanes there. Instead of long, park, fence, bush, road, pipe, wire, and recreation hall in them. monotonous straight lines of curb and roof and wall, there are By Parliamentary authority it took the lands, not at the boom easy curves and charming irregular vistas, and the houses stand value that followed the creation of the munitions plants, but at in groups at broken angles to catch the maximum sunlight. In vacant land pre-war valuation. And it reserves the further side the blocks-if these variegated blobs of green can be called right to take as much more adjacent land as it sees fit at the blocks—we find unfenced lawns and sheltered spaces so attrac- pre-war valuation without regard to the owners' idea of the tive that many of the houses prefer to face that way and turn new value given it by the coming of thousands of people to the their backs upon the street. Gardens for vegetables or flowers neighborhood. The unearned increment is there, but it is safely are separately grouped at convenient locations for those who in the nation's pocket; and the nation, unlike a private land desire such allotments.

owner, charges rents only on a basis of costs, and not the maxiStep into spacious Gretna Institute. One floor is for men, the mum that the well-paid munitions worker can stand.

yet their dividends are not limited and the Government has no
power to buy out their interest at cost, although they are free
to buy out the Government's. In cases where the houses are to
be scattered through or around an existing city such an un-
guarded policy will not matter, for the unearned increments of
land value will be dissipated indistinguishably over neighboring
and downtown areas and probably cannot be conserved. .
· But some of these great housing developments are to be new
towns and suburbs, self-contained and complete, with their own
business sections, created by simple fiat on broad tracts of remote
meadow-land where cows are grazing to-day. Six hundred to
seven hundred dollars per capita is the land value frequently
reached in such industrial communities, but the land, with its
improvements, such as streets, sewers, lights, and water, will cost
only a fraction of that. Under a wide-open policy of selling off
lots or houses and lots as soon as the cost can be recouped, the
difference between the cost and the ultimate value will escape.
That is what happened at Gary, Indiana,'where the United States

Steel Corporation created a city in 1906 and sold off lots at SANDBY GREEN-A GLIMPSE OF A NEW ENGLISH VILLAGE FOR MUNITION

cost, and the law of the unearned increment in that rapidly WORKERS

growing town scattered over $22,000,000 in pure gifts of rising Five hundred million dollars is the approximate amount that

land value indiscriminately and haphazardly among various England has spent on these garden cities already, and so effi- lucky or shrewd early buyers ciently do they stabilize labor and multiply output that more

Needless to say, no land speculators should be allowed to get and more of them are being built. The labor turnover—the in- into these new Government towns to exploit the incoming shipcessant coming and going of restless, dissatisfied workers-has, vard workers. Neither should workers who buy or lease houses in these cases, disappeared as a problem. Labor has no use for

be allowed to resell or sub-let to other workers at a profit as the high wages if living costs are equally high. What labor wants

values rise. Occupancy should be limited to shipyard workers, is more margin, and so England holds down the amount of

sub-letting prohibited, and the rents that are paid must be kept tribute that labor must pay to land. The annual cost of the

down to the minimum necessitated by costs, as in England. If patch of ground that the munitions worker's little house occupies

any loophole is left for capitalizing the unearned increments, is not its inflated town value, but is much nearer the value it

high rents will nullify high wages, workers will begin taking had as a worthless patch of the original empty, wind-swept

boarders, and the old evils of congestion, high labor turnover, moor.

and dissatisfaction will reappear, to the detriment of the armies English labor has grasped the principle and sees the vision

that wait in France. of a slumless and tenementless age. It is demanding that when

A central Federal housing authority has now been created the great armies flood back across the Channel, and the period

in the Labor Department with an inadequate appropriation to of unemployment and readjustment sets in, the Government

build houses where needed, whether for Army, Navy, or contribushall spend billions for no less than a million new dwellings to tory industries. It has power to condemn the lands it needs and rehouse the working class of England. Tory business men agree,

operate the properties. It will doubtless find it advisable to work for it will make English labor so efficient that England can

through subordinate commissions of local public-spirited busiconquer the commercial world.

ness men in the various places, such as those who have come forThe Government's investment in present and future garden

ward already in the proposed housing corporations. It should cities will presumably be recouped after the war by selling

build, not merely houses, but stores, churches, theaters, dance them off, not to individuals, but to the municipal governments

halls, libraries, and other attributes of normal, wholesome life, or to non-profit co-partnership tenants societies for group owner

without which labor—particularly sober, high-grade laborship, which plans are already familiar in Letchworth and the

cannot be attracted except at excessive cost. The present policy English garden suburbs.

seems to be to insist on the securing of local capital for twenty In America we have plunged headlong and heedlessly through

per cent, the Government loaning the other eighty per cent on a costly period of high labor turnover into an acute housing

first mortgage. Local capital objects that present costs are abcrisis. Plants and shipyards have been hiring annually five and

normal and the future of these towns uncertain, so it asks for ten times their normal number of employees in frenzied and

protection and ought to get it. While the debate on such points vain attempts to maintain full forces. At Hog Island they are

proceeds in a vain desire to save money, the country is paying hiring 20,000 men a month to maintain a force of 20,000. The

heavily in delay and expensive manufacturing difficulties. Engaverage turnover at all the shipyards is six hundred per cent a

hundred per cent a - lish experience indicates that we must come in the end to com

lish experience indicates that vear. The Newport News shipyards have been running at half plete Government financing and control. capacity, for the workmen who came could find no decent place

After the war, and after the readjustment of the industries to to live. Shacks and crowded boarding houses and beds that work three shifts a day will not long suffice for good workmen, despite high wages. At Philadelphia the Emergency Fleet Corporation started the gigantic Hog Island yards, and then, having let it be known that these would attract some eight thousand workmen, prepared to build homes for them, and went shopping for land without power of condemnation. Naturally the landowners saw them coming and prices went skyward (inspired perhaps by the example of the farmer at the Du Ponts' new town at Hopewell, Virginia, who sold a piece of his $10,000 farm for $250,000.)

At Wilmington, Bridgeport, and elsewhere local housing corporations have been formed with local capital. They bave made plans, picked out the land, and asked for Federal loans, and in some cases seem likely to secure them. They expect to sell off the new houses as promptly as may be possible. Construction costs are so high that quick sales are not anticipated, but the pressure for accommodations will remain serious, and, although the housing companies are not organized for profit so much as públic-spiritedly to attack an insistent local problem,

EVEN A REAR VIEW OF THESE COTTAGES IS ATTRACTIVE

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a peace basis, the excess costs of the houses due to haste and war conditions should be written off as a cost of war and the properties sold unbroken to the communities themselves, acting through non-profit local land companies. Thus the annual value of the increments can be conserved for the common benefit either in the form of abnormally low rents, conditions considered, or in the form of extra community revenue. A Committee on New Industrial Towns, composed of tax and real estate authorities, with Mr. Lawson Purdy, of New York, as Chairman, has been working for two years on the problems of anticipating and conserving unearned increments of land value in the new communities

which American corporations occasionally create as incidents to the establishment of new plants. Its programme is applicable to some of these new ship-building and munitions-housing projects. To the enterprise of an architect, Mr. F. L. Ackerman, of this Committee, you are indebted for the story of England's doings as reviewed above, and for the pictures, which are the first that have been allowed to go outside of England. This Committee is trying quietly to get the English principle of close land control accepted here in time to affect the great main housing prgramme. Luckily, there is considerable vision and imagination these days in Washington.

PERVERSITY

BY ALINE KILMER All of my life I have loved where I was not loved,

Oh, you are strange, inscrutable, and proud! And always those whom I did not love loved me:

I cannot prove you though I try and try. Only the God who made my wild heart knows

You'll keep my love alive and wondering Why this should be.

Until I die.

GIRL SCOUTS
BY MRS. THEODORE H. PRICE

M H E Girl Scout movement, now six years old, has become

a vigorous and significant expression of National spirit.

In 509 cities and towns of the United States trim, khakiclad girls have become familiar figures in every community demonstration. Through their Scout activities, through participation in the actual business of life cut down to the capacity of youth, these girls are being trained for citizenship in a school of service, a school that stresses the rights of the individual less than his responsibilities.

Girl Scouts are the American outgrowth of the Girl Guides of England. Though springing from the same source as the Boy Scouts of America, and sharing the same ideals of citizenship and service, the two organizations, on the advice of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, the father of both, were made entirely distinct. When Sir Robert organized the Boy Scouts, he found among those seeking membership no less than six thousand girls. To or

ganize them he called on his sister, Miss Agnes Baden-Powell, who formed them into troops after the same general plan as the Boy Scouts, and called them Girl Guides. Interested with Mis Baden-Powell in this work was Mrs. Juliette Low, an America woman long resident in England. When, in 1912, she returned to her native city of Savannah, she was urged both by Ms Baden-Powell and her brother, Sir Robert, to form troops & American Girl Guides. She formed the troops after the plai suggested, but the matter of a name was taken out of her hands The girls insisted on being called Girl Scouts, and Girl Scout they became, and are so incorporated in Washington

Mrs. Low is still the active President of the organization, with Mrs. Woodrow Wilson as Honorary President. The tional headquarters are at 527 Fifth Avenue, New York City,

The plan of the organization is simple and elastic and eset tially democratic. Wherever eight girls of about the same age

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MRS. JULIETTE LOW, OF SAVANNAH. FOUNDER INTERNATIONAL FILM SERVICE
AND PRESIDENT OF GIRL SCOUTS

GIRL SCOUTS OF WASHINGTON, D. C., DEMONSTRATING CANNING METHODS may be gathered together the Girl Scout plan fits. It is equally That these duties were usually the tedious and none too pleasant appealing to girls in boarding-schools and in institutions, in tasks cheerfully shirked by the grown-ups made no difference fashionable suburban communities and in crowded city districts to the Girl Scouts. They have picked oakum and swept out Some of its most interesting troops are in institutions for deaf work-rooms from one end of the United States to the other. and blind and for tubercular children, where it has given these In New York the girls have become sufficiently expert in makunfortunates a new point of contact with normal life.

ing surgical dressings to open a Red Cross work-room of their In the application of the principles of scouting to the psy- own and to form their own Red Cross auxiliary. Thousands of chology of the young girl it has been recognized that boys like surgical dressings have been made and shipped. In Philadelphia, to be boys, while girls do not like to be girls. They are funda- where there are more than a hundred troops, the girls organized mentally little women, and the surest way to win their interest a bazaar to raise money for a wool fund. The entire proceeds, is to open to them the pursuits of women so modified as to insure $800, have been expended for wool for Girl Scout knitting. to them the rewards of achievement. Every activity of the Girl Three hundred and fifty Philadelphia Girl Scout mufflers are Scout programme connects directly with adult life. The organic already in France. zation accepts the Girl Scout as a responsible member of society, The Food Administration was quick to recognize the usefulentitled to its rewards. Hard tasks are not sweetened with elabo ness of the girls. Twenty-seven school Girl Scouts of Washingrate ritual, but are accomplished by application and concentration ton have been trained as home demonstrators, and have pledged because the results are worth while. The individual good turn, their Saturdays and holidays to the work of demonstrating canso potent in the Boy Scout plan, is not emphasized with the girls. ning methods and war cookery in clubs, churches, schools, etc. A good turn done by the troop to the community is the unit of Mr. Hoover himself approved a special Girl Scout pledge card, service rather than as individual to individual. Service in the whereby candy and soda-water were cheerfully and solemnly home is emphasized, because the home is the unit of society, laid on the sacrificial altar. and the good home-maker makes the good citizen.

Without previous plans and without hope of reward Girl Scouts For nearly five years after its modest beginnings in Savannah nevertheless were so active in the last Liberty Loan campaign, the Girl Scout movement grew slowly. It succeeded because actually selling close to half a million dollars' worth of bonds, girls liked it, and because the leaders in recreational work for to say nothing of distributing tons of literature and running girls, to whose attention it came, found in it a useful and suc- countless errands for countless committees, that their efforts cessful device for holding and focusing the interests of their won them the offer of official recognition for the next campaign charges.

of this kind. In 1915 National headquarters were opened in New York. Whenever a girl's size war job has offered itself, the Girl The organization now attracted the attention of educators seek Scouts have taken it on. Their serap-books and puzzle cards ing an instrument for that difficult process of carrying over the have gone to hundreds of convalescent hospitals in France ; their lessons of the primary agencies of education, the school and the packages have decked soldiers' Christmas trees from Maine to Sunday-school, into the daily life of youth. Dr. James E. California ; their trench candles, thousands upon thousands of Russell, Dean of Teachers College, became an officer of the them, have lighted dugouts the length of the Allied lines. organization and is active in formulating its educational policies The organization of the Girl Scouts, acting under the direction and plans. Fellowships for the training of leaders have been of the Army and Navy Commission on Training Camp Activities, established at Teachers College, Boston University, Johns Hop- has found an urgent field for usefulness in the towns adjacent kins University, and New York University, while courses for to the camps. “The best service you can do," said the Army leaders are given in colleges in Philadelphia, New York, Boston, authorities, “is to keep the girls out of the camps.” This is the and Minneapolis.

task the Girl Scout leaders have set themselves. The work is The entrance of the United States into the war brought the now fully organized in the vicinity of Camp Devens, MassaGirl Scouts their great opportunity to translate their Scout vows chusetts, and is being started near other camps. It puts into of loyalty into patriotic service. The entire organization became the life of the village girl so vigorous and constructive a proa unit for war work. Other young girls might work their honest, gramme of definite service and gives her a code of honor so earnest little fingers off with grown-up organizations, but Girl completely within her comprehension that she has neither time Scouts worked as Girl Scouts, and their output was accredited nor desire to loiter around the camps. In this, as in every other to their own organization. They offered themselves to the Red activity, Girl Scouts serve“ America First” in terms of everyCross, and were assigned definite duties by each local chapter. day living.

INTERPRETING THE PEOPLE TO THE PRESIDENT

BY JOSEPH H. ODELL

This is the third of a series of articles in which Dr. Odell is estimating the war aspirations of America. The first, “ Passing the Buck in Washington," appeared in The Outlook of February 13, and the second, “ Who Is the United States ?” in the issue of February 20. Next weck will appear the fourth and last article in this series. Its title will be “ Dare We Dicker for Peace?”—THE EDITORS.

RESIDENT WILSON is his own interpreter. So far as he received 1,500,000 without a murmur of dissent. When the I know, he has never requested any one to act as a medi. President asked for money, the people poured out their billions

ator between his mind and the Nation; and, so far as I in taxes and bond subscriptions without a moment of reluctance. know, none has presumed to arrogate to himself that high func- When the President asked the people to give up some of their tion. To do so would be superfluous and impertinent. Fortu- long and deeply cherished rights and privileges, they surrendered nately, the President has the most perfect vehicle imaginable, them without hesitation in order that they might become availhe is amply able to translate his thoughts and aims and purposes able power in the executive hands. And if the President needs to the people in terms no one need misunderstand. And, like more men the people will give another 1,500,000, and following any great master of utterance, he possesses the art of verbal them still another 1,500,000. If the President needs more billconcealment. Every advantage is his; he may choose his own ions of dollars, the people will double or quadruple the former time, place, and occasion ; no one can divert him into the by amounts at any time. If the President needs more power in the paths of petty controversy ; when he decides to speak, the entire executive hands, the people will sanction Congress in surrenderworld pauses to listen. We may assume that at any given time ing still other long and deeply cherished rights and privileges. we know all that he wishes us to know, and that it lies before Why? Because Lincoln graved the word dedication on the our eyes in the precise form the President wished it to have. If soul of America. The people are dedicated to making the world there is anything which pertains to the President's activity or safe for democracy, to the overthrow of the barbaric German quiescence in the present condition of world affairs that we do militaristic autocracy, to the righting of the frightful wrongs not know, it is because he has willed that we should not know it. that have been perpetrated in Europe and Asia by the fiendish

Although President Wilson does not need an interpreter, the ruthlessness of the imperial Hun and his vassals. From April people of America do. There are limits to this office, for no 2, 1917, the people realized, and realized fully, what President one man can know intimately the thoughts of one hundred Wilson said on April 15 of the same year : “ The supreme test million men and women. But in a democracy, when there is a of the Nation has come. We must all speak, act, and serve unanimity of deep conviction public opinion has little difficulty together." in making itself heard. For some time I have missed no oppor. In his Flag Day address, June 14, 1917, Mr. Wilson again tunity of learning the mind of the people. In the grocery stores gripped the people by the clearness and splendor of his vision, of remote villages, on trains, among club-men, in financial and expressed adequately what the Nation felt; circles, in mills and factories, among the clergy and church The war was begun by the military masters of Germany, who members—wherever men and women would talk I have listened. proved to be also the masters of Austria-Hungary. These men I have read the country newspapers and the press of the great have never regarded nations as peoples, men, women, and chilcities, trade papers, religious journals, humorous periodicals, and dren of like blood and frame as themselves, for whom governmagazines. I have worked hard in the Liberty Loan, Y. M.C. A., ments existed and in whom governments had their life. They

have regarded them merely as serviceable organizations which Red Cross, and Community War Work campaigns, and then I

they could by force or intrigue bend or corrupt to their own have seen patriotism at white heat. And this is my conviction :

purpose. ... that never before have the people of America been so fused by

Austria is at their mercy. It has acted, not upon its own inithe fiery passion of a great purpose as they are to-day.

tiative or upon the choice of its own people, but at Berlin's dieDuring the Revolutionary period there were Tories and loy tation ever since the war began. Its people now desire peace, but alists in abundance, and among them men of such caliber and cannot have it until leave is granted from Berlin. The so-called standing as seriously to embarrass George Washington. In the Central Powers are, in fact, but a single Power. Civil War Lincoln had all of the South against him, a fringe of Americans believed that the President spoke the truth with border States of dubious allegiance, and even in the North there

exactness, June 14, 1917, and they believe that his words ar were Copperheads a-plenty. 'Except for the aliens within our just as true at the close of February, 1918. In his Flag Day borders, President Wilson has had the country with him address, from which I have just quoted, the President also said: from the moment he broke off diplomaticrelations with Ger

The military masters under whom Germany is bleeding see many. The loyalty has been intense, unanimous, and uncalcu.

very clearly to what point Fate has brought them. If they fall lating. In his address to Congress, April 2, 1917, on the neces

back or are forced back an inch, their power both abroad and at sity of war with Germany, President Wilson said:

home will fall to pieces like a house of cards. It is their power It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, at home they are thinking about now more than their power into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself

abroad. It is that power which is trembling under their very seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious

feet; and deep fear has entered their hearts. They have but one than peace, and we shall fight for the things we have always chance to perpetuate their military power, or even their controlling carried nearest our hearts—for democracy, for the right of those political influence. If they can secure peace now with the immense who submit to authority to have a voice in their own govern advantages still in their hands which they have up to this point ments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a univer

apparently gained, they will have justified themselves before the sal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall German people; they will have gained by force what they bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself promised to gain by it: an immense expansion of German at last free. To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our

power, an immense enlargement of industrial and commereial fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, opportunities. Their prestige will be secure, and with their preswith the pride of those who know that the day has come when tige their political power. America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the No words could have expressed more adequately the beliets principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which

of the American people in June, 1917, no words could more she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other.

adequately express the beliefs of the American people today To this appeal the Nation responded with a unanimity that They believe that Austria has no initiative of its own, but that was awesome. The American thrilled to the word dedicate. it acts solely at the dictation of Berlin. So that if Count Czernir They knew full well what the word meant; Lincoln cut it deep seems to be more moderate and reasonable than Chancellor you into the very heart of the Nation in his Gettysburg address, Hertling, it is because Berlin wished Austria to play that rule using it no less than five times in that brief but immortal for the benefit of Germany. Therefore to flirt with Vienna in speech. If there is one word in the English language which simply Columbia making eyes at a manikin which bills an expresses the ultimate spiritual consciousness of America, it is coos when Berlin pulls the strings. After Germany's latt dedication.

violated pact with Russia the American people believe that is When the President asked for men, the best we had to give, one can play that game without being betrayed by the Iscariot

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