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Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 118 January 16, 1918 No. 3
High School Course
THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK OOMPANY, 381 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. LAWRENCE P. ABBOTT, PRESIDENT. N. T. PULSIFER, VICE-PRESIDENT. PRANK C. HOYT, TREASURER. ERNEST H. ABBOTT, SECRETARY. TRAVERS D. CARMAN, ADVERTISING MANAGER. YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONSFIFTY-TWO ISSUES - FOUR DOLLARS IN ADVANCE ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK POST-OFFICE
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An Announcement...................... 81
of the Railways.................
Over the War Department Machinery The Spirit of Japan: A Vindication of Japan's Foreign Policy by Marquis Okuma 92
An Interview by Gregory Mason Heroes of Aviation ......... ....... 94
By Laurence La Tourette Driggs “ The Origin and Evolution of Life:" A Notice of Henry Fairfield Osborn's Book 97
By Theodore Roosevelt Knoll Papers : The Children of the Church 99
By Lyman Abbott
By Donal Hamilton Haines
Has It Come to Stay? The Larger View.
By Theodore H. Price
By Henry Moskowitz A Munition Plant in Every Back Yard. 109
By Charles Lathrop Pack
By Demetra Vaka
By Jean Brooke Burt
By George M. Murray Weekly Outline Study of Current History 112
By J. Madison Gathany, A.M. The New Books........................ 113 The Story of the Automobile Tire...... 115 By the Way...........................
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How Germany Will Be Beaten
What the Map Reveals. Where Will the
At the end of 1916 Germany realized that she was weakening. Something des
WESTYMN FRONT perate had to be done. Hardly had 1917 dawned, when unrestricted submarine warfare was declared. It was thought that in 60 days England would be starved-brought to her knees. But instead of eliminating England, the Central Powers added the United States to their list of enemies. When the full force of America's resources and fighting power is brought home to Germany she will realize that her submarine warfare was the most colossal blunder in all military history.
At present, Roulers, which is 12 miles from Ypres and 57 miles from Waterloo, is the “ solar plexus " of German control over the seacoast of Belgium. By next summer it seems certain that artillery and infantry, pressure will beat down German resistance in this sector.
With the fall of Roulers will come a vast Teutonic retreat, the
Complete Map of Western Front FREE. See Coupon surrender of the submarine bases at Ostend and Zeebrugge, the beginning of the collapse of aid a decision to defeat minor proportions of forces in a subGerman power in Belgium.
sidiary field. But the object of war is the elimination of armies, As the battle line struggles forward from day to day it is inter and as long as the bulk of an army is still in the field as an effecesting to know why the Allies manœuvre for positions south of tive fighting force, a decision has not been reached. Therefore, Dixmude, why they fight so bitterly around Lens and prepare so as the fighting on the western front goes, so goes the war. Concraftily to drive east on Lille, and north on Rheims. It is to sweep clusions logically drawn and based on known conditions on this the Germans out of Belgium! Once out of Belgium, Germany's front may then be considered to apply to the war situation as a cause is as lost as a penny at the ocean's bottom. And no one whole. The importance of a complete map of the Western Front knows this better than the Kaiser.
can, therefore, be clearly seen. But the war will end, and end quickly, when Germany is compelled to vacate the Lorraine and the Metz Valley. Germany's
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JANUARY 16, 1918
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York ('ity and on the railways, this copy of
" The best articles on our new army camps that I have yet seen.” So speaks one of our readers in a personal letter about Dr. Joseph H. Odell's four articles already published in The Outlook dealing with the life and conditions of our American camps and cantonments.
A fifth article, bearing the title " The Miracle of Democracy,” will appear next week in The Outlook (issue of January 23).
What is this miracle ? Dr. Odell puts it in a few words." The cantonments are probably the most contented and cheerful spots in America, where laughter, cheers, and songs ripple or ring through the air a hundred times a day." The article gives a lively, entertaining, and eminently optimistic view of the men and the camps. of the relation of the soldiers to one another and to the country.
THE WEEK GENERAL CROWDER ON THE SELECTIVE DRAFT
power to exact enforced military duty by the citizen under this The result of the reclassification of the men who are regis- clause gets but scant respect from the Court. It says: tered under the Selective Draft Law will not be definitely This but challenges the existence of all power, for governknown for several weeks. It is interesting, however, to record mental power which has no sanction to it and which can only be General Crowder's estimate of the number of men who will be
exercised provided the citizen consents is in no substantial sense
such a power. It is argued, however, that, although this is put in Class 1, and passed as physically fit. This number General
abstractly true, it is not concretely so because, as compelled Crowder sets as close to one million, and states his belief that this
military service is repugnant to a free government and in connumber will be large enough for any call in present prospect. Alict with all the great guarantees of the Constitution as to indi
General Crowder advocates adding to those now liable under vidual liberty, it must be assumed that the authority to raise the Draft Law men who are arriving at the age of twenty-one, armies was intended to be limited to the right to call an army and estimates that this would result in a yearly increment of at into existence, counting alone upon the willingness of the citizen least seven hundred thousand men. With such an increment,
to do his duty in time of public need--that is, in time of war. he says, “there is certainly no immediate necessity of going But the premise of this proposition is so devoid of foundation beyond Class 1 in future drafts. This is a consummation most
that it leaves not even a shadow of ground upon which to base to be desired. It removes from consideration the most trouble
the conclusion. It may not be doubted that the very conception
of a just government and its duty to the citizen includes the some problems of the draft, and places us in a most enviable
reciprocal obligation of the citizen to render military service in position among belligerent nations."
case of need and the right to compel it. To do more than state We believe that General Crowder is right both in his recom
the proposition is absolutely unnecessary in view of the practical mendation and in his statement that this is a consummation to illustration afforded by the almost universal legislation to that le desired, but we believe that the country should not lose sight effect now in force. of the fact that this desire may not be realized. When we think
The Court finds in the history of England, the American of the depletion of man strength in England and France, we
colonies, and the Confederate States of America illustrations should be slow to prophesy that the war will be over before we
of and support for this fundamental right of the Government, are called upon to make a similar sacrifice, even though it may
which is indeed essential to its preservation. The illustration from seem unlikely that the United States will have to draw as heavily
the Confederate States is interesting because they carried the on its men as France or England has done. This is not a counsel
doctrine of political individualism to its extreme. Nevertheless :
doctrine of pessimism, but a counsel of caution.
The seceding States wrote into the Constitution, which was General Crowder also gives some interesting figures concern
adopted to regulate the Government which they sought to estabing the workings of the Draft Law. Half of the men called
lish, in identical words the provision of the Constitution of the under the law claimed exemption, and seventy-eight per cent of United States. And when the right to enforce that instruthese claims were granted, showing that a comparatively small ment, a selective draft law which was enacted not differing in per cent of fraudulent or inadequate claims were filed. Seventy principle from the one here in question, was challenged, its validfour per cent of those released were released on the ground of ity was upheld, evidently after great consideration, by the courts having dependent relatives, twenty per cent because of alien
of Virginia, of Georgia, of Texas, of Alabama, of Mississippi, birth, and six per cent on vocational grounds.
and of North Carolina, the opinions in some of the cases copi. ously and critically reviewing the whole grounds which we have
stated. THE DRAFT LAW DECIDED TO
The official report of this decision has not reached us as we BE CONSTITUTIONAL
go to press, and our quotations are taken from the newspaper The Supreme Court of the United States has unanimously reports of the decision. It is difficult for us to conceive how affirmed the constitutionality of the Draft or Conscription Act any other view could ever have been seriously argued by any one requiring citizens to render their country military service in time familiar with Constitutional law or the Anglo-Saxon principles of need. The Constitution of the United States provides that of free institutions. Congress has power “ to declare war, ... to raise and support armies, ... to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, ... to make all laws which AMERICAN SOLDIERS AND FOREIGN DECORATIONS shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the A clause in the Federal Constitution, taken from the Artiforegoing powers." The contention that congress has "O cles of Confederation, reads: " No Person holding any Office
of Profit or Trust under them (the United States) shall, with ican Library Association building, which has recently been out the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolu- opened and which is the center of the whole camp library ment, Office or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, system. Prince or foreign State." Whatever right the American colonies, Of the books desired by the soldiers Mr. Stevenson says: a century and a half ago, had to feel as they did has certainly When I started this work in June, I had some very plausible been changed by existing events. Those (not“ persons holding theories about the kind of books the men would want, but I soon any office of profit or trust under them") who have been in discarded them. We have had requests here for every sort of the American Ambulance Service in France report the exceed book from “ some books by Gene Stratton-Porter" to Boswell's ing benefit not only to those who receive but to those who bestow “ Life of Johnson” and Bergson's - Creative Evolution.” We the medals conferred by the French Government. We quote
have had requests for Ibsen's plays, for books on the valuation from a recent letter:
of public utilities, on conservation, on sewage disposal ; we had
so many requests for “ A Message to Garcia " that I had a supply “The General commanding the 120th Division of Infantry
mimeographed. In one building there were so many requests cites, at the order of the division : —, American Volun
for books on religion and ethics that we set up a small reference teer of S. S. U. 29, has given proof, in the course of operations
collection there. at Hill 304, of great devotion ; he particularly distinguished himself on the 1st and 2d of August, 1917, in carrying out his
Broadly speaking, of course, most of the men read fiction ;
and most of them prefer exciting, red-blooded fiction--detective duties as driver of an ambulance evacuating a large number of
stories, adventure stories, and so on. But there is also a steady wounded over a road in view of the enemy and incessantly bom
demand for Conrad and Wells and Hardy and Meredith. Poetry barded.”
is also in demand, and good books of travel go well. The only Yes, this is a citation, and in consequence yesterday, in view
kind of books we don't want are the salacious, risqué kind--they of the entire 38th regiment-3,000 men-I with five other
have no place in our camp libraries. And we don't care for Americans and several Frenchmen had the famous Croix de
unattractive, cheap editions, with yellow, muddy paper and Guerre, with a little silver star on the ribbon, pinned on my
flimsy binding. We want attractive books-nice, clean copies of chest. Mine was the second one awarded of the six, following
good editions—and the more of these we get the better service the sous chef, and our lieutenant tells me I got the best cita
we can give the men. tion. I suppose this sounds a bit egotistical to say the least, but it means a great deal to me, as it marks the culmination of a hope
Mr. Stevenson recently conducted a test to determine the which began even before I sailed. ... I hope it can mean as
names of periodicals with the widest popular appeal for the solmuch to you all as it does to me.
diers. He posted a list of periodicals in each library building I think I shall never forget yesterday-it will always stand with the following note of instruction : “ Place one tally after out as a red-letter day in my memory. After the decorations those you would like to have in this building. Please play fair they gave us a most signal honor, as the General ordered a spe
and do not tally more than twenty magazines.” Thirty-one cial salvo of the “ Marseillaise ” by the regimental band for us,
periodicals under this test received more than twenty-five votes and then allowed us to stand beside him and review the entire regiment in full equipment. I think we were about the first rep
apiece. Those that received more than forty votes, as arranged resentatives of the Field Service to be so honored, as such pro
in alphabetical order, and including as nearly as possible half cedure is practically never followed except for decorations with
the list, are: the Legion of Honor or the Médaille Militaire. ...
The “ American Magazine,” the “ Army and Navy Journal,” I wish you could feel the thrill of the great French anthem and “Collier's Weekly," " Everybody's," “ Judge," " Leslie's Weekly," see hundreds and hundreds of men marching by. The latter you
“ Life,” the “Literary Digest," the “Metropolitan Magazine," have seen in the movies, equipped in their regalia and steel hel
« The Outlook,” “ Physical Culture," “ Puck,' “ Review of Remets, but the real thing is many, many more times inspiring.
views," " Saturday Evening Post," “ Scientific American," and Surely France and our other allies would feel more than ever
“ The World's Work.” drawn to us if by conferring decorations upon our actual sol.
The three receiving the most votes were “ Life,” the “ Saturdiers in the field they might thus give expression to their grati- day Evening Post," and "Judge.” tude for what we are doing for them. And, on our side, we might The library at Camp Sherman needs books, as do all the as well realize that it is sometimes as fine a thing to accept as to thirty-two camp libraries throughout the country. Books for bestow. We would inevitably be drawn to our allies more than the camp libraries can be left with the public libraries which ever by their quick courtesy in conferring a decoration on our exist in practically every town and city of the United States. men where due.
They will be forwarded to the places where they are most For these reasons we are glad that Senator Lodge's bill needed. allowing American soldiers in this war to accept medals and decorations from foreign governments has been reintroduced.
WHERE AND HOW SHALL
MUNITION WORKERS LIVE?
Bridgeport, Connecticut, has since the outbreak of the
great war been confronted by a housing problem of tremendous WHAT DO THE SOLDIERS READ?
proportions. Thirty thousand or forty thousand people were The campaign to raise a million dollars for the use of the added to the population of that city within a few months. ToLibrary War Service of the American Library Association is day, according to a report by the National Housing Association, an event recent enough to make the account of what is being not another laborer can be accommodated in that city. Yet on done in one particular military encampment in the direction of January 1 a new munitions plant, for which the United providing reading matter for the soldiers of particular interest. States Government has provided two millions and a half for the
At Camp Sherman, in Chillicothe, Ohio, there has been estab- housing of its machinery, was expected to begin work. Unless lished in every Y. M. C. A. and Knights of Columbus building additional housing is provided for the men of the new plant, the a library of from five hundred to a thousand books, managed only way in which it can be operated is by taking men out of just as any library would be, with a catalogue and a charging existing plants which are alreadly working below capacity. system, though, of course, of the simplest kind. There is a good This is but a typical instance of the need of the adoption of supply of periodicals in each of these buildings—there are nine an intelligent housing policy by our Government, a matter branch libraries in the cantonment--and copies of every news- which has already received the serious attention of the Council paper published in Ohio and western Pennsylvania, so that the of National Defense, but which has not yet passed beyond the men have access at all times to news from home.
stage of an official report. The library work at Camp Sherman has been in charge of The National Housing Association rightly believes that the Mr. Burton E. Stevenson, Librarian of the Chillicothe Public situation demands immediate action, and definitely recommends Library. His chief assistant has been the daughter of the that certain specific things be done. It advocates the establishmajor-general commanding the camp. Work was started in ment of a Housing Administration by the Federal Government, developing a library system in June, when the first troops and the placing of this Administration in direct charge of the arrived. At the present time there are over ten thousand books housing of all workers in the war industries of the country. It in the branch libraries, and as many more in the main Amer- recommends that Congress empower the President to loan