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naturally at sea as once we did on land ? What of this society lives, having pooled their lives, and all will know something more in which at first we were interlopers, and of which we gradually and be more conscious of the realm of the sea, its life, which have come to form a part ?
since the days of clipper ships America has neglected. It lacks the refinements, or what we are pleased to call the The gob has a significance greater than his present service. refinements, of the land. There are no artificialities, no affecta. He forms the nucleus of a new body of seamen recruited from tions, no reserves. It is a point-blank sort of life. It bowls you the land. America is turning again to the sea, is becoming over. It continues to bowl you over as long as you permit. again one of the maritime nations of the world. Not only has Eventually you stand more squarely on your feet. You've got the war, which has depleted the shipping of other peoples, to. You must have your footing to meet the shock of green increased her own—that is but a beginning. It is her interests water that comes over the bow in storm; another sort of footing which have gone to sea, and she must follow. She has stepped to meet the impact of crude human relationships. The very act from the seclusion of her Western Hemisphere and entered, of shaking hands is a bone-crushing process.
finally, into the competition for existence among nations. She The sea permits no luxuries, no indulgences. The life of the has assumed European financial dependency. Her blood is sea is the struggle for self-preservation twenty-four hours in the sprinkled on European soil. The sea and the pathways of the twenty-four. There is no room for aught but indispensable sea are to be the roads of her new, greater development. comforts, no time for distractions. Men of the sea are men It does not follow that those of us who are learning the stripped to their basic selves, their qualities, good and bad, on way of life on salt water will, when hostilities cease, continue the scale of their heavy-muscled bodies-not supermen, but men our present occupation. Some, probably, will continue of with po veneer to cloak them. The gob, as he first comes among inclination, some will be forced to remain through inability to them, is a fragile thing.
wedge their way into civil occupations when peace will flood all There will be an influx of a new virility come to America strata of these occupations with suddenly released and surplus through the war, from Army and Navy both, and with it a new men. The proportion matters little. Whether we stay or whether democracy. There will be no room for the snob, the man who, we go, we shall bear a new knowledge, a broader vision. This, from whatever mistaken notion of himself, feels himself superior in degree as it is intelligent, will be a directing force to our and bolds himself aloof. Ope balf will know how the other half country in her new international position.
twentortes, no teir basic selve led bodies
The white oak and the ash and fir
They have no way they can forget
They hear the birch has given his white
All day the sad trees did not wink
THE NEW BOOKS
Or distribute selected questions among different
WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF
Based on The Outlook of January 2, 1918 Each woek an Outline Study of Current History based on the preceding number of The Outlook will bo printed for the benefit of current events classes, debating clabs, teachers of history and of English, and the like, and for use in the home and by such individual readers as may desire suggestions in the serious study of current history.--THE EDITORS.
(Those who are using the weekly outline should C. Topic: Should Austria-Hungary be not attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any
Dissolved ? one lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected questions, one or two propositions for discussion, and
Reference : Pages 22-24, 28. only such words as are found in the material assigned. Questions :
1. What information do you gather about niembers of the class or group and have them
the population of Austria-Hungary from
Then report their findings to all when assembled. have all discuss the questions together.]
Mr. de Lanux's article? 2. Mr. de Lanux 1--INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
says that “ each faction of the Austrian
Empire wants autonomy and works for it.” A. Topic: The Peace of Vassalage ; Pa
Why don't these various factions get autontience with Russia
omy? 3. According to this article, what is Reference: Pages 5; 17, 18.
Germany's relation to Austria-Hungary? Questions :
What is Germany's object of interest in 1. What has The Outlook said which · Austria-Hungary -4. What recommendatends to show that if Russia makes peace
tions would you make to Austria-Hungary with Germany it will be a peace of serf
and to the factions there? 5. This article dom? 2. For what reason is Trotsky seek
suggests the problem of nationality in his ing peace with Germany? 3. How many
Y tory. What is that problem? How would reasons can you give why Germany does
you solve it? 6. Do you think Austrianot make definite proposals of peace with Hungary should be dissolved ? Discuss your Russia? 4. What has" Mr. Goldenweiser
reasons. 7. Books much worth while readsaid ( page 17) about American opinion of
ing on this topic are Hazen's “Europe Russia? What does he think of this opin
Since 1915” (Holt)—see index; “Seven ion? 5. For what reasons does Mr. Gold
Years in Vienna ” (Houghton Mifflin)onweiser believe Russia has not lost her
e author's name not given; Rose's “ Nationsignificance as a military force for the
ality in Modern History” (Macmillan); present or the future? 6. What do you find
Laski's “ The Problem of Sovereignty” in this article (“ Patience with Russia ") as
(Yale University Press). to who the Bolsheviki are and what their future influence on Russian politics will be ?
II-LOCAL AFFAIRS 7. Mr. Goldenweiser speaks of “the blessings of an orderly state organism." How is
Topic: Boston Comes Across. such an organism produced? What are the
Reference : Pages 15-17. * blessings of such an institution? 8. Study
Questions : « the cartoons on the Russian situation on
1. What reasons does Professor Munro
assign for the defeat of Mayor Curley? page 18. Name and discuss the things that these cartoons suggest to you.
2. Should a mayor be defeated for such
reasons ? Discuss. 3. Do you think it is B. Topic : Restoration, Reparation ; Alsace
possible for a mayor to conduct his adminLorraine ; Sense-Common and Preferred.
istration in a wholly non-partisan spirit ?
Tell why or why not. 4. Compare the Reference : Page 5; editorial, page 11;
merits of the mayor-council form, the com20-22.
mission form, and the city-manager form Questions:
of municipal government. Which form 1. What points did Lloyd George make
would you advocate for your city ? Give in his speech on December 20, 1917? Of
several reasons. 5. Read liberally in three these which ones ought to receive special
very useful books : “ The City the Hope of attention by Americans? Reasons. 2. Dis
Democracy,” by F. C. Howe (Scribners); tinguish carefully between restoration and
“ American Municipal Progress,” by C. reparation. What, in your opinion, ought
Zueblin (Macmillan); “The Government Germany to do about these two matters?
of American Cities," by W. B. Munro 3. For what reasons would or would you
(Macmillan). not allow Germany to join a league of nations at the present time? 4. Which do
11-PROPOSITIONS FOR DISCUSSION you prefer, peace with Germany by negoti
(These propositions are suggested directly or indiation or by military victory? Your reasons. rectly by the subject matter of The Outlook, but 5. For what reasons does The Outlook not discussed in it.) (page 11) believe the disposition of Alsace- 1. It is impossible to rid American cities Lorraine by a plebiscite of its inhabitants of corruption. 2. Democracy is government would be wrong? 6. Tell somewhat at length by argument. 3. The disposition of Alsacehow Germany has ruled Alsace-Lorraine. Lorraine is a world question. 7. What view of the Kaiser and of Germany does Irving Bacheller (pages 20-22)
IV/VOCABULARY BUILDING set forth? Is there sufficient evidence that (All of the following words and expressi -ns are Mr. Bacheller has kept to the facts of found in The Outlook for January 2, 1918. Both
before and after looking them up in the dietionary German history and German teaching ?
or elsewhere, give their meaning in your own words. & By all means read Hazen's “ Alsace. The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which Lorraine Under German Rule” (Holt); the words may be found.) Bang's “Hurrah and Hallelujah" (Doran); Knouting, samorars, a mob, the BolsheF. A. Smith's “ The Soul of Germany” viki (17); plebiscite, “ Squatter Sovereign
Duran). Hill's “ The Rebuilding of ty” (11), pneumatic, humor, afflatus (20), Europe” (Century); Ruth Putnam's “ Al sentiment, infinity, flatulency, pulchritude seee and Lorraine" (Putnams).
(21): neophyte, electorate, vernacular (16). | booklet suggesting methods of "sing the Weekly Orstline of Cherrent History will be sent on application
This department will include descriptive notes, with or without brief comments, about books received by The Outlook. Many of the important books will have more extended and critical treatment later
Patrick and Terence Casey. Little, Brown &
A story of romance and adventure, with the abduction of a hidalgo's daughter by a highwayman and bandolero as its chief incident. HISTORY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND POLITICS England's Debt to India. By Lajpat Rai.
B. W. Huebsch, New York. $2.
This author's manner is as eloquent as his matter is interesting. Readers may not agree with all his conclusions, but they will, we are sure, appreciate the wealth of information given concerning the economic conditions in India. It has been said that this largest part of the British Empire both in area and population will be the first to feel the levy in recompensing that Empire for its losses in the present war, and a discussion of this forms a feature of the book. We are also glad that it includes, as appropriate to an economic survey, a chapter on education and literacy. After perusing the volume readers will not be surprised that the author's panacea for Indian ills, economic and polítical, is found in homo rule, self-government, and autonomy. Universal Training for Citizenship and
Public Service. By William H. Allen. The
The somewhat arid title of this book scarcely suggests to the reader its really inspiring appeal. Replete with the latest ideas as to civic work, its discussion of the problems of citizenship that confront us now, and will confront us after the war, is terse, vigorous, and helpful to a high degree. Every public-spirited man and woman will find the book worth reading.
BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS
By Gertrude Crownfield. Illustrated. The
A pretty, fanciful story for little children.
Brooke. By Principal Lawrence Pearsall
York. $4.75. An adequate and appreciative account of the life of the famous English clergyman and author who is best known for his fine Life of Frederick W. Robertson. Paul Jones : His Exploits in English Seas
During 1778-1780. Contemporary Aocounts Collected from English Newspapers, with a Complete Bibliography. By Don c.
Seitz. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $3.50. Makers of Our History. By John T. Faris.
Illustrated. Ginn & Co., Boston. 80c. Portraits and Backgrounds. by Evangeline
Wilbour Blashfield. Charles Scribner's Sons,
ESSAYS AND CRITICISM
John Lane Company, New York. $1.25. This is Leacock at his best, and this best is better than others of his recent books. The fun is sly and penetrating; the burlesque quality is sustained ; the writing is that of a humorist, not that of a mere jokesmith. History of American Journalism. By James
Melvin Lee. Hlustrated. Houghton Miffin
A book of prime importance to all newspaper men who take an intelligent interest in their profession, of decided interest to the general reader on account of its lively style, anel of real value to the student of
The New Books (Continued) American life because of its comprehensiveness and its presentation of the ethics as well as the annals of its subject. Patriotism-National and International.
By Sir Charles Waldstein. Longmans, Green & Co., New York. $1.
TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION Book of New York (The). By Robert Sha :kle
ton. Illustrated. The Penn Publishing Com
pany, Philadelphia. $2.50. Rather desultory, but always agreeable in its talk about associations, historical incidents, ancient houses, superstitions of the ignorant population, childishness in municipal whims, modern growth, foreign districts, and other queer or famous aspects of New York. Memories of Old Salem. Drawn from the
Letters of a Great-Grandmother. By Mary
York. $4. Miss Northend has done more than any author of whom we think to make the reader of our day familiar with certain features of old New England life, both by agreeable description and by excellent photographs. She is, as one may say, a specialist on Salem. This volume is eminently attractive, both in its physical and pictorial form and in the curious information about old times and old things in Salem. Our Hawaii, By Charmian Kittredge London
(Mrs. Jack London). Illustrated. The Macmillan Company, New York. $2.25. “ What does the average middle-aged American know of the amazing history of this amazing native' people now voting as American citizens ?” Mrs. London asks, referring to the Hawaiians. Her book answers the question in vivid characterizations of the land and the people, interwoven with intimate revelations of the character of her husband, the well-known novelist. The charms of Hawaii staggered even “ Jack's” descriptive powers. “Of all lands of joy and beauty under the sun ...” he said as he left it—and could not finish his eulogy.
RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
Edited by James Hastings. Vol. IX-Mun. das-Phrygians. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $7. Religion and ethics being conterminous with human life from its lowest savagery to its highest civilization, one who opens for the first time this monumental work marvels at its wealth of information. All races, nations, tribes, and social groups, ancient and modern, tell the tale of their beliefs and practices. Even “Oahspe," a book-religion invented by an American dentist and followed by a tiny sect of “ Faithists,” is given its page. Art, biography, and history, the sciences and pluilosophies, contribute each its quota. Great Love Stories of the Bible and Their
Lessons for To-Day. By Billy Sunday.
$1.50. In the Footsteps of St. Paul. By Francis E.
Clark, D.D., LL.D. Nlnstrated. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. $2.
This book is a boon to many unlikely to to have heard of such a masterpiece as Sir William Ramsay's “ Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen.” No scientific interest induced Dr. Clark to visit all the cities visited by Paul. His express purpose was to see how these look to-day, so as to reconstruct the physical background and scenery of Paul's labors. His narrative aims to awaken the vivid rcalism in which their storied past rose there in imagination, and with it the inspiring personality of the great Apostle, dauntless, heroic, benign, and very
The New Books (Continued)
PLAYING THE WAR GAME tor in the corridor. And I have heard human. He writes especially for Bible
BY LOWELL MASON
rich New Yorkers boast offensively of their students, preachers, Sunday-school teach
I have seen an archbishop of New York,
at his silver jubilee, the central figure of a He doesn't pretend to know the game, Inside the Russian Revolution. By Rheta
magnificent service in the Cathedral, with
So he's studying day and night. Childe Dorr. Illustrated. The Macmillan
hundreds of the priesthood and of churchly Company, New York. $1.50. He isn't conceited of winning
dignitaries of this and other cities in his “I went to Russia (in May, 1917) a The game is all new to him ;
train, with pomp of silk and purple and Socialist by conviction, an ardent sympa- But he's cool and he's keen and he's clever, cloth of gold, with the sounding of great thizer with revolution. .. .I returned And he's strong and he's full of vim. bells and the triumphant pealing of the from Russia with the very clear conviction He's brave, and he doesn't mind dying,
organ and the sound of singing voices and that the world will have to wait a while
He's willing to sacrifice all;
the music of the horns and cymbals and before it can establish any co-operative But his sight is too clear for him simply to
strings of a great orchestra, and with a millenniums or before it can safely hand
mighty congregation packing every inch of over the work of government to the man in
the edifice; and I have seen the same archthe street." So says the author of this up
And then rush out to battle and fall.
bishop conducting a service in the chapel to-the-minute book. It furnishes most Yet some people say he's a slacker,
on Blackwell's Island, looking with tears in excellent reading for the host of half-baked And ask why he isn't in France.
his eyes at the massed array of paupers and reformers who imagine that the world can But it's brains that will win, and he knows prisoners and crippled and blind, but be created anew overnight, and deserves a
dressed in his splendid robes, in cope and wide circulation both among these and And all that he asks is a chance ! surplice and stole of cloth of gold, and with among readers who take a saner point of So he's learning the game from the bottom;
a mighty golden miter upon his head, and view.
He's learning each trick and each
in his hand a golden crozier, to show that EDUCATIONAL
High Mass on Blackwell's was the same as
on Fifth Avenue. Instead of great reverWhen this fellow gets to the front.
berant bells, a little bell in a little greenDrivers, and Workers in Civilian Relief. By E. E. Pattou. Dodd, Mead & Co.,
slatted cupola rang forth its summons ; inNew York. $1.50. He is one of a hundred million
stead of splendid organ and orchestra and Principles of Mental Hygiene (The). By
Who are learning how to fight.
choir, there were a crippled player at an William A. White, M.D. With an Introduction He doesn't pretend to know the game, old melodeon, and a choir of four blind and by Smith Ely Jelliffe, M.D., Ph.D. The MacBut he's studying day and night.
crippled derelicts; and I noticed that the millan Company, New York. $2. Re-Education. An Analysis of the Institutional
tin vessels, just inside of the entrance, for System of the United States. By George EdNEW YORK-THE CITY OF
the holy water were soon dipped empty, and ward Barton, A.I.A. Houghton Mifflin Com
it was pitiful to see the late comers groping pany, Boston. $1.
We quote from Robert Shackleton's eagerly in the dry vessels for the water SCIENCE “ The Book of New York," just published :
od: which they could not find. Applied Motion Study. A Collection of Papers
on the Efficient Method to Industrial Prepared No part of the world is more busy, and COUNSEL TO A YOUNG ness. By Frank B. Gilbreth and L. M. Gil
at the same time more thronged, than the breth, Ph.D, The Sturgis & Walton Company,
district of lower Broadway and Wall
The letter which follows, was written by Mr. Short History of Science (A). By W. T.
Thomas E. Clarke, until recently General Saperir Sedgwick and H. W. Tyler. Illustrated. The the day; and nowhere in the world is there
tendent of the Delaware, Luckawanna, and WestMacmillan Company, New York. $2.50. a business district so deserted, so silent, so ern Railroad and pow Assistant to President TruesA vast subject is treated with breadth of without life except for the solitary and in dale. Mr. Clarke served for two years in the Civil
War, and saw hard fighting in Tennessee, Georgia, view and keenness of insight in this book. frequent policeman, as the mile after mile
and the Carolinas. Toward he close of the war he It strikes a happy balance between the of this district at night. Nowhere in the was attached to General Sherman's staff. His one technical works that are meant for the world are there such lofty business struc- regret to day is that he cannot go out to fight at special student and the works that deal so tures and apartment-houses, yet these are
the side of his young relative for the freedom and
the principles of democracy. largely with abstract theories that they fail bordered and interspersed with buildings
The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad to grip the general reader. A good example of ordinary height; there are two-story
Company, Office of Assistant to President. of the work of specialists who know how buildings that have held their own while T. E. Clarke,
Assistant to President. to make their subject interesting to non- business has mounted to the sky beside
Scranton, Pa., August 15, 1917. specialists.
them, and there are even vacant lots. My dear i MISCELLANEOUS
There are the most expensive specialists in I believe that you will do your bit by a Effective Public Speaking. The Essentials medicine and surgery, and there are hospi- complete and conscientious performance of of Extempore Speaking and of Gesture. By
tals with the most expensive and modern duty; my thoughts and my prayers shall Joseph A. Mosher, Ph.D. The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.50.
equipment where surgical and medical aid be with you constantly, but I do not mean Furniture of the Olden Time. By Frances is given free.
by this that the occupation of soldier places Clary Morse. Illustrated. New Edition. The There is the greatest and most reckless you in greater need of divine protection Macmillan Company, New York. $6.
spending in the world, and there is the than obtains with all mankind. “ PreparedA new edition of a standard work that most pinching economy. You may standness" is the saving word. Warfare is surhas made itself almost indispensable to beside some wealthy woman who negli- rounded by many other dangers than those people of taste in matters of household gently orders furs or gowns costing thou of the firing line, and indomitable courage equipment. Many new illustrations are in- sands, and in a few minutes may be in a is no less a requisite for safe emergence. cluded, and there is a new chapter about shop where you will hear a poor child, who To be brief and plain, I will merely cite mantels, doorways, and stairs. This is a is buying a loaf of stale bread and a penny's my own experience. As you know, I enbook to make the reader feel proud of the worth of cheese, say to the clerk, “Mother tered the service when four or five years workers and workmanship of the old days. wants you to cut it with the ham knife to younger than your age to-day, and correSurgical Operations on President Cleve give it a hammy taste.” ...
spondingly immature. My youth may have land in 1893 (The). By William W. Keen, While the number increases of those who been my safeguard, but my inclinations, M.D., LL.D. George W. Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia.
with difficulty find ways to spend their which I believe I see personified in you, Your War Ta xes. By J. Frederick Essary. In
money, the number also increases of those were to avoid all the habits which cause troduction by Honorable F. M. Simmons. with no money to spend : I have seen the social, mental, and physical depravity, Moffat, Yard & Co., New York. $1.
policeman, after midnight, moving stolidly namely: gambling, use of intoxicants, proThis is a discussion and interpretation from park bench to park bench, effectually fanity, obscenity, vulgarity. And yet I of the new War and Income Tax Law. The rousing the homeless sleepers by blows would not have you imagine that my assoauthor had the advantage of advice and upon their feet; I have seen the derelictsciates were of low degree nor that the sery. assistance in its preparation from the Sec- disappear doubtfully into the darkness; one ice is, on the whole, degrading. On the retary of the Treasury, Mr. McAdoo. cold morning at City Hall Park I saw two contrary, I believe it compares favorably The law is published in full (it fills seventy- poor fellows, pathetically anxious to keep with our educational institutions in forming five pages of the book), and in not much up their appearance, wash themselves at character, and, owing to peculiarity in dismore space the author tells the layman in the fountain, wipe themselves with grimy cipline, regularity, seriousness, and the plain language just how it affects him and handkerchiefs, and then step into the post- cosmopolitanism of their formations, I bewhat it means.
office to dry the handkerchiefs on a radia- lieve there is more real uplifting of men in
Counsel to a Young Soldier (Continued) the army and navy than obtains in any other one service or occupation, all things considered.
I realize that there is but very little, if any, real need of admonishing you, but I am very fond of you and more than proud of your splendid character and mentality, so much of which is due to your own determined perseverance. I feel quite sure of your self-reliance and good purposes while in the service, and I trust that the service will feel itself honored in whatever honors it may confer upon you.
At the conclusion of this most unwarranted of all wars in the world's history, but to be the last for all time to come, sounding as it does the knell of autocracy and militarism, you will be welcomed back to civil life possessing the same fortitude for the future that you now have in giving serviceable loyalty to your country's cause.
Just one thought more. Don't abuse your mind with imaginary dangers. Upon first hearing the roar of battle (remember this) there may be one here and there who fears for his soul, but men like you who have no canse for such fear will feel a thrill of patriotism and courage never dreamed of. Of course we do not know whether you will experience this on foreign soil or if at all, but there is an indescribable fascination about it. I am glad that you were already a volunteer, prepared for service when your country's call was made, and that you have no dependents to worry about, so that you may go with your mind freely on your “ business," unfettered and unwearied. ...
Of course I do not mean that you will not think of home and friends, but try not to think of your loved ones as depressed in spirit; for there is too much at stake in this war, and as the fact becomes more apparent it will ameliorate their distress and increase their pride.
I have written at greater length than I intended, but I hope that what I have here written may be very satisfying to you and give you new and enduring inspiration, with increased confidence in the need and justice of the United States entering into this war for democracy and perpetual peace, as our President has so wisely deemed it our duty to do—to say nothing of our defense.
I am, most affectionately,
(Signed) T. E. CLARKE.
HOW THEY MAKE WAR IN
MESOPOTAMIA EXTRACT FROM A LETTER WRITTEN BY A
BRITISH AVIATOR Last week I had an interesting experience. I motored right up on to No Man's Land, then got out and examined our frontline trenches, walking along the parapet. It was about the middle of the forenoon. Imagine doing a thing like that in France ! Why, here we even put up rifle butts out there for target practice. And we always hold our field days out there, often miles out. Really we carry on war out here on most sane principles. In the first place, we keep far enough away so that we cannot hurt one another. And we don't even do any bombing. Old Johnnie Turk comes and sits over our airdrome every Sunday morning at eleven (that's how we can always tell Sunday here), but he never drops a pill. And we aren't in the least inclined to start the bloody work. The same with poison gas and flamenwefer. They use far more cominon sense here than they do in France !