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other acts of individual heroism with which the records of our Army and Navy are replete.
JAPAN AND RUSSIA
M HE whole heart of the people of the United States is
with the people of Russia in the attempt to free them1 selves forever from autocratic government and become the rasters of their own lives.”
In this assurance from the President of the United States, sent to the Soviet Congress in Moscow on March 11, all Americans will concur. For nearly three years Russia, burdened with an autocratic, corrupt, and partly disloyal government, fought the Pan-German menace. What her armies did while England was preparing and while we remained coolly neutral places the whole world in Russia's debt. Now, after those exhausting months, Russia is torn to pieces by internal anarchy and over whelmed by the German enemy from without. America, with her strength untapped, must, out of decent regard for her own self-respect, sympathize with Russia and do whatever is possible to aid her.
But at the present time, when the German enemy of human freedom is sweeping eastward toward the center of Russia, it is not sufficient that the whole heart of the United States be with the people of Russia; it is necessary that the American people put at the disposal of Russia and the cause of liberty their brain and their will and their arms, and that they enlist in the fight against Germany not only their own resources, but such resources as they can secure from friendly nations. We cannot stop Germany with sympathy.
And stop Germany we must if we are going to keep this world a safe place for free people to live in. Germany has been a nation besieged. Now she has broken through. Russia has given way, and there is no sign that she can ever renew the siege herself.
And from where Germany has broken through there leads a road to the goal of Germany's ambition.
Germany wants to dominate the world. To do that she knows that she must conquer her way to the East. She started to do that by building up a Pan-Germany to be formed out of the vassal or subject countries of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Turkey. That way led through Bagdad. Across that route, however, stand the British forces in Mesopotamia. Endangering that route, too, are the unconquered spirit of the Serbians and the restlessness of the peoples of Austria-Hungary. By the
Alexandros ZARCTIC-OCEAN, E
greatest of Germany's good fortunes, therefore, it was at the moment when the Pan-German scheme, planned out on the line from Berlin to Bagdad, was most gravely imperiled that a new way was opened to Germany for her projected conquest of the East. The Russian dike gave way, and another route to the East was open which for alliteration's sake we may call, in contrast to the line of Berlin to Bagdad, the line of Berlin to Bokhara, or, if one likes it better, Berlin to Baluchistan.
On this route Germany will find no liberty-loving Serbians standing in her path, no British army corps. She will, on the other hand, find Mohammedans whom she will not scruple to organize and to incite against Christian populations. In place of a united Russia she finds warring provinces so torn by class strife that they are no real obstacles to her, but can be used even as instruments of her greed.
If the vision of the old Pan-Germany is fading, by a shift of fortune there has come to the Kaiser and his military and political associates the vision of a new and more splendid PanGermany rising on the ruins of Russia and extending to India and the Far East.
Any map of Europe and Asia (such an outline map as is printed below) will show how Germany's fortunes have been revived by this shift; and such a map will show that her way in opening, not merely toward the Nearer East of India, but the Farther East of the Pacific. It is reported that a Chinese official said to a German: “The way to the East lies not through Asia Minor to the head of the Persian Gulf, but along the north coast of the Black Sea, along the Azov and Caspian, through Turkestan, thence through China to Peking." And now we see that not only that route lies before Germany, but also the route along the Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. If the Russians are as non-resistant in the future as they have now seemingly become, what stands in the way of German domination over what we have called Russia, or in the way of the plundering of the East by the Potsdam gang? What stands in the way of Germany reaping this great reward for her perfidy, her brutality, her unspeakable crimes ?
There are only two things that can stand in the way. One is the crushing, overwhelming defeat of Germany on the western front. The other is the military power of Japan, with such aid as could be derived from China and the United States.
To a crushing, overwhelming defeat of Germany on the western front all people who love liberty more than bodily comfort and even life must look forward with hope. Daily America is increasing her pressure on the Allied front. Daily the western
the t route and the pay led ilust
THE NEW PAN-GERMAN MENACE TO THE EAST The arrow to the extreme left shows the direction of Germany's ambition and of her effort to conquer her way to the East by way of Bagdad. The dotted line indicates the extension of the Berlin to Bagdad Railway, part of which is still uncompleted. The double-headed arrow shows the directions opened by Russia collapse to Germany's ambition for another and even greater Pan-Germany. The two heads of this arrow point along the general courses of the main railway lines
through Russia toward the nearer and the farther East
Beriketid system of the pagans ; were
Allies are approaching nearer the hour of victory. But every; maidens and chivalrous knights. But there was a vital differthing that tends to postpone that hour is immeasurably costlyence between the sacrificial system of the pagans and that of in life and happiness and human welfare. We cannot afford to the Jews. Sacrifices were required of the pagans; they were neglect anything which will bring that hour of victory nearer. voluntary with the Jews. No punishment was ever inflicted And it will not relax the will to such victory, but rather stiffen upon a Jewish worshiper for failing or refusing to sacrifice. No it, to use every means available for the thwarting of Germany's condemnation was uttered against him. But bitter and frequent plans. And so far the record of Allied arms against Germany were the invectives of the prophets against those who brought in the west, glorious as that record is in the history of defensive their sacrifices to the Temple and did not accompany them with warfare, is not such as to indicate the early coming of such an works of justice and mercy in their daily lives. overwhelming victory as is necessary to make Germany disgorge Throughout the Hebrew history the sacrificial system is all her ill-gotten gains. And the more gains she accumulates, secondary and incidental ; character and conduct are primary the severer will be the defeat required to make her disgorge. and essential. This truth may easily be traced by the unpreju
Every consideration, therefore, should impel the Allies, diced student from the very earliest Hebrew law on this subamong whom we include the United States, to give countenance ject, “ An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, ... and if and aid to Japan against the new German menace.
thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of Have we not yet learned, has not the lesson yet been beaten hewn stone," down to an utterance of one of the latest of the into us, that procrastination and over-caution and vacillation prophets, “ Thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I give it : are godsends to the enemy?
thou delightest not in burnt offering.” Even the ecclesiastical Without delay we should make it clear to Japan that if she law provided that sacrifice should be offered only in Jerusalem, can undertake this task of replacing in Russia its power of so that with the destruction of Jerusalem the sacrificial system resistance we shall give her enterprise our hearty support. came to an end, and Judaism has never since employed it. The
The Allies have a right to follow the German army wherever sacrificial system of the Old Testament was simply a bridge it goes and to fight the German army wherever it is found. over which religion passed from paganism to Christianity. Russia is either our ally, our enemy, or a neutral country. If In paganism sacrifice is offered by a terrified mortal to she is our ally, we ought to come to her aid in whatever way is appease the wrath of an angry God; in Judaism, by a remorsepracticable. If her treaty with Germany makes her our enemy ful mortal to satisfy the law of a just God; in Christianity the (which we do not for a moment believe), we of course have the sacrifice is offered not by man to God but by God to man. right of fighting on her territory. And if she is a neutral Power “God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet we have the same right to meet the German armies in Russia sinners, Christ died for us.” Sacrifice is not a means which man that England had to meet the German armies in Belgium.. employs to win the love of God; it is the means which God
Of the Allies Japan is the only one that can undertake this employs to give life and love to man. task. England and France are out of the question. China has There were on Calvary three crosses, and on them three victhe men, but lacks the organization and the power. We have tims, all suffering the same physical pains and awaiting by slow the men, but we are far away from the scene of action. Japan tortures the same death. One was a brigand, defiant to the last is near and Japan has the power.
of God and man. One was a sinless Sufferer bearing in his While we are expressing our sympathy to Russia in words breaking heart the sin and shame of the world which crucified we ought also to express it by an action which speaks louder him and for which he died. And one was a repentant sinner, than words, by a cordial approval of the entrance into Russia inspired to repentance by the Sufferer at his side. by our ally Japan for the purpose of saving the Russian people There are to-day in Europe three crosses. from the German menace.
There are those who suffer cold and hunger and tears and We must have regard for the feelings of the Russian people, wounds and death that they may impose their dominion on the but we must have greater regard for their liberties.
civilized world. For most of them we may well pray, “ Father, If the Russian people suspect the motives or purposes of forgive therı, for they know not what they do.” Japan, there is only one way by which we can help to allay those Some are learning by their own suffering and the suffering of suspicions, and that is by showing that we trust Japan ourselves. the comrades at their side what is the hell which the rule and If there is danger that Japan may have territorial ambitions in religion of Odin imposes on mankind, and what is the glory of the East, that danger can be averted by our active co-operation the cross-bearing followers of Jesus Christ. with Japan in combating the Power which is attempting to Some have chosen cold and hunger and tears and wounds and destroy democracy throughout the world.
death that they may give to the world the gift of liberty and This country ought to be decked with flags in honor of justice. They are suffering not for their own sins but for the Japan's entrance to the fighting line against Russia's and the sins of the world. They have heard the call : “He laid down his world's most terrible enemy.
life for us : and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren."
The only sacrifice Christianity kņows is love's sacrifice.
IS MUSIC A NON-ESSENTIAL? The story is told of a Frenchman who invented a new religion The other day at Carnegie Hall, in New York City, Arthur but could get no attention paid to it. He went to Talleyrand for Farwell, the Director of the Music School Settlement, after he advice. “My religion," he said to Talleyrand, " is a great deal had finished leading an orchestral piece in the midst of the better than Christianity, but no one will even consider it. What concert, turned about to the audience and made a brief speech would you advise me to do?” “ Get yourself crucified," was the in which he said : reply.
Certain persons in high places have said that music at the The cynic hit on the secret of the power of Christianity.
present time is one of the non-essential industries. Is it nonThat secret is not the doctrine but the practice of sacrifice. For essential when one former Music School Settlement boy, now in no sacrifice is of any value to the world but self-sacrifice.
Paris, raises $7,000 for the Allies by his music? Is it non-essenThe peasant in the Hartz Mountains sometimes sees a gigan tial when one organization after another, working for Americantie human figure on the cloud-capped mountains. It terrifies
ization, for our soldiers in France, for a world new-born in the him. It is his own image reflected from the clouds. So the triumph of right, comes to us asking us to lend our power of ancient pagans saw their own images in the heavens and wor
music, saying that without the power of music the organization shiped them. Fear inspired their religion and they brought
cannot make tho appeal necessary for its success ? sacrifices to pacify the gods they dreaded.
These are all practical and utilitarian applications of music,
simple to perceive and impossible to deny. But I say to you The ancient Hebrews used in the worship of Jehovah sacri. T" He shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle " fice as used by their neighbors in the worship of their gods, (Leviticus i. 3). It is true that our Revised Version gives a radically different transmuch as in the Middle Ages the Church used in the praise of
lation : “He shall offer it at the door of the tent of meeting, that he may be
accepted before the Lord." It is doubtful which cf these translations is correct ; God music as used by the Minnesingers in the praise of fair but there is no doubt that the former epitomizes the spirit of the Levitical code.
that, even with present world conditions in view, these applica
DAWN tions are not so great as music's higher use--higher because nearer to the one universal spirit out of which all these other
The Happy Eremite had managed somehow to get out of bed things come. I mean the intrinsic power of music, unattached
at four-thirty. There was no great virtue in this. He liked the and unapplied, as it is here to-night-the direct power of music
silence of the early hours; he liked the consciousness that the to put life into the heart and vision into the soul of man.
inillions of individual centers of conflict in the world roundMr. Farwell's words had power and authority, not because about were asleep. It seemed to him that it was easier to think they were spoken by him, but because they were reinforced by when the atmosphere was not surcharged with the flying the evidence there presented to the eyes and ears of the audience. thoughts and passions of countless other human beings. Ile
On another page we tell something of what the Music School enjoyed with an epicure's relish the cup of indifferent coffee Settlement is; but there at its annual concert it was plain to see which he made himself on the alcohol stove , he enjoyed tiptoe. what the Music School Settlement does. It does not turn out pro- ing downstairs with the cup in his hand, knowing that he was fessional musicians; though by good fortune it has contributed bathed and shaved and dressed, and that the hour was still some to the world a gifted young professional violinist, Max Rosen. It minutes short of half-past five. Except for the initial effort of does not primarily exist to enable boys and girls to learn how flinging back the covers, getting up at four-thirty was to the to support themselves by music or to give the pleasure of music Happy Eremite rank dissipation in which he indulged himself to others in return for money. What it exists for is to implant only at intervals, owing to a rebellion in his family, who pro into boys and girls of the rising generation and into the people tested against suffering the effects in long, logy yawns from of this country, so far as its influence extends, such knowledge supper time until about nine, when he got his second wind and of music, such understanding of it, that they will find through they were ready for bed. music an access to one of the real ends of life. As has been said, The Lady Eremite took pains to point out that the working the philosopher tries to work out in his mind a theory of order hours he stole from slumber in the morning he lost in semithat will explain the disorder and the trouble of the world; the slumber in the evening; which was arithmetically true, but left religious teacher inculcates a faith in such order and harmony; out of consideration the peculiar lure and magic of the most while the artist creates a world of order for himself and for ordinary and familiar surroundings under circumstances varyothers. Music, therefore, is not an ornament to life, but has as ing only a little from the every-day. The dim light in the eastserious and valid a part to play in life itself as religion or phi- ern windows, the cool fresh air as he opened the door, the deep losophy. It realizes, in a measure, that which philosophy thinks silence, broken at last by a cock-crow, the sky of robin's-egg about and religion expresses in the terms of faith. So the boys blue, with the stars slipping out of sight one by one like shy and the girls of the Music School Settlement are getting some faces, and that one blazing lamp above the line of radiant orange thing more than mere happiness. They are getting something lying along that wooded ridge worth living for in and of itself.
He walked slowly up the winding path to his study. On one In a time of war we want to get rid of the non-essentials, the side were the familiar woods sloping down to the glen ; on the things that help to make life easier, perhaps, and pleasanter, other, the fields, the lot where the potatoes had been, now cut but are not necessary. There are forms of music that are merely into gulleys here and there by the spring rains. The ponds still ornamental that can be called non-essential. But music itself is half frozen, the great hickory with the platform where the chilessential. If we are to treat it as a non-essential, we might treat dren played in summer, the dark slope beyond, with Cy Henas a non-essential life itself.
derson's ramshackle house and tumbledown barns, a shapeless This is not mere theory. It is highly practical, and it has mass in the faint light-everything had been familiar and comapplication to the conduct and prosecution of the war. A while monplace yesterday, and in an hour or less it would all be familago a group of men appointed by the Commission on Training iar and commonplace again. But for the moment it was magical. Camp Activities of the War Department made a visit to vari He stood still, breathing deeply. He had always retained a ous camps. One of the members of that group was Professor childish eagerness, some day, somewhere, to make his way into Walter R. Spalding, head of the Music Department of Har- untrodden valleys and over reinote and unexplored mountain vard University. He has written for the “Harvard Alumni passes; to find and salvage and search through some treasure Bulletin ” some of his conclusions as a result of his trip. The galleon off the coast of Cuba, or suddenly to come upon some object of the journey was to put these men, who all had special half-buried city rising in terraces on the side of some forgotten knowledge of music, at the disposal of the military authorities Peruvian peak. The dawn light on the familiar fields and tres in order to make music a means of greater efficiency among the and buildings now gave him a touch of that thrill which lit soldiers. As Professor Spalding says, the spiritual plays a thought only the sight of those Eldorados of his imagination large part in the life of a soldier—the fundamental part. would be able to evoke.
* A clear illustration of this fact,” he points out,“ is shown The deep orange of the east flowered slowly into dusky rose, by the phrase 'esprit de corps.' What is the best means avail- and over it, higher and higher, like a white bee, the morning star able for generating this fire of the spirit? Music: for between quivered. A bird twittered in the great hickory, then another. the qualifications of a good soldier, i. e., the demand for pre- From a distance came faintly the gurgle of running water. The cision, co-operative action, alertness, initiative, and the inherent world was a glory of lavender and mauve and purple and smoky characteristics of music, i. e., rhythm, life, unified action, fire, gray, in silent reverence receiving the benediction of the sun. and imagination, there is an everlasting relationship.
A low March wind rose and blew cold about the Happy “Consider the implication of the purely technical terms Eremite, but he did not stir. He watched the dawn open its 'tempo,' 'rhythm,' 'harmony,' 'accent. Our Government is petals wide, and, turning, he watched his trees, as it were, shake gradually coming to see that music should be made just as much off the night and stand revealed once more in their naked grace. à part of the equipment of our fighting men as weapons, No hidden valley, no sunken galleon, no buried city, could uniforms, and rations. ....
ever hold so deep a magic. “ We profoundly believe that a victorious army will be a “We are encompassed by beauty," murmured the Happy music-loving army, and in making this assertion we are standing Eremite. “It is the medicine of God for aching hearts and on the bed-rock of human instinct and are supported by the overstrained spirits. It is the multitude of fiery chariots." century-long experience of all the great military powers of He turned to enter the little house that was his study. The Europe.”
copper disc was rising over the dark ridge. Music, therefore, as Mr. Spalding proves, is one of the essen. “It must have been in the original scheme of things," he tials not only of the civilian population, but of the army. The mused, “that man should get up at dawn; and things are mudmaterialism that would cut out of life such a force in war time dled in the world, and there is starvation and defeat, because would not only deprive the people of one of those things that man sleeps late, and so misses the Lord of Hosts when he goes are worth living for, but would injure the military efficiency of about distributing rations and arms." the Nation itself. There are many great things that are coming He entered the study. The glow of the sunrise was bright on out of this war, and perhaps not the least of these will be a the walls and the peaked ceiling. new understanding in America of the place of music in life. “Early in the morning,” he whispered. “Lord, open our eyes."
CANADA AND THE FOOD PROBLEM
BY H. L. PANGBORN
RESIDENT SCHURMAN, of Cornell University, said : Dominion Government has bought one thousand tractors from in a recent address : “I believe it is no exaggeration to the Ford Company and is selling them to farmers at cost; and
say that we are confronted with the danger of starvation the banks stand ready to give the farmer financial aid where it in the next twelve months."
is needed. The basic fact of the world's food situation is that in the face The attitude of the Food Control is summed up in a recent of an increasing demand there is likely to be an actual decrease pronouncement of the Hon. W. J. Hanna that “the time may of production of the chief staples-grains and meat animals. not be far distant when the choice of the consumer will be The most optimistic expert looks for no more than normal crops between what's left and going without." in the world total, at best. And there is no available reserve. But the great constructive development is in the western Instead there is an indisputable present shortage.
. provinces-Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. That is the There is a fundamental reason for the coming shortage field of operations which promises to be of world-wide imporlack of farm labor. Other difficulties could be met, but no tance. The potential growth of this section is so vast that adequate solution has yet been offered for the labor problem. · figures become meaningless. It is literally true that it could
California and the whole Pacific coast to British Columbia easily grow grain enough to feed the whole world if it were report decreased acreage, due to lack of labor. From all the developed and manned. great grain belt, especially Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, come B oth Saskatchewan and Alberta are really farm empires. complaints of labor shortage. . Some localities are better off They are already equipped with a remarkable network of railthan others, but the evidence is overwhelming that from the ways, in addition to thousands of miles of waterways. The Mexican border to the far north of Canada there is not enough Saskatchewan River is navigated for about eight hundred miles. farm labor to meet present demands, to say nothing of increased The climate is not severe, and the soil is of known fertility. acreage.
Without going into remote corners there are more than 20,000,000 " It is hard,” said the Vancouver “ Sun,” editorially, “ for the acres of the finest wheat land ready for immediate development. people of this country to grasp the fact that there is actual The people of these provinces are awakening to the immensity danger of a world shortage of food. . . . Nevertheless that is of the world's demand upon them, and are increasingly alive exactly what is liable to happen unless the greatest care is also to the great opportunity offered. It is here, too, that the taken to ward it off.”
most successful experiments in co-operation on a large scale Canada is in better position than the United States to meet have been carried out, and are now growing daily with amazing the crisis because of the greater availability of its enormous rapidity. The United Farmers of Alberta and the Farm Women unused acreage, its somewhat better labor situation, its efficient of Alberta claim a membership of about 16,500, most of it coalition Government, and, above all, because of the spirit of acquired within the past two years. The United Grain Growers', effective co-operation that dominates, in spite of minor discords. Limited, and similar organizations, which began a few years ago The Dominion and the various provincial governments, the as small local co-operative farmers' associations, now practically bankers and the powerful farmers' associations, such as the control the whole wheat crop of the northwest. They own or Grain-Growers of the Northwest, are striving to attack this control more than three thousand grain elevators, large and huge problem in-a- practical way.
small. Exact figures are not at hand, but their total handling of The most striking thing in their attitude is the widespread grain last year must have amounted to fully $300,000,000, posfeeling that it is necessary to “get together," to sink all par- sibly much more. tisan divergence of opinion, leaving minor matters for later Western Canada now has 43 members in the House of Comsettlement. This is reflected throughout the Canadian press and mons, as against 27 in the last Parliament, but even more sig. in the public utterances of leading men of all shades of opinion. nificant is the fact that the organized farmers are represented. There is hardly a discordant note, even from Quebec, as to the Their programme, in general, calls for governmental conc-bief point. All the provincial governments, as well as that of structive activity upon a scale hitherto unknown. It is the more the Dominion, are not only planning but doing things to for remarkable in that it is not visionary, but obviously possible ward the movement for greater crops in spite of all difficulties. radicalism tempered by sanity and wide practical experience. Railway control and management are being centralized and har. They are fortunate in having a new country to deal with and a monized to at least as great an extent as in this country. There' population practically homogeneous, as the few intruded eleis, in fact, nothing that the United States has done that Canada ments, like the Doukhobors, Mennonites, and Mormons, do not has not also done, and they have added and are adding many bulk large enough to have more than local effect. measures not yet considered here. The banking centers are A striking illustration is found in the proposal as to the extending all possible facilities to farmers for the increase of immediate food problem made by the Hon. George Langley, herds and flocks as well as for the planting of greater acreage.. of Saskatchewan, for an increased production of wheat. It is
It is planned to make each province as nearly self-supporting as being discussed as practical, although it contemplates breaking possible. Quebec, for instance, normally consumes about 12,000,- a million acres of new land for wheat next summer, calls for 000 bushels of wheat, but grows only about 4,000,000. The Gov- the conscription of an agricultural army of twenty thousand ernment has set aside for distribution in Quebec 400,000 bushels men, Government purchase of more than three thousand tracof wheat for additional seeding, in the hope of enabling that tors with the needed subsidiary equipment, and the immediate province to take care of itself. And Quebec probably has nearly expenditure of at least $15,000,000.enough farm labor. Similar movements are on foot in the Mari- Mr. Langley proposes to“ conscript "his million acres of new time Provinces to encourage them to grow as much as possible land either from areas belonging to the Government or the Cana. of other foods that can be used in place of wheat and bacon. ilian Pacific Railroad, or from private owners—wherever it is The same is true of British Columbia.
handy ; to buy seed, equip the tracts with gasoline or steam Governmental control is being applied to providing an abun- tractors, plows, etc., and man them with twenty thousand experidance of fish, especially for Ontario, at nearly cost price, and enced men, of whom about one-fifth must be skilled in the use is already partially effective. Canada has a license system, and is of farm machinery and able to run gasoline engines. These most ixing all the voluntary restrictions of diet in effect here." To cite important men he plans to take from the employees of the grain one instance of constructive effort, the Dominion Government elevators, from implement makers' agents, and from chauffeurs has encouraged the formation of small farmers' co-operative asso of pleasure cars and others above military draft age who can riations, especially in Ontario, to handle mill feeds in car-load drive a gasoline engine. He claims that there are over three lots in order to raise more hogs. The farmers have responded thousand elevators, from each of which one man could be drawn and very many such associations have been formed. The without interfering with their later work. It is probable that these provinces could get the needed labor by this method. The in relation to the returning soldiers' needs, finds the solution money must be furnished by the Government.
only in a“ well-organized and vigorous campaign for the develHe also sees the need of a centralized, half-military control, opment of the latent resources of the province" by the provwith a single executive head, and even went so far as to suggest ince itself. It finds two subdivisions—finance and organization. either the Hon. J. A. Calder or the Hon. C. A. Dunning as a The first it proposes to solve by creating a state bank, for the suitable man to coinmand this army. Incidental minor sugges- flotation of bonds and the carrying out of“ various farm loan tions are the removal of duty on American-made machinery and schemes already adopted into legislation.” elimination of middlemen's profit. Finally, he proposes that The “ organization ” would control and develop and operate when the war is over this land be made available for soldier all“ power; lumber; raw foods, such as grain and fish ; coal settlement. Legislation to put this plan or some modification and other minerals, such as copper, lead, zinc, silver, iron, and of it into effect is being prepared.
asphalt.” It is argued that in so doing the Government would The Regina “ Post" in further comment said : “No one not be “ interfering with or disturbing private enterprises to need feel alarmed by the fact that Mr. Langley's plan calls such an extent as to cause disorganization,” and that it would for doing a big thing in a big way. This is a big country, and “solve the problem of employment with a minimum of waste it is beginning to realize its bigness. ... Organized effort to and injustice." augment the work of individual farmers in the most effective Because such an assertion could hardly be made as to the way is essential.”
unused areas of the United States —said to be 400,000,000 That is the keynote-organized effort. And these people acres—it by no means follows that Alberta cannot do it. have proved that they can co-operate effectively.
The ideal set up is that of a state“ revealed as an association In Alberta discussion reaches even further, comprehending of all its citizens in partnership for mutual well-being." not only agriculture on a colossal scale, but also development Whether it is Utopian or not experience alone can tell, but of mines, fishery, power, lumber, and even eventually manu there is much in the recent history of the Canadian northwest facture. The “ Morning Albertan," of Calgary, in a thoughtful to indicate that if such an ideal can be transmuted into reality consideration of the future, particularly after the war and anywhere these provinces can do it.
THE NAVAL RESERVE
JACKY came up to an officer of the Naval Reserve one and undergraduates under sixteen. The oldest were often the
day, touched his cap, and asked if he might have leave most eager to serve ; the age limit is from nineteen to fifty. Z . - to go home to see his sick baby.
eight, and it is whispered that more men over the latter have “You're married ?” asked the officer.
prevaricated about their ages in order to get in than have boys “ Yes, sir; wife and two children."
under nineteen. Yet here, as in France and in England, the very “How do you come to be in the Navy with such responsibili young have wanted to be in it too. Witness the case of the boy ties as those ?"
of sixteen who forged his father's consent to his enlisting. By “ Well, I'll tell you, sir. My father fought in the war of the the time the irate parent discovered where his son had gone the Rebellion. I have two younger brothers who are not married boy was on a mine-sweeper in the North Sea, so the father gave and have no responsibilities at all, but they have developed a a bona-fide consent this time. yellow streak and will not enlist, so I had to come in to save Many former Naval Militia officers volunteered their services, the honor of the family, and my wife approves what I have and in the unit at Columbia University, which numbered only done."
three hundred and fifty men and was employed in training That is the spirit of the Naval Reserve.
would-be officers and warrant officers, there were four men who Some two years ago a body known as the Naval Training had served as officers on the same ship in the Spanish War, Association was organized by certain far-sighted Naval Militia the Yankee--a lieutenant, the chief engineer, the boatswan's men, retired naval officers, and others to supplement the work mate, and the master-at-arms, the last no less a person than of the Naval Militia and provide men more or less trained for a professor of engineering at Columbia the use of the Navy when the country should get into the war With all this rush of men to enlist there was nothing ready which was inevitable. This organization was taken over and for them-no barracks, no boats, no airplanes, or almost note, enlarged by the Government last winter, renamed the Naval One group of twenty-eight men encamped on the end of a dock Reserve, and now consists of several categories of men. The at Bridgeport in a deserted coal-shed, and the sentry stood guard first of these comprises former officers and men of the Navy with a broomstick. At New Haven the men raised some eight who enlist for service with the fleet. In the second the men thousand dollars to equip themselves, and were better off than enlist to serve in any capacity on naval vessels which are not of most of their compeers in that they secured the Yale boathouse the fleet, such as submarine-chasers, transports, converted as a barracks and drill hall, but the Government could do nothing yachts, etc. The third enlist for service on auxiliaries, such as for them. The same story was true all along the line. At Newcolliers, etc. The fourth consists of a coast patrol, and the men port the men were scattered all over the town, in such lodgings serve on submarine-chasers, scout patrol-boats, and such like, as they were able to pay for. At other stations they were in all but are not to go outside of territorial waters, nor can they be sorts of places-armories, Y. M. C. A. buildings, tents, sheds. made to serve outside the section in which they enlist except anything. At Bayshore the aviation section, over one hundred with their own consent. It was the hope of serving against sub strong, had only one plane to learn with for the first month and marines, which were thouglit probable visitors to our shores over, which gave each man a chance to go up once in ten days after the experience at Newport the previous summer with the or so ; therefore to keep them busy they were put to building German U-boat, that brought such numbers of college men roads, and very good roads they made. At New London they and boys from high and private schools. These four form the were set to making nets with which to close our harbors a main sections of the Reserve, and there are two more which are night-most useful work, but hardly that for which they had in a sense auxiliary—the hydro-airplane service and that at the enlisted. Everywhere there was a shortage of boats, submarine Naval Prison at Portsmouth.
chasers, guns, small arms; the war had caught us utterly lill· When it became clear in the winter of 1916 that war was prepared. It was no fault of the War and Navy Departments. certain, there was a great rush to enlist in the N. R. There was They had begged for these things, but Congress had seen do no limit to the ages at which men wanted to serve. At the original reason for providing them. volunteer school at Columbia there was one graduate over seventy It was the splendid constancy of the Reserve in these trying