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TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 118 March 13, 1918 No. 11

THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY, 381 POURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT, PRESIDENT N. T. PULSIFER, VICE-PRESIDENT. FRANK C. HOYT, TREASURER. ERNEST H. ABBOTT, SECRETARY. TRAVERS D. CARMAN, ADVERTISING MANAGER. YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONSFIFTY-TWO ISSUES – POUR DOLLARS IN ADVANCE. ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK POST OFFICE

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The Christian Science Monitor - the international daily newspaper-has no political axes to grind. Its concept of its responsibility is not limited by partisan affiliations. Its endeavor is to support and protect every righteous activity expressed individually or nationally. It is also ready to risk the displeasure of even the most humanly powerful interests and systems, in order that the light of publicity shall penetrate their motives and actions.

The Christian Science Monitor is on general sale throughout the world at news stands, hotels and Christian Science reading. rooms at 3c a copy. A monthly trial subscription by mail anywhere in the world for 75c, a sample copy on request.

Humor Romance Adventure Conquest

DROWSY

BY JOHN AMES MITCHELL

THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE

PUBLISHING SOCIETY BOSTON

U.S. A

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The editor of Life has written the story of the future mechanical and spiritual triumph of man in a novel more amazing than " Amos Judd and The Pines of Lory."

The Regulation of Wages ...............
The Railway Control Bill............... 395
The Housing Bills...

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395 An Hour of Light for an Hour of Night 396 The American Army in France. ........ The New Machine Gun .. For the World's Liberty.... Mr. Bryan Reaps...... The Archbishop of York.... What Mr. McAdoes... Stopping The Outlook. Cartoons of the Week... The Packers.............. An Air Mail Service..... For National Service.. Japan to Aid Her Allies Against Germany 401 No Time to Think Peace............... 401 Æsop on Russia....... What Is to Become of Our Reservoir of

Oil ?.................................. 402 Lenten Lessons : III-A Leader of Men. 404 On Becoming a Mexican Bandit ........ 404 Educating Women Voters ............... 405 The Japanese Army and Its Commanders 406 Some Washington Portraits ............. 408

Special Correspondence by Frederick M. Davenport
Dare We Dicker for Peace ?....

By Joseph H. Odell
The Heralds of Spring (Poem).........

By Jean Brooke Burt
Mobilizing 'Rastus ...

................. 412 By Lieutenant Charles C. Lynde Current Events Illustrated.............. Weekly Outline Study of Current History

By J. Madison Gathany, A.M.
The Nation's Industrial Progress........ 420
The Secret (Poem).........

By Pauline Frances Camp
Two Cheering. War Incidents.......
Investigate Before Investing.
The New Books ...,
The Pastor and the War......
Hoarding Hides-A Disclaimer .........
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Dental practice in late years has made enor. mous progress. Many old theories have been abandoned. Many new methods have been adopted, after long clinical tests.

Thisis one which refers to teeth cleaning. And dental authorities feel that everyone should know it.

An evident fact is that old tooth-brushing methods have failed. Statistics show that tooth decay and pyorrhea have constantly increased. Tartar forms and teeth discolor — all despite the daily brushing. And dentists now know why.

The reason lies in a film — that slimy film. You can feel it. It constantly accumulates. It gets into crevices and hardens and stays. Even on smooth surfaces it accumulates.

That film absorbs stains and discolors. It hardens into tartar. It holds food particles which ferment and form acid. It holds the acid in contact with the teeth the cause of decay.

It harbors germs and breeds them-millions of them. They, with tartar, are the chief cause of pyorrhea. In various cases they enter the tissues and enter the stomach, causing many serious troubles. Nearly all tooth troubles and many others are now traced to that film on teeth.

Much of that film escapes the tooth brush. The ordinary dentifrice cannot dissolve it. Many kinds make it more difficult to remove. That is why tooth cleaning has been so ineffective.

But now a new-day dentifrice-called Pepsodent-acts directly on that film. It solves the problem of clean, safe teeth as nothing else has done. And now, having been accepted by able authorities, we urge you to prove it by a one-week test.

Pepsodent is based on the fact that the film is albuminous matter. The basis of Pepsodent is pepsin, the digestant of albumin.

The object is to dissolve the film. Then to daily combat the film, preventing its accumulation.

Pepsin long seemed forbidden. It is useless unless activated. And the usual activating agent is an acid, harmful to the teeth.

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MARCH 13, 1918
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On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries

HE REGULATION OF WAGES

and they cannot be taken without compensation for their use. Every now and then a new fact comes up which shows to

Besides, there are a good many questions raised by Governhat a startling degree we have departed in this country from

ment operation that have to be settled by law. For example, le old industrial philosophy of the Manchester school of polit.

how shall freight rates now be determined ? So it was inevi. al economists. The theory of those economists was that all

table that a bill should be introduced and debated in Congress ade activities, including the relations of wage-workers to em

to provide the necessary legislation. loyers, should be governed by what they called the law of

Such a bill has passed both houses of Congress. It was preupply and demand. They contended that the sole function of

pared in its original form in accord with the policy of the Adovernment was to protect life and property, but that it was

ministration that is now operating the railways. Such amendot to meddle in business or commerce, that the rule of indus

ments as have been made to the bill in Congress have not 'y was laissez faire, or let things alone. Occasionally to-day

materially changed its main purpose. me loyal supporter of the Manchester philosophy struggles to

In its passage through each house it has been accepted as a lake himself heard, but for all practical purposes the doctrine

war measure. There are many men in both houses of Congress obsolete, and the war has rapidly hastened its obsolescence.

who believe that Government operation of railways has come he United States Government is now regulating our coal, our

to stay ; but these men, as well as those who believe or hope rod, our income, is fixing the prices we may receive for our

that the railways will go back to private operation, agree that

the provisions of this bill should be regarded as temporary. Of heat, and in England the Government is even telling manucturers what they may make and what they may not make.

course those who hope for the return to private management he United States Government has already fixed eight hours

are emphatic on this point, but the believers in Government the legal length of a day's work for all laborers employed by

operation are equally emphatic, though on other grounds. We or by contractors working for it. It has now, by an Act just

are in the midst of the war, say the Government operationists, troduced into Congress, taken up the question of fixing wages.

and we cannot stop to debate and discuss and modify and welve States in the past six years have established Minimum

perfect a measure suitable to provide for permanent Governage Commissions, and as a result of the reports of these

ment operation. We must recognize that emergency legislation ommissions seven States have fixed the minimum rate of

is necessarily imperfect, and that it is more important to get ages in certain employments.

legislation quickly than it is to get it in the best possible form. A bill providing for the fixing of minimum wage rates for

Both those who approve and those who disapprove Governomen in the various trades and occupations in the District of

ment operation as a permanent policy can agree on a measure olumbia, known as the Trammell-Keating Bill, was introduced

that will provide for the Government operation necessary for

the prosecution of the war. Afterwards we can discuss at great | the Senate and the House on March 1. Senator Park rammell, formerly Governor of Florida, is a progressive

length the provisions necessary for Government operation as a outherner whc is regarded as an exponent of the new industry

permanent policy. There are some men in Congress who are a in the South. Representative Keating, of Colorado, has been

determined to use every effort to bring about permanent Govconsistent advocate of measures in the interest of wage-earners,

ernment operation who would oppose this measure if they had pecially of women and children. He was one of the leading

to accept it as a precedent for permanent operation. Some of ipporters in Congress of the Federal Child Labor Bill, the

these regard, for example, the compensation for the use of the institutionality of which law is now before the Supreme Court

railways as provided in this bill to be unscientifically deterthe United States. The Trammell-Keating Bill for minimum

mined, and, though acceptable enough for a limited period, not age-fixing cannot affect many women, for there are not many

at all acceptable as a permanent policy. Others hold that the omen wage-workers in the District of Columbia. But it is

transfer of the railways to the control of the President is tolerlieved by those actively interested in improving factory con

able and perhaps necessary in war time, but that for permanent tions for women and children that, if passed, the bill will have

operation the railways should be transferred to a distinctively eat moral influence upon the country at large.

determined administrative body. It will put the Federal Government on record as to the

When, therefore, in the Senate the proposal to remove the istrict of Columbia, over which it has complete control, it

time limit from the bill was overwhelmingly defeated, and by a ill establish certain Federal boards of inquiry, it will afford

large majority it was decided that the provisions of this bill means of collecting and arranging statistics as to working and

should expire eighteen months after the close of the war, the ving conditions of women throughout the country. For this

vote was no indication that the prevailing opinion in Congress ason the National Consumers' League, which has done so

is against permanent Government operation. uch for the improvement of the conditions of wage-working omen, and which has been an influential factor in certain THE HOUSING BILLS reat Constitutional decisions of the Supreme Court in labor The first of the two Housing Bills has passed Congress and nestions, is watching the progress of the Trammell-Keating has been signed by the President. It makes a beginning of proill with keen interest and an earnest desire for its passage. viding for housing the army of men who are flocking to yards

where the new boats for Government use are being built.

The other bill, if it becomes law, will make a beginning of HE RAILWAY CONTROL BILL

providing for housing the army of men who are flocking to Though the railways of the country have been for several munitions and other plants where Government contracts are in eeks operated by the Federal Government, and have therefore progress. ased for the time being to be private enterprises, except that Each bill appropriates $50,000,000. The total sum is one-tenth ey are privately owned, they cannot be run without money, of what Great Britain has already spent for a similar purpose. And she is ready to spend a billion dollars more. The English amateur sort, and there was an unprecedented number of the are wiser in this respect than we are. What they have done last summer-about three million. If there should be the was described in an article in last week's Outlook.

million gardeners this summer, an extra hour of daylight in We are making but a deferred beginning at the problem; each one after the evening meal on the twenty-six working da; but it is better than the past delay. Senator Fletcher's bill, of each of the seven months would add 546,000,000 workiz now law, authorizes the Emergency Fleet Corporation, acting hours to the garden work of the country. Writing to The Outluk under the Federal Shipping Board, to purchase land and Representative Borland, of Missouri, who is sponsor for houses for the use of employees in the shipyards in which bill in the House, calls attention to the fact that the abom there are now being constructed ships for the United States, mentioned stimulus to home gardens will help the transportatii to build and lease houses, to acquire land or houses by con- situation, for the nearer food is grown to the kitchen door tb demnation, and to make loans to corporations to provide less demand there will be for cars to haul produce from distur houses.

points. He believes that the saving in coal thus effected wa The Federal Shipping Board, which was established by law free many cars for use in other directions. late in 1916, operates and repairs ships already in existence. There has been some discussion as to why the daylights It does not build ships itself, but has created the Emergency ing plan should not be made to cover the entire twelve months Fleet Corporation to take over, with a capital of $50,000,000, The United States Chamber of Commerce and the America the mapping out of the ship-building programme, the com- Railway Association are among some of the important organiz mandeering of ships already built or being built, the adjustment tions that want to see the plan adopted throughout the yes of the differences between capital and labor, and the building of But the main thing is the saving of daylight in summer. (me new boats. Since, therefore, the Emergency Fleet Corporation summer has gone by already since the plan was introduced ilm builds ships, it is the natural agency to use in building the Congress because of debates and discussions. Is it not evide 1 houses for the ship-builders.

that the thing to do now is to adopt the daylight saving plan ir Most workmen do not want to live at such barracks as the the coming summer and reserve debates regarding its extensin four at Hog Island, each with a capacity of 500 men; they are until the winter months ? If such a debate in favor of an anne really big frame hotels. What they can now anticipate will be extension of the plan should come up next winter, we sboa two thousand homes at that point. The workman wants to be vote strongly in the negative. It seems to us that the wind near his work, but, as a rule, he does not want to live in a tem- merit of the plan consists in applying it only to the sumporary kind of lodging. Hence we trust and expect that the months. Its merit consists in the fact that it gets people to Government will build in the best way—the ultimately eco- things earlier in the day under an agreement that they shal nomical way. If it does, the slums of Philadelphia may be profess to deceive themselves into a belief that they are de emptied in favor of the homes at Hog Island.

things just as they have always done them. This professed : The Director of Housing under the Federal Shipping Board deception can be solely accomplished by setting the clock i is to be Mr. J. Rogers Flannery, a capable and earnest man, ward in the spring and setting it back in the autumn. TH" fully aware of the importance of his work.

is, after all, so much of the children in us“ grown-ups" that have occasionally to sugar-coat our reforms by this kind

make-believe self-deception. The element of self-deceptAN HOUR OF LIGHT FOR AN HOUR OF NIGHT

will be entirely taken out if we set the clock forward perk Germany, Austria, Australia, Bermuda, Denmark, France, nently. Great Britain, Holland, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, and Some of our readers have asked us by what authority (Sweden have adopted the daylight saving plan, which consists gress can impose upon the individual citizen the necessita in setting the clock forward one hour during certain of the setting his watch forward on a given date in March ? The ma. spring, summer, and autumn months, and setting it back to is that Congress has no such authority and is not endeavor. standard time in the winter. The practical working of this plan legally to compel any private citizen to follow the day is very simple. If at midnight at the close of April 30 next saving plan. Under the Inter-State Commerce Law, howe" every clock and watch in the United States were set forward Congress can regulate the railways, and the bill now in (if one hour, the man who rises at seven and breakfasts at gress provides that “all common carriers engaged in compute 7:30 would still pursue his accustomed habits by the watch, between the several States, or between a State and any of ti• but by standard or solar time he would rise at six and break Territories of the United States, or between a State of t. fast at 6:30. He would apparently be getting up, taking his Territory of Alaska and any of the insular possessions of te breakfast, going to the office or store, and eating his midday United States or any foreign country," shall arrange the and evening meals at just the hour he always had been, but he movements and time-tables in accordance with the new stand would actually have an hour more of the clear and refreshing time established by moving the clock forward one hour. W daylight of the morning and a longer evening of sunlight after all the railways and steamship lines do this, every private cite his day's work was done.

will have to follow, for, as a matter of fact, every citizen of The countries that have tried this plan are completely satis- United States must set his watch in accordance with the fied with it. It not only gives more time for daylight work and way time of his immediate neighborhood. pleasure, but it is of distinct economic value. It has led to the annual saving in fuel last year of $35,000,000 in Germany, $12,000,000 in England, and $10,000,000 in France. A British THE AMERICAN ARMY IN FRANCE Parliamentary commission has reported, moreover, that this The reports from France of the courage and skill of: simple device for providing more daylight hours has resulted in American forces actually in the fighting line are good resulta a manifest saving of light and health. Last April bills were for all American patriots. It is now no secret that section introduced into Congress providing for setting the clock forward the line are held by Americans, stationed between Frs on the last Sunday of April and setting it back the last Sunday bodies of troops but acting independently. This state exist in September. The Senate passed this legislation last June, but three, perhaps four, sectors of the general line. Our troops lo" the House has debated and discussed it until about a month aided in raids made by French contingents in which prima ago. A compromise has been reached between the Senate and were taken and losses inflicted on the enemy, they have." House Committees, and the two bodies have now agreed, we be fered from vicious gas attacks directed solely at the Amers lieve, on legislation which, if passed, will make the period of day line, and they have withstood by themselves attacks, care light saving in this country to extend from the last of March to which was so stubbornly continued that the experts din the last of October, a period of seven months. It is believed whether it was a simple raid or had as its ultimate object that if the daylight saving plan is adopted it will have a very capture and retention of a part of our line. In this party beneficial effect on the production of food in this country during action, which took place to the north of Toul on Maria the coming summer. It has been said that many farmers, no Lieutenant Eadie, Lieutenant Hoover, and thirteen men matter what the clock may indicate, get up at dawn and work killed, while about ten men were wounded. The story it until dusk. This cannot be said of gardeners, especially of the fight shows that the Americans used their automatic pa

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