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A MEDAL HONORING THE ALLIES AND COMMEMO-
RATING THE ENTRANCE OF AMERICA INTO THE WAR

This medal is issued to its contributors by the American Fund for French Wounded. That organization's fine philanthropy is sending supplies to over 3,000 hospitals in France. Originally the medal bore only the design seen on the left; with the entrance of America into the war the design seen at the right was placed on the reverse side. The motto of the obverse, “Do Right and Fear No Man," is from one of George Washington's dress swords. The various symbols of the Allies—the Ship for Great Britain and her Colonies, the Cock for France, the Cross for Italy, the Belgian Lion appealing to England and France, etc.—appear on this side. On the reverse is the shield of the United States, and across its bar is inscribed the date, April 6, 1917, on which the United States joined the Entente Allies and pledged itself to fulfill, with them, the ideal expressed in Lincoln's words, " That Government by the

People Shall Not Perish,” the words forming the motto. The artist who designed the medal is Mr. Spicer Simson

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 9, 1918
PRICE: TEN CENTS A COPY
FOUR DOLLARS A YEAR
381 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

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Mr. Vernon L. Mangun, Superintendent of Public Schools in Macomb, Illinois, sends us this picture
(Mr. Mangun stands at the extreme right of the photograph) with the following comment :

I am sending herewith a picture of my class in Social Problems in which The Outlook
is used mainly. (Sixteen pupils, it will be seen, are using The Outlook.] It will be
noticed in the picture that each of the pupils has affixed a one-cent stamp so that

the magazine will reach the soldiers. This class is in the junior-senior high school.
The above photograph and letter form an interesting illustration of a widespread and growing friendship !
between The Outlook and students and teachers of schools in all parts of the country.

The high school boys and girls of to-day will be to-morrow the makers of Presidents, Governors, and Public Opinion. Even a greater responsibility will be theirs, for in the new National relationships after the Great War they will have a large share in making International Law.

Are there young people in your family or in your circle of friends? Do you want them to take an intelligent interest in current events and problems of the life of the world?

Can they have a better helper in developing such an interest than The Outlook ?

It gives the important news from authoritative sources in 'readable form “with clear, forceful, and well-digested comments on the affairs of the world at this crucial time,” to quote the words of a Chicago man of affairs in a recent letter renewing his subscription.

THE OUTLOOK

381 Fourth Avenue, New York City
AN ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY JOURNAL OF CURRENT LIFE

Never partisan, never neutral, but always independent
Yearly Subscription, $4.00. At News-stands, 10 Cents a Copy

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The Outlook

School
Bureau

announces that it is prepared to give information concerning all types of schools, viz., preparatory schools, colleges and academies, schools for music, art and the drama, vocational schools, correspondence schools, special schools, etc.—and this information is furnished gratis to our readers.

We cannot over-emphasize the importance of selecting the right school for your boy or girl, and a great deal of time and careful thought should be given to a perusal of school catalogues and other data relative to the schools you are especially interested in before making a definite decision.

THEY will read something. It may be injurious or merely trashy or 1 entertaining. It depends upon you to see that your children get the

kind of reading that creates ideals and stimulates character. Character is determined at an early age—the youthful mind is sensitive and receptive to impressions and impulses—both the right and the wrong kind.

To Parents Belongs
The greatest help to the parents

the Responsibility
and the most potent factor in the

It is a tremendous power which you building of child-character is OR wield over the future. It is a golden GANIZED good reading. What the opportunity that exists but a short time child reads, or what is read to him, and then passes by forever. You have the instills in him those thoughts and

power to train and develop such moral and impulses that become character.

mental attributes into the character of

your child as you choose. Are you using it?

Each of the 20 volumes of
The YOUNG FOLKS' LIBRARY Builds )

Character) has a distinct idea and a definite purpose, and its place in the series is so arranged as to make the Plan of Reading invaluable for developing childlcharacter through organized reading in the home.

Right now, while you are thinking of it, send the coupon for a
FREE COPY of the famous address " What Shall Our Children

Read ?” It is a vitally interesting and helpful booklet for parents.
These names of the Board of Parents and children in over 70,000
Editors are sufficient guarantee homes have explored and tested these
of the exceptional character and

and volumes and their worth in character

building time has proven their value. merit of this library:

Hundreds of letters from mothers, from THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH TUDOR JEXKS

educators, librarians, clergyinen and

ROSWELL FIELD
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON

laymen attest their efficacy. .

The attached coupon will bring LAURA E. RICHARDS

to you the address and a
FREE BOOK of specimen

pages, etc., and informa-
KIRK MUNROE
tion about LOW PRICE

University
CHARLES WALSH
AND EASY TERMS Research

Dept. T.

Wherever possible a representative of The Outlook, who is in charge of this work, has made a survey of the schools, and will thus give you the benefit of these personal visits.

If you will let us know the type of school you are interested in, the age and sex of your child, and any other data which you think will aid us in making our suggestions, we will gladly see that complete information and literature are sent you.

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Milwaukee, Wis. Will you kindly I send to me, withont any obligation on my part, your booklets and information regarding the Young Folks' Library" No salesman is to call.

SCHOOL BUREAU

The Outlook Company 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

PEX KOOSOK

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The Outlook

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Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 118 January 9, 1918. . No. 2

THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY, 381 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. LAWRENCE ABBOTT, PRESIDENT. N. T. PULSITER, VICE-PRESIDENT. PRANK C. HOYT, TREASURER. ERNEST H. ABBOTT, SECRETARY. TRAVERS D. CARMAN, ADVERTISING MANAGER. YRARLY SUBSCRIPTIONSPIFTY-TWO ISSUES — FOUR DOLLARS IN ADVANCE. ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK POST-OFFICE

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The Government Begins Railway Operation 41
The Russian Bear in a Trap............. 41
The Last Week of 1917 on the Battle-Lines 41
The Liquor Question and Our Expedition-

ary Force.............................
A Great City Stricken.............
Earned and Unearned Incomes....
Cartoons of the Week.
The Negro and the War. ...
Some Difficulties of Weekly Journalism
New Lands in the Arctic.......
An Answer to a Proposal for Peace...
Free Poland .............................
Harboring a Friend of the Enemy.......
Making Bricks Without Straw : What the

Congressional Investigation into the Con

duct of the War is Discovering ........ The Railways and the Government : A Poll

of Public Opinion.... Some Reflections upon a Meeting of Political Scientists ....................... 50

Special Correspondence by Frederick M. Davenport Senator Newlands : An Appreciation..... 51

By Franklio K. Lane
Japan's War Problems: Her New Relations
with the United States, Europe, and China:
I-Why Japan Has Not Sent an Expe-

ditionary Force to Europe. .......... 52
By T. Iyenaga
II-America and Japan in the Trade of
China .........

..........
By Baron Bunkichi Ito
Righteous Wrath (Poem)................

By Henry van Dyke The Teleferica: The War's Aerial Tramway 55

By Lewis R. Freeman Mania Teutonica : A Psychological Study of the War .........

....... 58 By Joseph Jastrow Current Events Illustrated............ The Gob.........

By Elbert Baldwin
Remembering (Poem).......

By Eloise Robinson
Weekly Outline Study of Current History

By J. Madison Gathany, A.M.
The New Books..........
Playing the War Game (Poem)..........

By Lowell Mason
New York-the City of Contrasts.......
Counsel to a Young Soldier .............
How They Make War in Mesopotamia .. 69
Government Control and Railway Finance 71
The Power of the Peanut. ............... 73

By Robert H. Moulton
A Big Brother for the Naturalization Ap-
plicant. .......

.........
By J. F. Kane
Democracy in War....
The Law and the Jury ....
By the Way.........

are two elements-inherent quality and inherent smartness. The first is a triumph of paper making, and the other is a triumph of stationery creation

.......

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Usable samples sent on request for fifteen cents m Stamps

MASSACHUSETTS
WALNUT HILL SCHOOL

23 Highland St., Natick, Mass.
A College Preperatory School for Girls. 17 iniles from Boston
Miss Conant, Miss Bigelow, Principals.

SHORT-STORY WRITING
A course of forty lessons in the history, form, strue
ture and writing of the Short-Story taught by
Dr. J. Berg Esen wein, for years Editor of
Lippincott's. 250-1). catalog free. Please aldress

The Home Correspondence School
Dr. Esercia

Dept. 68, Springfield. Mass.

NEW YORK T|St. John's Riverside Hospital Training

School for Nurses

YONKERS, NEW YORK Registered in New York State, offers a 3 years' course veneral training to refined, educated women. Requin inents one year high school or its equivalent. Apply to the Directress of Nurses, Yonkers, New York

EATON, CRANE & PIKE CO. New York

Pittsfield, Mass.

BY SUBSCRIPTION $4.00 A YEAR. Single copies 10 cents. For foreign subscription to countries in the Postal Union, $5.56.

Address all communications to

THE OUTLOOK COMPANY 381 Fourth Avenue

New York City

This is the Most Complete Single Map of the Western Front

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DEMOCRACY IN WAR Alexis de Tocqueville, that famous French traveler, historian, and philosopher, in his “ Democracy in America,” has the following to say regarding the probable result when democracy goes to war:

I am therefore of the opinion that, when a democratic people engages in a I It is 28x36 inches in size, but folds into a convenient cover war after a long peace, it incurs much more risk of defeat than any other nation; 52x712 inches in size, just right to be carried conveniently in the but it ought not easily to be cast down byl pocket for frequent consultation. It is printed on excellent paper, its reverses, for the chances of success for such an army are increased by the dura

and can be had mounted on cloth if desired at slight extra cost. Most tion of the war. When a war has at length,

existing maps of the Western Front are valueless because they are not by its long continuance, roused the whole indexed, or because they do not contain the smaller places. Neither community from their peaceful occupations

objection applies to this new map, just published, so complete that it and ruined their minor undertakings, the same passions which made them attach so enables one to read the newspapers understandingly. much importance to the maintenance of peace will be turned to arms. War, after it has destroyed all modes of speculation, be

WESTEN POINT comes itself the great and sole speculation, to which all the ardent and ambitious desires which equality engenders are exclusively directed. Hence it is that the selfsame democratic nations which are so reluctant to engage in hostilities sometimes perform prodigious achievements when once they have taken the field. ...

“ Thus, while the interests and tastes of the members of a democratic community divert them from war, their habits of mind fit them for carrying on war well; they soon make good soldiers, when they are aroused from their business and their enjoyments.

* If peace is peculiarly hurtful to democratic armies, war secures them advantages which no other armies ever possess, and these advantages, however little felt at first, cannot fail in the end to give them the victory. An aristocratic nation, which in a contest with a democratic people does not succeed in ruining the latter at the outset of the war, always runs a great risk of being conquered by it.”

Now de Tocqueville was a close observer of the tendencies in men and governments; he perhaps saw more of the

This photograph is not the map itself, but is only a miniature reproduction made to

show the vast number of cities, towns, villages and hamlets which appear on this new map. latent possibilities in democracy than most

The State of Illinois contains about the same number of square miles as shown on this map, other men of his time. He saw that free and in Illinois there are less than 1,700 places of 100 or more inhabitants. On this new map in a peoples were filled with almost boundless

territory as said above, about the same size as Winois, there are shown more than 7,000

places. This fact alone serves to give some idea of the completeness of this wonderful new map. energy and enthusiasm. He saw, furthermore, that this same spirit of energy and

necessity. The smaller towns are the ones usually enthusiasm which in times of peace spent

The Map

mentioned in the news dispatches. They are not itself in the pursuit of commerce and the | includes practically every village, town and to be found on ordinary maps, and the locaaccumulation of wealth would when turned hamlet in the territory shown.

tions of most of them were and still are, utterly

In addition to this vast number of places, it unknown to the general public, but unless their to the prosecution of a long war acquire in gives all woods, fortresses, fortified towns, locations are known their strategical time an almost irresistible momentum. De naval arsenals, forts, redoubts, batteries, importance cannot be grasped. Nothing is mocracy in its present struggle with autoc

aircraft depots, wireless stations and rail. more unsatisfactory than searching all over a map for

ways. racy has not yet reached, perhaps, the mo

a small place that may or may not appear upon it.

The forests and woods are indicated in green, However, this loss of time and patience is mentum stage, but it is certainly approach giving the map an attractive appearance, and now at an end, for the Index which accoming it. The Prussian host did not ruin its adding a strategical feature of importance.

panies this map makes it vastly more democratic opponents in the summer and

The scale of the map is 10 miles to the incb. useful and valuable. The index contains • fall of 1914, and that gave democracy its

It extends west to Ashford, England ; north to over 7,000 names. An idea of the im

Antwerp, Belgium; east to Frankfort, Germany, portance of this statement may be gained chance. and south to Orleans, France.

from the fact that 90 per cent of De Tocqueville quaintly remarks in the

It shows for comparison the battle line of the war maps available to-day

1914, when the Germans were almost at the preface to his volume that men will seldom

contain less than 500 names. gates of Paris. The ground regained by This index is bound in with the accept the truth at the hands of their the Allies, therefore, may be plainly seen.

map and enables one to locate NELSON enemies. The Potsdam gang, accordingly, It is without exception the most satisfactory map instantly any one of the DOUBLEDAY would probably not accept at its face value

of the Western Front which has been engraved. It 7,000 places mentioned.
has been prepared especially to throw light on move-

Dept. 11 the philosophy of war as quoted above.

ments as they occur. It may be examined with NELSON But to us it rings true, for history has ease, for the type is bold and clean cut.

Oyster Bay, N. Y. proved it. Anyhow, it would seem as if all

DOUBLEDAY Please send me the Large

Scale War Map of the Westthose faint-hearted ones who to-day take

Dept. 11
The Index

ern Front on approval. If it alarm at the present seeming success of the An index of towns and villages accompanying a

Oyster Bay, suits me, within five days I will

send you $1.00. Otherwise I will German arms might find splendid encour map of this kind has been proven an absolute N. Y.

return it agement in the words of this old philosopher-historian, who saw with the vision of à seer and wrote with the quill of a prophet.

H. J. FENTON. United States Naval Academy,

If you want the map mounted on cloth, greatly

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Name....

Every Real American will have
Constant Use for this Map.

Addreso....

...

Mont

increasing its durability, at the special price of $2.00, Annapolis, Maryland.

if it suite yoll, write "Yes" bere :

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